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Патент USA US3085548

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April 16, 1963
Filed June 24. 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet l
24" T
April 16, 1963
Filed June 24. 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
April 16, 1963
Filed June 24. 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
United States Patent 0
Patented Apr. 16, 1963
effects of the temperature changes or temperature gra~
James J. Henry, New York, N.Y., assignor, by mesne as
signments, to Conch International Methane Limited,
Nassau, Bahamas, a corporation of the Bahamas
Filed June 24, 1958, Ser. No. 744,164
3 Claims. (Cl. 114-74)
clients which might exist.
By way of further factors relating to the construction
of the ship, maximum utilization should be made of the
hold space of the ship for the storage of the lique?ed gas;
means should be provided for maintaining separation be
tween the cargo tanks and the ship’s hull, otherwise the
lique?ed gas might inadvertently come into contact with
the ship’s hull to cause the deterioration or destruction
This invention relates to a ship and, more particularly, 10 thereof when, as is usual, the hull is formed of structural
steel plate which loses its ductility at the temperature of
to a ship designed especially for transportation of a liquid
the lique?ed gas; means should be provided for ready
cargo which needs to be maintained at a temperature sub
and complete inspection of the walls of the tank and for
stantially below zero.
instrumentation to detect changes in the wall temperatures
This application is a continuation-in-part of my co
pending application Serial No. 582,965, entitled “Ship,” 15 and the like elements which would indicate either break
down or failure of the insulation or of the liquid cargo
?led May 7, 1956, now Patent No. 3,021,808.
tanks; means should also be provided for inspection of
While a ship constructed in accordance with the con
the components of the ship and cargo without interfering
cepts of this invention may be employed for the trans
with the cargo space or the construction of the space, and
portation o? a wide variety of different types of liquid
cargo which needs to be maintained at an extremely low 20 it would be desirable to enable construction of the ship’s
temperature, the present invention will be described with
reference to the transportation of lique?ed natural gas in
large volume at about atmospheric pressure, whereby the
hull with lesser space taken up by reinforcement, thereby
to make more space available for the cargo to be trans
It is among the principal objects of this invention to
below —240” F., depending upon the amount of heavier 25 provide a ship structure which will satisfy many of the,
foregoing requirements.
hydrocarbons in the natural gas. Methane, which is the
These and other objects and advantages of this inven
principal component in natural gas, boils at a tempera
tion will hereinafter appear and for purposes of illus
ture of —258 ° F. at atmospheric pressure.
tration, but not of limitation, an embodiment of the in
Since it will be remembered that the land storage of
lique?ed natural gas at substantially atmospheric pressure 30 vention -is shown in the accompanying drawings, in
has resulted in at least one major catastrophe due to the
FIGURE 1 is a top plan view of a ship embodying the
failure of the structure supporting the storage container,
some of the problems incident to the design of a ship for
features of this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a schematic sectional view lengthwise
the safe transportation of this same material will be ap
through about the center of the ship;
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view in the crosswise 7
In hauling lique?ed natural gas or methane, herein
direction of a ship shown in FIGURE 1;
after, for ‘convenience, referred to as “the cargo,” some of
lique?ed natural gas must be maintained at a temperature
the unusual factors which arise may be enumerated as
FIGURE 4 is a detailed sectional elevational view of
the cross-section o? the ship below the top deck and illus
follows: The cargo should be maintained at substantially
atmospheric pressure since the use of containers with walls 40 trating the construction of the ship and the hold space
strong enough to maintain the cargo under superatmos
1FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary sectional elevational view
pheric pressure of any substantial degree would so mate
through -a bulkhead of the ship;
rially add to the dead weight of the ship as to make such
FIGURE 6 is a side elevational view taken along the
construction economically unattractive. vMeans'must be
provided for preventing transfer of excessive amounts of 45 line ‘6—6 of FIGURE 5, and
‘FIGURE 7 is a sectional view taken along the line
heat from the surrounding sea and atmosphere to the
7-7 of FIGURE 4.
