close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3085493

код для вставки
April 16, 1963
a. v. CHRISTENSEN
3,085,483
COMPACTION WHEELS
Filed April '7, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
BRUCE V. CHRiSTENSEN
BY
ATTY
April 16, 1963
B. v. CHRISTENSEN
3,085,483
COMPACTION WHEELS
Filed April 7, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
BRUCE V. CHRISTENSEN
BY
Wax/oz:
ATTY.
April 16, 1963
B. v. CHRISTENSEN
3,085,483
commcnon WHEELS
Filed April 7. 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR.
BRUCE V. CHRISTENSEN
BY
M CWJC
ATTY.
April 16, 1963
B. v. CHRISTENSEN
3,085,433
COMPACTION WHEELS
Filed April 7, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet. 4
INVENTOR.
BRUCE V. CHRISTENSEN
BY
Wayne/2% @ z/v?:
ATTY.
April 16, 1963
B. v. CHRISTENSEN
3,085,483
COMPACTION WHEELS
Filed April 7, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
LO
Q
INVENTOR.
BRUCE V. CHRQSTENSEN
Ll.
BY
ATTY
United States Patent 0 ” "ice
1
3,085,483
Patented Apr. 16, 1963
2
a compaction wheel or roll in which the pads of a
3,085,483
plurality of annular rows on the wheel are so propor
Bruce V. Christensen, Berrien Springs, Mich., assignor to
Clark Equipment Company, a corporation of Michigan
Filed Apr. 7, 1958, Ser. No. 726,884
6 Claims. (Cl. 94--50)
varying ground pressure. Such tamping action provides
COMPACTIQN WHEELS
tioned and arranged that as the wheel rolls over the
surface of the ground the pad area in contact with the
ground varies sharply at frequent intervals during a revo
lution and provides a tamping action due to the rapidly
more compaction per pass to a speci?ed depth thereby
This invention relates to devices for compacting loose
more effectively using the machine weight available than
earth and the like, and more particularly to compaction
10 is possible with prior art rolls of the pad type, yet main
wheels or rolls of the pad type.
taining practically the same surface ?nish and other ad
It has been demonstrated previously that compaction
vantages. Reasonable buoyancy is maintained due to the
wheels or rolls comprising a plurality of raised, out—
rapid action, proper size and spacing of the pads and
wardly curved, spaced apart pads making up a broken
the increase in soil density proportional to the loading.
roll surface can be utilized for compacting loose earth
Another wheel of the same general construction on the
and for other similar operations, such as a construction
same machine may be constructed and arranged in such
being in contrast to the solid roll type, sheep’s foot type
a manner as to pack the earth in the unpacked areas left
and other wheels and rolls of the prior art. Patent
by the spacing between rows of pads and between indi
2,754,734, Gardner, dated July 17, 1956, illustrates such
a pad type roll.
Gardner discloses a roll in which the
vidual pads in a single row, in order to provide an even
more uniformly and thoroughly compacted surface after
total pad area pressing against the arc of contact with 20
the material being rolled, when totalled across the width
of the roll, remains constant as the roll progresses there
by providing constant pressure against the material being
one pass of the machine.
For a clearer and more complete understanding of my
invention, reference should be had to the accompanying
drawing in which
rolled.
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of a rolling machine
The object of my invention is to provide a pad type 25 equipped with wheels embodying the present invention,
roll with improved rolling characteristics which increases
the compaction achieved for each pass of the roll, or,
more explicitly, which increases the compaction achieved
to a speci?ed depth, for each pass of the roll.
Assuming that it were desired to increase the compac
tion per pass at a speci?ed depth utilizing the structure
taught by Gardner, there are three things which could
be varied. These three possibilities are: (1) increasing
the pad width, (2) reducing the ground contact area,
or (3) increasing the weight on the roll.