cargo to prevent excessive vaporization thereof. The
They concepts of this invention are embodied in a ship 7
hull of the ship should be thermally insulated from the
construction formed of an outer hull 20 having a bottom
cargo so that the latter will not cool the hull, especially
22 and vertically disposed side walls 24 ‘and 26 in com
when made of steel, otherwise the ship will be unsafe.
bination with an inner hull 28 having both bottom and
The tanks or the like means in which the cargo is con
tained should be capable of being hydrostatically tested
before assembly into the ship in order to‘insure that the
side walls which extend in closely spaced apart parallel
relation with the corresponding walls of the outer hull
‘throughout the major portion of the ship’s length which
tanks will ‘be structurally sound. While the ‘tanks or
containers for the cargo should be effectively insulated to 55 de?nes the hold space 30*.
The walls forming the outer hull are reinforced by
frames or beams 32 which extend ‘lengthwise along the in
ner surface of the outer hull in fairly closely spaced apart
parallel relation and by web frames or girders 34 and 36
loading and unloading, their arrangement in the ship‘ must 60 which extend crosswise of the bottom and vertically along
the side Walls of the ship in closely spaced apart relation.
be such that they are adequately supported to prevent
The inner and outer hulls are interconnected by stiffening
damage during the voyage while permitting free move
and ‘reinforcing members ‘in the form of tie bars 36a
ment of the tanks in expansion and contraction without
which are secured at their outer edges to the inner face of
subjecting the ship’s hull to substantial stresses due to the
minimize the transfer o? heat, means must be provided
whereby access to such tanks can be had for rapid loading
and unloading. Since the individual tanks for the cargo
will be subjected to severe temperature changes during
the outer- hullrand at their inner. edges to the outer face
of the inner hull, or to the frames ?xed in the desired
spaced relation to the adjacent surfaces of the hull
members. It will be noted that the thickness of the walls
of the outer hull and the dimensions of the beams and
frames increase from the top to the bottom of the ship to
compensate for the increased loads on the portion of the
ship displacing water.
646,001, ?led March 14, 1957, and entitled “Heat In
sulated Wall and Tank Construction.”
The means of
constructing the tanks preferably of prismatic shape is
the subject matter of still a further application of Farrell,
et al., Serial No. 634,547, ?led January 16‘, 1957, now
Patent No. 2,982,441, and entitled “Liquid Storage Tank.”
The means for mounting the tanks to enable expansion
and contraction movements is generally described in the
parent application to which reference has previously been
The space between the bulls is divided vertically into
compartments or wing tanks by a series of vertically 10 made.
spaced apart platforms 38 secured, as are the plates or
Referring now to the ship’s construction embodying the
tie bars, to the inner and outer surfaces of the outer and
features of this invention, technological advancements
inner hulls, respectively, or preferably to the frames, as
will be found to have been incorporated with reference
by means of welding. The platforms are provided with
to its use in the transportation of a cold boiling lique?ed
openings to enable free communication between the 15 gas, as represented by a liquid methane (natural gas)
spaced compartments.
carrier. The double-walled arrangement in the hull
structure of the ship with the inner wall lined on its
inner surface with a thick layer of a thermal insulating
material provides a desired separation between the outer
above the platforms to enable a person to travel in a 20 hull of the ship and the ship’s hold to militate against
fore and aft direction-the space between the hulls being
any possible transmission of the cold from the cargo to
suf?cient for the passage of a person therebetween.
the ship’s hull which might otherwise cause destruction
The space between the hulls is divided laterally by a
of the ‘ship. This enables the outer hull of the ship to be
series of plates, hereinafter referred to as bulkheads 40,
fabricated of steel plate ordinarily used in the construc
which extend upwardly substantially continuously from 25 tion of ships, otherwise it would be necessary to make use
the bottom to the top of the side Walls to subdivide the
of special metals which would not lose their ductility
space between the inner and outer hulls into a plurality
when reduced to low temperature. This would result in
of wing tanks.