Taking the possibility of increasing the pad width
FIGURE 2 is a larger side elevational view of one of
the front wheels of the machine in FIGURE 1,
FIGURE 3 is an end elevation of the wheel of FIG
URE 2, more speci?cally a view from the front of the
right front wheel,
FIGURE 4 is a partial sectional view of the wheel
of FIGURE 2, along the line 4—4 of FIGURE 2,
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged side elevational view of
one of the rear whels of the rolling machine,
FIGURE 6 is an end elevation of the wheel of FIG
URE 5, and
FIGURE 7 is a partial sectional view of the wheel of
FIGURE
5 along the line 7-7 of FIGURE 5.
overcome the advantage of increased compaction result 40
Referring to the drawing, I have shown in FIGURE
ing from such increase in width. Some such disad
1 a bulldozer machine 10 which is equipped also for
?rst, there is a limit to the extent to which the pad width
can be increased without incurring disadvantages which
vantages are discussed in the Gardner patent. Another
disadvantage is that if the spaces between rows of pads
are too small it may not be possible to use cleaners
having teeth extending into such spaces, and it has been
found that cleaners are necessary on pad type compactor
rolls for some materials.
The second possibility—-reducing the ground contact
would be accomplished by reducing the number of an
nular rows of pads on each wheel or roll, but this, of
course, would have the obvious disadvantage of reducing
the width covered by each pass and thus increasing the
number of passes required to compact a given ground
area. This possibility, that is, reducing the ground con
tact area, might also result in lack of sut?cient buoyance,
with the result that the pads would punch through the
surface of the earth being compacted and provide a rough
surface ?nish approaching that of the sheep’s foot type
use as a rolling machine.
This machine comprises a
body portion 11 housing a prime mover such as a diesel
or other internal combustion engine, along with other
components necessary for propelling the machine. It is
equipped with a pair of front compaction wheels 12,
only one of which is visible in this view, and a pair
of rear compaction wheels 14, only one of which is visible.
The machine 10 includes a bulldozer blade 18 although
this blade forms no part of the present invention. The
machine 10 also includes an operator‘s station 20 and
other components and features necesary for a machine
of this type.
In FIGURES 2, 3 and 4 of the drawing one of the front
wheels 12 of the machine is illustrated in greater detail.
55
Each wheel 12 includes a centrally located ?at ring or
annular member 20 provided with openings 22. for lug
bolts for connecting the wheel 12 to the hub of the roll
ing machine. It will be seen from FIGURE 4 that mem
With regard to the third possibility, that of increasing
ber 29 is the ‘main structural member of the wheel and
60
the weight of the machine, such a change has the dis
that it has a pair of cylindrical rings 24 and 26 welded
advantage of making the machine more costly and un
or otherwise secured to the sides thereof. A plurality of
wieldy, and it also has the disadvantage, mentioned pre
spoke portions 28 are secured to one side of member 20
viously in connection with possible reduction of ground
and to ring 24, while an equal number of spoke portions
contact area, of causing the pads to punch through the
65 30 are secured to the other side of member 20 and to
ground surface.
ring 26, in alignment with spoke members 28 respectively.
It will be thus understood that the object of my in
Portions 28 and 30 are rigidly secured to the intervening
vention is to provide a pad type roll of improved operat
member 20 and the respective rings by welding or other
ing characteristics which will provide more compaction
equivalent means, and each portion 28 combines with its
per pass to a speci?ed depth than would be provided by
aligned portion 30 to form a complete spoke member
a roll of the Gardner construction on a machine of the 70
28, 30.
same weight, pad width and area covered per pass.
Spokes 28, 30 carry four outer rings 32, 34, 36 and 38,
In carrying out my invention in one form I provide
compactor instead of a smooth ?nish.
3,085,483
and around the periphery of these rings are secured a
plurality of spaced outwardly curved pads which I have
indicated by the numerals 40, 42, 44 and 46 respectively,
for the four rings. It will be observed that all pads 42
and 44 are identical, and that all pads 40 and 46 are
identical, with a minor exception mentioned hereinafter,
and that the pads on all rings are uniformly spaced around
the respective rings. It will be noted also that pads 40
and 44 are in alignment transversely of the wheel while
4
44 on both the front and rear wheels are four inches wide
and approximately 1]. inches long measured along the
outer curved ground engaging surface. In this same ex
ample, the pads 40 and 46 of the front wheels are 3 inches
wide and approximately ll inches long, while the pads
41 and 47 of. the rear wheels are 5 inches by approximately
ll inches. In these wheels the lateral spacing between
rows of pads is 3 inches and 2 inches, being 3 inches for
spaces A and B on wheel 12 and spaces E and F on wheel
pads 42 and 46 are in alignment with each other but are 10
14. and 2 inches for space C on wheel 12 and space D on
staggered with respect to pads 40 and 44. All of the fore
w. eel 14; while the pads in all rows are uniformly spaced
going components maliing up the wheel are rigidly sc
curcd together to form a compaction wheel or roller hav
ing a broken cylindrical compaction surface composed of
raised outwardly curved individual pads.
around the periphery and the spacing between adjacent
individual pads in all rows is approximately 2%‘; inches.
Thus, the ground contacting area of the pads is approxi
mately 52% of the total cylindrical area of the wheel in
The wheel illustrated in FIGURES 2, 3 and 4 is the
cluding both pads and intervening spaces for the front
right front wheel of the vehicle 10. The left front wheel
wheel 12, while for the rear wheel 14 the percentage is
is the mirror image of this wheel. It will be observed
approximately 57%. It will be appreciated that these
that in the front wheels the main structural member 20
percentages
may be varied somewhat, depending upon the
is offset laterally somewhat from the center of the wheel. 20
characteristics of the soil or other material being com
FIGURES 5, 6 and 7 show the right rear wheel of vehi
pacted, without departing from the present invention.
cle 10, with FIGURE 5 being an enlarged side elevational
The improved compaction provided by these Wheels
view and FIGURE 6 an elevational view looking from
results from the numerous sharp changes in unit pressure
the front of the vehicle while FIGURE 7 is a partial sec
on the ground as each wheel rolls over it. This will be
tional view along the line 7~-7 of FIGURE 5. The basic
understood by referring to the two dashed lines drawn
structure of this wheel is generally similar to that of the
transversely across the pads in FIGURE 3. Assume for
front wheel previously described and I, therefore, have
purposes of illustration that the wheel is in a position
indicated by the same identifying numbers the correspond
such that the line 56 is directly at the bottom of its travel
ing parts on this wheel. It will be observed that on this
and, therefore, that the portions of the pads along this
rear wheel the main supporting member 20 is located 30
line, and also areas of the pad along both sides of the
centrally of the whcel, so the rear wheel is somewhat dif
line,
of course, are in contact with the ground. The pad
ferent in this respect.
area in contact with the ground at this time is thus a func
It will be observed that the pad arrangement of the rear
tion of the width of all four pads.
wheel differs from the front wheel in that wider pads are
Assume now that the wheel has rolled until the line
used to form the. two outer rows of pads, and this has
54 is directly at the bottom. At this time the pad area
been indicated in FIGURES 6 and 7 by utilizing for the
center rows of pads the same numerals 42 and 44 and
in contact with the ground is approximately half that
at the time when line 56 was at the bottom of the wheel
for the wider outside pads the numerals 41 and 47. The
travel. There has been a sharp change in the unit pres
rear wheel illustrated in the last three ?gures of the
sure applied by the wheel on the gorund, and this pro
drawing also differs from the front wheel in that the 40 duces a very desirable tamping action. In this particular
outer compacting surface of the pads of the rear wheel
example the ‘change in unit pressure on the ground is ap
is not a true cylinder but the rows of pads are tapered
slightly, that is, the circumferential rows of pads have
decreasing diameters away from the longitudinal axis of
the vehicle, forming, in effect, a broken frustro conical
surface. This can be seen in FIGURES 6 and 7 which
are exaggerated from the actual construction in order to
illustrate this feature. The line 49 in FIGURE 6 shows
proximately in the ratio of 1:2, although it is not exactly
this in the usual case because of the fact that the wheels
tend to sink ‘into the ground more as the pressure in
creases which increases the contact area and decreases the
unit pressure. It will be understood that with this design
the unit pressure provided by each wheel varies con~
tinuously as the wheel rotates, thus providing a continuous
the outline of a true cylinder. The reason for this con
tamping action as the rolling machine moves along the
struction is that the rear wheels on machine 10 are the 50
ground. This increases the efficiency of the compacting
steering wheels, and as a result are arranged to have a
small amount of camber. Making the outer compaction
surface of the wheels slightly tapered compensates for
this camber and provides for the ground engaging portion
action, resulting in more compaction per pass to a given
depth for a given machine weight than with prior art pad
type compacting rolls.