amateria-l increase in the cost of the ship from the stand
The outer surface of the inner hull is similarly stiffened
point of the metals employed and their assembly, and
and reinforced with longitudinally extending frames or
it would possibly result in reduction of the stability of
beams 46 and crosswise extending ribs. The girders can
the ship from the standpoint of the strength of the metals
Openings 42 are provided in the web frames for ven
tilation, and access openings 44 still larger in dimension
are provided in the web frames in the areas immediately
be used to provide a means for attachment of the inter
employed in its construction.
connecting plates or girders 34 and 36 and interconnecting
The construction wtih the inner and outer hulls ar
tie bars 36a, thereby to effect a rigid and fully reinforced
ranged in closely spaced apart, substantially parallel rela
35 tion enables the beams extending crosswise of the ship
connection between the inner and outer hulls.
As de?ned in the aforementioned application, the ship’s
and the girders extending lengthwise of the ship to inter
hold can be divided lengthwise by a plurality of coffer
connect the hulls in a manner which enables the outer
dams which extend crosswise between the hulls. In such
hull to incorporate the inner hull as a part of its rein
crosswise extending coiferdams, it is desirable to make use
forcement and support. This enables increased rigidity
of a pair of walls 50 and S2 spaced apart by a distance 40 and strength to be incorporated into the hull structure
to enable a person to pass therebetween. The described
while making use of beams and girders of considerably
reinforcing and stiffening beams, girders and plates can
lesser width than would otherwise be demanded. This
also be embodied between the walls to enable access to
results in lesser space being occupied by the beams and
the space between the walls and for subdivision of the
girders joined to the adjacent surfaces of the ship’s hulls
space into communicating wing tanks.
The inner surface of the inner hull 28 is lined with a
relatively thick layer 54 of an insulating material of low
heat conductivity and preferably characterized by having
a'structural strength capable of supporting loadto enable
45 so that more space can be made available in the ship,
materially to increase the cargo-carrying capacity of the
ship. This condition is not available in a construction
wherein a tank is fabricated within the hold of a ship
and interconnected to the hull for support, since the de
attachment to the walls of the inner hull and to enable the 50 scribed parallel relation and interconnection whereby the
cargo tanks to be carried between insulation without
inner hull can be tied into the outer hull to enable use
direct‘ attachment to the walls of the ship. For this pur
of girders and beams of lesser width would not be secured.
pose, use can be made of panels of balsa wood or quippo,
Further, the necessity to permit free expansion and con
or use can be made of foamed glass or foamed plastics
traction of the cargo tanks will militate against the rigid
which are capable of‘ standing up under the temperature 55 connection between the tanks and the hull of the ship.
conditions to which the plastic will be submitted in the
In the construction with the inner hull arranged in
presence of the cargo. The cargo tanks 56 of large dimen
closely spaced apart parallel relation with the outer hull
sion are adapted to be arranged in side by side relation
and having. girders and ribs in between, a ?at‘ and sub
within the insulated hold space to'provide a cluster with
stantially continuous surface is provided throughout the
means harnessing the tanks at the top and operatively 60 cargo space of the hold onto which the relaitvely rigid
engaging the tanks at the bottom to hold the tanks in a
layers of the substantially strong insulating material can
predetermined relation within the insulated hold while
be applied thermally to insulate the entire hold space in
permitting free expansion and contraction movements in
which the cargo tanks are to be arranged. When use is
the lateral and vertical directions responsive to changes
made of a structurally strong insulation, such as balsa
or variations in‘ temperature which might take place. 65 wood, for independently supporting the cargo tanks, it is
Thus, the tanks are mounted relatively independently of
desirable to enable prefabrication of the balsa wood into
the insulated hold space, but arranged‘ and constructed
boards and planks which can be applied to the support,
substantially completely to ?ll the hold space.
and it is also desirable to be able to incorporate the sup
The means for harnessing the cargo tanks is the subject
porting structure as a backing for the insulation, whereby
matter of another application of Farrell, et al., Serial No. 70 the insulation can rely upon its support for strength.