The particular machine described and illustrated herein
of the outer surface of the wheel to be approximately
weighs
approximately 34,500#. With the pad and Wheel
horizontal. It will be appreciated that the opposite rear
dimensions given hereinbefore this provides a ground line
wheel is tapered in the other direction to compensate for
pressure variations between a maximum of approximately
the opposite camber in that wheel.
1080# per linear inch of wheel width and a minimum of
It should be kept in mind in connection with compac
540# per lineal inch of pad width, assuming the load is
tion wheels or rolls of this type that the pads must be 60 divided
among the Wheels in proportion to their ground
of such size and arrangement that there is sut?cient pad
contacting areas.
area in contact with the ground at all times to buoy up
The front and rear wheels of the machine It} comple
the machine or ?oat it on the surface of the ground, and
ment each other in their compacting action inasmuch as
not let the pads punch through the surface of the ground
they are in alignment on the respective sides of the ma
a considerable amount as with a sheep’s foot roller, for 65
chine and the pad patterns on the front and rear wheels
example. On the other hand, there must be sut?cient
are such that the pads on the rear wheel tend to cover the
open space around the pads, and the pads must be raised
areas not compacted by the front wheels and vice versa
sufficiently away from the main structure of the wheel,
providing thereby a move uniformly compacted area in
that the dirt being compacted does not clog the spaces
the path of the machine.
around the pads and thus, in effect, produce a roller hav 70
‘It will be observed that the corners are cut off two of
ing a solid surface and having the consequent disadvan
the pads in the left row in both FIGURES 3 and 6. This
tages inherent with solid rolls.
was not done to change the compacting action but rather
In one typical machine, in which the outside diameter
was necessary with the wheels illustrated herein to permit
of all wheels is approximately 60 inches, the pads 42 and 75 the installation of cleaners which are not shown in this
3,085,483
drawing. The absence of corners on these two pads does
not affect signi?cantly the compacting operation of these
wheels. When reference is made in the subsequent claims
to uniform pads or rectangular pads it should be under
stood that it is intended to cover also pads such as these
with insigni?cant changes in the uniform pattern or from
rectangular shape. Also, that individual pads are slightly
curved, even though referred to herein, for clarity and
convenience, in terms which ordinarily are applied to pla
nar ?gures.
Similarly, it should be understood that where reference
is made in the claims to an approximately cylindrical
wheel, it is intended to cover minor variations from cylin
drical such as the slightly tapered wheel-s 14.
6
greater than the width of the narrowest of the adjoining
pads, the pads in the two center rows being of approxi
mately equal width, the pads in the two outer rows being
approximately equal in width and different than the width
of the said center rows, the space area between and
around the said pads and within the margins of the cylin
der equalling at least approximately 43% of the total
cylindrical surface area, and one each the center and out
side rows being staggered approximately half a pad length
with respect to the other two rows whereby as the roll
10 moves over the surface of the ground the pad area in
contact with the ground varies sharply at frequent inter
vals during a complete revolution to provide tamping ac~
tion on the ground.
3. A rolling machine having four compaction wheels,
Other means such as eccentric axles and vibrating means 15 each wheel comprising a central supporting structure and
attached to the wheel or roller have been used previously
four annularly ‘arranged rows of approximately rectangu
to secure a tamping type action by a wheel or roller, but
lar outwardly curved thin ground engaging pads rigidly
it has been found possible to secure superior tamping
action with the construction disclosed and illustrated here
in at far less cost than any prior art construction of
which I am aware. Moreover, with this construction it
is not necessary to design and construct a special machine
for compacting operation only. The machine 10 illus
trated is a multi-purpose machine which is useful as well
joined to the supporting structure in raised relation to
form an approximately cylindrical broken rolling surface,
all of the said pads being of approximately equal extent
circumferentially, the adjacent pads in all the said rows
being uniformly spaced apart circumferentially and adja
cent rows on each individual wheel also being spaced
apart axially by an amount not exceeding the width of the
for other operations. It serves readily as a bulldozer or a 25 narrowest of the adjoining pads, the two center rows of
towing tractor merely by removing the present compac
tion wheels and installing instead rubber tired wheels, an
operation which can be performed in the ?eld in a short
pads on all wheels being approximately equal in width,
the two outer rows of pads on the wheels on one end of
the machine being approximately equal to each other
‘
but less in width than the center rows, the outer rows of
It will be readily understood that the present invention 30 pads on the wheels at the other end of the machine being
is not limited to the speci?c con?guration, size and spac
approximately equal to each other but wider than the
ing of pads described and illustrated herein, but that one
said center rows, the wheels on each side of the machine
or more of these can be varied to suit speci?c conditions.
being in alignment so that each pair of front and rear
It will be understood also that whel I have disclosed a
wheels cooperates in compacting the soil, and one row of
35
skeletal wheel construction and peripheral rings for mount‘
pads of a certain width in each wheel being staggered
ing the individual pads to raise them above the main por
approximately half a pad length with respect to the other
time.
tion of the wheel structure, that it is possible to use other
means for raising the pads, such as individual spokes, for
example, beneath each pad connecting it to the remainder
duplicate row in that wheel whereby as the wheels roll
over the surface of the ground the pad area on each
wheel in contact with the ground varies sharply at fre
of the wheel structure. It is essential, however, that the 40 quent intervals to provide a tamping action on the ground.
pads ‘be raised to provide ready egress for dirt which
4. A compaction roll for mounting on a vehicle, com
passes through the spaces between pads during rolling.
prising a central supporting structure, four annularly ar
It is preferable that the wheel structure be of the skeletal
ranged rows of approximately rectangular outwardly
type to further facilitate the disposal of such dirt; however,
curved thin ground engaging pads rigidly joined to the said
in some cases it may be desirable for the main body of
supporting structure in raised relation to form an approx
the wheel to be hollow in structure making it possible to
imately cylindrical broken rolling surface, the dimensions
add water and thus increase the weight of the wheel and
and spacing of said pads being proportional to the dimen
of the entire rolling machine.
sions and spacing set out hereinafter for a typical roll
Thus, while I have illustrated and described herein a
approximately 60 inches in diameter: the pads of the two
preferred embodiment of my invention, it will be under
center rows approximately 11 inches circumferentially by
stood that modi?cations may be made. I intend to cover
approximately 4 inches axially and the two outer rows
by the appended claims all such modi?cations falling
approximately 11 inches circumferentially by approxi
within the true spirit and scope of my invention.
mately 3 inches axially, the adjacent pads in all of the
I claim:
said rows being spaced apart approximately 27/16 inches,
55
1. A compaction wheel comprising four rows of raised
the said two center rows being spaced apart approximately
annularity arranged outwardly curved thin ground engag
3 inches axially and one of the center rows being spaced
ing pads, all pads being of greater extent circumferentially
approximately 3 inches axially from one of the outer rows
than axially, the pads in one pair of the rows being of
and the other center row being spaced approximately 2
similar axial extent but of substantially different axial
inches axially from the other outer row, the pads on one
extent than the other pair of rows, and the individual 60 each of the center and outside rows disposed in axially
rows of each pair being mutually staggered with respect
to each other, whereby as the wheel rolls over the surface
of the ground the pad area in contact with the ground
varies sharply at frequent intervals during a complete
alignment and the pads on the other two rows being
staggered approximately half a pad length with respect
to the ?rst two said rows whereby as the roll moves over
the surface of the ground the pad area in contact with the
revolution to provide a tamping action on the ground. 65 ground varies sharply at frequent intervals during a com
2. A compaction roll for mounting on a vehicle, com
plete revolution to provide a tamping action on the
prising a central supporting structure, at least four an
ground.