634,571, ?led January 16, 1957, now Patent No. 2,954,003,
Further, when it is desired to make use of the layer of
and entitled “Means for Transportation of Low Tempera
insulation as a “second line of defense” to block penetra
ture Liquids.” The means for lining the walls of the
tion of the cold boiling lique?ed gas through the insula
inner hull with panels of balsa wood is also the subject
tion to the metal support, in the event of failure of the
matter of a still further applicationv of Dosker, Serial No. 75 cargo tanks or in the event of spillage of the cargo, it
is desirable to be able to make use of the support as a
sealing means along the outer surface of the insulation
layer, whereby a vapor space will be built up upon evapo
ration of the liquid to prevent further penetration of the
liquid through the insulation layer. This new and novel
concept of an internally lined container to prevent pene
tration of a low boiling lique?ed gas which is directly in
contact with the porous insulation is more fully de?ned in
of a dangerous condition to enable protective measures
to be taken. Such instrumentation would record tem
perature changes resulting from the development of cold
spots possibly caused by the failure of a cargo tank or
portions of the insulation in particular areas. These are
desirable from the standpoint of protection of the outer
hull from refrigeration to a temperature where the steels
might lose their ductility and strength.
the copending application of Morrison, Serial No.
The closely spaced apart relation between the inner and
692,388, ?led October 25, 1957, and entitled “Insulated 10 outer hulls and the subdivision of the space into wing
Tank for Storage" and Transportation of Low Boiling
tanks permits the control of temperature in the space
Lique?ed Gas.” The beams and girders ordinarily pres
between the walls to make certain that safe operating
ent as reinforcement and stiffening members in ship con
struction or in tanker construction would be incapable of
conditions are maintained. In the event of failure of the
insulation or in the event of the presence of liquid cargo
providing the desired surface. On the other hand, the con 15 outside of the cargo tanks in the hold space, the area
tinuous and ?at surface of the inner hull is ideal for receiv
between the hulls can be heated by means of steam coils
ing the insulation lining, thereby to make all of the space
and the like to maintain a desired temperature condition
within the inner hull ‘and between the cofferdams available
between the walls. This will prevent the transmission of
as cargo space, thereby materially to increase the capacity
cold to the outer hull and it will also operate to maintain
of the ship and utilization of the ship as a liquid methane 20 the inner hull at a temperature suf?cient to prevent loss
of ductility and strength. It will also permit maintenance
The foregoing represents some of the more important
of the temperature of the inner hull at a uniform and
technological advances capable of being derived from the
combination of closely spaced apart inner and outer hulls,
desirable level for controlling heat loss through the in
extend throughout the entire length of the ship, but the
important area resides along the portion spaced inwardly
to conduct cold away from (i.e., furnish heat to) the
walls and for controlling the temperature of the walls
to maintain safe and controlled operating conditions.
It will be understood that changes may be made in
sulation. Instead of making use of the con?ned space as
with the inner surface of the inner hull lined with a 25 a means for heating the walls, the space between the hulls
thick layer of thermal insulating material to provide an
can be used for the rapid circulation of water or other
insulated hold space. The double-walled construction can
liquid or fluid over the adjacent surfaces of the hulls
a short distance from the bow and aft of the ship wherein
the cargo space is located.
Insulated coiferdams ex
tending crosswise of the ship can provide the desired sep
the details of construction, arrangement and operation >
aration and support for the insulation, and the unlined
without departing from the spirt of the invention,
space in the bow and aft can be employed for housing the
especially as de?ned in the following claims.
mechanism powering the ship and for the storage of other
I claim:
liquids and fuels or cargo which do not require the main
1. A ship for the transportation of a liquid cargo which
tenance of low temperatures.
needs to be maintained at a temperature far below the
A large number of further advantages are available
freezing point of water comprising the combination of
in a tanker construction embodying spaced inner and
an outer hull, an inner hull joined to the outer hull and
outer hulls with insulation lining the inner surface of the 40 spaced in parallel relation to the outer hull throughout
inner hull to provide an insulated hold space.
the major portion of the ship, horizontally disposed, ver
The spaced inner and outer hulls, providing a sealing
tically spaced-apart stiffening and reinforcing members
relation therebetween, enable utilization of the space as
wing tanks wherein water or other ?uid can be used as
secured to the inner surfaces of the outer hull and the
ballast in navigation of the ship. For this purpose, the
space can be divided by the bulkheads and the like into
separate sections to provide separated wing tanks with
individual pumping system ‘for handling the ?uid. To
outer surfaces of the inner hull respectively, horizontally
disposed vertically spaced-apart platforms extending cross
wise between the inner and outer hulls and spaced apart
by an amount greater than said stilfening and reinforc
ing members to subdivide the space between the inner
make most et?cient utilization of the ship’s space, the
and outer hulls into vertically separated compartments,
wing tanks and the like non-cargo spaces can be used for 50 vertically disposed and longitudinally spaced-apart walls
the storage of liquid petroleum products which do not re
extending crosswise between said inner and outer hulls
quire refrigeration or maintenance at low temperature.
to subdivide the space therebetween into longitudinally
For example, most ef?cient utilization can be made of the
separated wing tanks, some of said walls having passages
space between the walls to carry a liquid fuel or petrole
therethrough above the platforms for communication be
um products which can be used as ballast and which 55 tween the wing tanks, instruments mounted within the
can be circulated for temperature control and which can
space between the bulls for indicated changes in condi
even be heated when necessary to conduct cold away
tions existing therein, bulkheads extending crosswise of the
from the walls.
ship in longitudinally spaced-apart relation to subdivide
The spaced relation between the inner and outer hulls
the space within the inner hull into ?uid-tight cargo
enables one to enter the space for visual inspection of 60
spaces, panels of thermal insulating material mounted
the outer walls of the inner hull for purposes of detect
on the inner surface of the inner hull to line the cargo
ing deterioration in the construction in su?icient time in
space with a thick layer of thermal insulating material,
advance to prevent failure which might otherwise lead
and at least one liquid cargo tank of large dimension
to difficulties and even to the destruction of the ship. It
within each of said insulated cargo spaces.
simpli?es replacement and repair of sections of the inner
2. A ship as claimed in claim 1 in which the thick
hull without tying up the ship in drydock or the like, and
lining of thermal insulating material lining the inner
it provides space wherein additions can be made to shore
surface of the inner hull comprises preformed panels of
up weaknesses which might develop in the construction
balsa wood secured at their outer surface to the inner
to anticipate a dangerous situation which might otherwise 70 hull to provide a substantially continuous lining thereon.
3. A ship as claimed in claim 1 in which each of
Still further, the spaced relationship between the hulls
the bulkheads subdividing the cargo space comprises a
enables instrumentation 160 of the ship’s hulls for ‘auto
pair of walls in closely spaced apart parallel relation.
matically recording changes in conditions as would pro
vide a warning sufficiently in advance of the development 75
(References on following page)
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Rich ______ _; ________ __ Sept. 17, 1889
Hitch?eld ______________ __ May 9, 1911
Henry ________________ __ July 28, 1959
Rupp ________________ __ Aug. 4, 1959
Henry _______________ __ Sept. 22, 1959
Great Britain _________ __ Feb. 27, 1952
Macy et al ____________ __ Mar. 20, 1956
Morrison ______________ __ July 9, 1957
’ 2,807,143
Schnellhardt __________ __ Sept. 24, 1957
Beckwith _____________ __ Oct. 22, 1957 10
Howard ______________ __ Apr. 26, 1960
Heidenreich ___________ __ May 6, 1919 5
Unzue _______________ _.. Oct. 28, 1930
“The Oil and Gas Journal,” March 22, 1954 (pages
104, 105 relied on).
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