nularly arranged rows of approximately rectangular out
5. A compaction roll for mounting on a vehicle, com
wardly curved thin ground engaging pads rigidly joined
prising a central supporting structure, four annularly ar
70
to the said supporting structure in raised relation to form
ranged rows of approximately rectangular outwardly
an approximately cylindrical broken rolling surface, all
of the said pads being of approximately equal extent cir
cumferentially, the adjacent pads in all the said rows being
curved thin ground engaging pads rigidly joined to the
said supporting structure in raised relation to form an
approximately cylindrical broken rolling surface, the di
uniformly spaced apart circumferentially and adjacent
mensions and spacing of said pads being proportional to
rows also being spaced apart axially by an amount not 75
7
3,085,483
the dimensions and spacing set out hereinafter for a typi~
cal roll approximately 60 inches in diameter: the pads
of the two center rows approximately 11 inches circum
ferentially by approximately 4 inches axially and the two
outer rows approximately 11 inches circumferentially by
approximately 5 inches axially, the adjacent pads in all
of the said rows being spaced apart approximately 2%.;
S
proximately 2 inches axially from the other outer row;
and for the two wheels at the other end of the machine
the pads of the two center rows approximately 11 inches
circumferentially by ‘approximately 4 inches axially and
the two outer rows approximately 11 inches circumferen
tially by approximately 5 inches axially, the adjacent pads
in all of the said rows of the last-mentioned two wheels
inches, the said two center rows being spaced approxi
being spaced apart circumferentially approximately 27/16
mately 3 inches axially and one of the center rows being
spaced approximately 3 inches axially from one end of the 10 inches, the said two center rows of each of the said last
mentioned wheels being spaced apart approximately 3
outer rows and the other center row being spaced approx
inches axially and one of the center rows being spaced
imately 2 inches axially from the other outer row, the
approximately 3 inches axially from one of the outer rows
pads on one each of the center and outside rows disposed
and the other center row being spaced approximately 2
in axial alignment and the pads on the other two rows
being staggered approximately half a pad length with re 15 inches axially from the other outer row, the front and
rear Wheels on each side of the machine being in align
spect to the ?rst two said rows whereby as the roll moves
ment whereby the front and rear wheels of each pair co
over the surface of the ground the pad area in contact
operate With each other in compacting the soil, and one
with the ground varies sharply at frequent intervals dur
each of the center and outside rows of pads of each wheel
ing a complete revolution to provide a tamping action on
being staggered approximately half a pad length with re
the ground.
20 spect to the other two rows of that wheel whereby as the
6. A rolling machine having four compaction wheels,
wheels roll over the surface of the ground the pad area
each wheel comprising a central supporting structure and
on each Wheel in contact with the ground varies sharply
four annularly arranged rows of approximately rectangu
at frequent intervals to provide a tamping action on the
lar outwardly curved thin ground engaging pads rigidly
ground.
joined ‘to the supporting structure in raised relation to
form an approximately cylindrical broken rolling surface,
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
the dimensions and spacing of said pads being propor
tional to the dimensions and spacing set out hereinafter
for typical wheels approximately 60 inches in diameter:
for the two Wheels at one end of the machine the pads 30
of the two center rows approximately 11 inches circum
ferentially by approximately 4 inches axially and the two
outer rows approximately 11 inches circumferentially by
approximately 3 inches axially, the adjacent pads in all
of the rows of the said two wheels being spaced apart
circumferentially approximately 27/16 inches, the said two
center rows of each such Wheel being spaced apart ap
proximately 3 inches axially and one of the center rows
being spaced approximately 3 inches axially from one of
UNITED STATES PATENTS
243,463
1,432,984
2,674,165
2,754,734
Schaefer _____________ __ June 28,
Eburne ______________ __ Oct. 24,
Paramythioti __________ __ Apr. 6,
Gardner _____________ __ July 17,
1881
1922
1954
1956
2,895,390
Gardner _____________ __ July 21, 1959
734,479
591,437
Germany ____________ __ Apr. 16, 1943
Great Britain _________ __ Aug. 18, 1947
FOREIGN PATENTS
OTHER REFERENCES
Roads and Engineering Construction, page 90, October
the outer rows and the other center row being spaced ap 40 1954.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
865 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа