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April 16, 1963 J. J. HENRY 3,085,538 SHIP FOR THE; TRANSPORTATION OF A LIQUEFIED GAS Filed June 24. 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet l g‘ _ S 24" T 56 5c, 1 “26 =\ 25 x #8 22} l 40 INVENTOR. JAMES J. HENRY ATTORNEYS April 16, 1963 J. J. HENRY 3,085,538 SHIP FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF A LIQUEFIED GAS Filed June 24. 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FICI.4 313110111; TY PICA L. INTERMEDIATE WEB FRAME TYPICAL WEB FRAME INVENTOR. JAMES J. HENRY ATTORNEYS April 16, 1963 J. J. HENRY 3,085,538 SHIP FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF‘ A LIQUEFIED GAS Filed June 24. 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Flq.6 INVENTOR. JAMES J. HENRY @144 AT TORN EYS United States Patent 0 3,085,538 1 Patented Apr. 16, 1963 2 1 effects of the temperature changes or temperature gra~ 3,085,538 SHIP FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF A LIQUEFIED GAS James J. Henry, New York, N.Y., assignor, by mesne as signments, to Conch International Methane Limited, Nassau, Bahamas, a corporation of the Bahamas Filed June 24, 1958, Ser. No. 744,164 3 Claims. (Cl. 114-74) clients which might exist. ‘ By way of further factors relating to the construction of the ship, maximum utilization should be made of the hold space of the ship for the storage of the lique?ed gas; means should be provided for maintaining separation be tween the cargo tanks and the ship’s hull, otherwise the lique?ed gas might inadvertently come into contact with the ship’s hull to cause the deterioration or destruction This invention relates to a ship and, more particularly, 10 thereof when, as is usual, the hull is formed of structural steel plate which loses its ductility at the temperature of to a ship designed especially for transportation of a liquid the lique?ed gas; means should be provided for ready cargo which needs to be maintained at a temperature sub and complete inspection of the walls of the tank and for stantially below zero. instrumentation to detect changes in the wall temperatures This application is a continuation-in-part of my co pending application Serial No. 582,965, entitled “Ship,” 15 and the like elements which would indicate either break down or failure of the insulation or of the liquid cargo ?led May 7, 1956, now Patent No. 3,021,808. tanks; means should also be provided for inspection of While a ship constructed in accordance with the con the components of the ship and cargo without interfering cepts of this invention may be employed for the trans with the cargo space or the construction of the space, and portation o? a wide variety of different types of liquid cargo which needs to be maintained at an extremely low 20 it would be desirable to enable construction of the ship’s temperature, the present invention will be described with reference to the transportation of lique?ed natural gas in large volume at about atmospheric pressure, whereby the hull with lesser space taken up by reinforcement, thereby to make more space available for the cargo to be trans ported. ‘ g It is among the principal objects of this invention to below —240” F., depending upon the amount of heavier 25 provide a ship structure which will satisfy many of the, foregoing requirements. hydrocarbons in the natural gas. Methane, which is the These and other objects and advantages of this inven principal component in natural gas, boils at a tempera tion will hereinafter appear and for purposes of illus ture of —258 ° F. at atmospheric pressure. tration, but not of limitation, an embodiment of the in Since it will be remembered that the land storage of lique?ed natural gas at substantially atmospheric pressure 30 vention -is shown in the accompanying drawings, in which has resulted in at least one major catastrophe due to the FIGURE 1 is a top plan view of a ship embodying the failure of the structure supporting the storage container, some of the problems incident to the design of a ship for features of this invention; FIGURE 2 is a schematic sectional view lengthwise the safe transportation of this same material will be ap through about the center of the ship; preciated. v FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view in the crosswise 7 In hauling lique?ed natural gas or methane, herein direction of a ship shown in FIGURE 1; after, for ‘convenience, referred to as “the cargo,” some of lique?ed natural gas must be maintained at a temperature the unusual factors which arise may be enumerated as FIGURE 4 is a detailed sectional elevational view of the cross-section o? the ship below the top deck and illus follows: The cargo should be maintained at substantially atmospheric pressure since the use of containers with walls 40 trating the construction of the ship and the hold space strong enough to maintain the cargo under superatmos therein; . 1FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary sectional elevational view pheric pressure of any substantial degree would so mate through -a bulkhead of the ship; rially add to the dead weight of the ship as to make such FIGURE 6 is a side elevational view taken along the construction economically unattractive. vMeans'must be provided for preventing transfer of excessive amounts of 45 line ‘6—6 of FIGURE 5, and ‘FIGURE 7 is a sectional view taken along the line heat from the surrounding sea and atmosphere to the 7-7 of FIGURE 4. cargo to prevent excessive vaporization thereof. The They concepts of this invention are embodied in a ship 7 hull of the ship should be thermally insulated from the construction formed of an outer hull 20 having a bottom cargo so that the latter will not cool the hull, especially 22 and vertically disposed side walls 24 ‘and 26 in com when made of steel, otherwise the ship will be unsafe. bination with an inner hull 28 having both bottom and The tanks or the like means in which the cargo is con tained should be capable of being hydrostatically tested before assembly into the ship in order to‘insure that the side walls which extend in closely spaced apart parallel relation with the corresponding walls of the outer hull ‘throughout the major portion of the ship’s length which tanks will ‘be structurally sound. While the ‘tanks or containers for the cargo should be effectively insulated to 55 de?nes the hold space 30*. The walls forming the outer hull are reinforced by frames or beams 32 which extend ‘lengthwise along the in ner surface of the outer hull in fairly closely spaced apart parallel relation and by web frames or girders 34 and 36 loading and unloading, their arrangement in the ship‘ must 60 which extend crosswise of the bottom and vertically along the side Walls of the ship in closely spaced apart relation. be such that they are adequately supported to prevent The inner and outer hulls are interconnected by stiffening damage during the voyage while permitting free move and ‘reinforcing members ‘in the form of tie bars 36a ment of the tanks in expansion and contraction without which are secured at their outer edges to the inner face of subjecting the ship’s hull to substantial stresses due to the minimize the transfer o? heat, means must be provided whereby access to such tanks can be had for rapid loading and unloading. Since the individual tanks for the cargo will be subjected to severe temperature changes during 3,085,538 3 the outer- hullrand at their inner. edges to the outer face of the inner hull, or to the frames ?xed in the desired spaced relation to the adjacent surfaces of the hull members. It will be noted that the thickness of the walls of the outer hull and the dimensions of the beams and frames increase from the top to the bottom of the ship to compensate for the increased loads on the portion of the ship displacing water. 4 646,001, ?led March 14, 1957, and entitled “Heat In sulated Wall and Tank Construction.” The means of constructing the tanks preferably of prismatic shape is the subject matter of still a further application of Farrell, et al., Serial No. 634,547, ?led January 16‘, 1957, now Patent No. 2,982,441, and entitled “Liquid Storage Tank.” The means for mounting the tanks to enable expansion and contraction movements is generally described in the parent application to which reference has previously been The space between the bulls is divided vertically into compartments or wing tanks by a series of vertically 10 made. spaced apart platforms 38 secured, as are the plates or Referring now to the ship’s construction embodying the tie bars, to the inner and outer surfaces of the outer and features of this invention, technological advancements inner hulls, respectively, or preferably to the frames, as will be found to have been incorporated with reference by means of welding. The platforms are provided with to its use in the transportation of a cold boiling lique?ed openings to enable free communication between the 15 gas, as represented by a liquid methane (natural gas) spaced compartments. carrier. The double-walled arrangement in the hull structure of the ship with the inner wall lined on its inner surface with a thick layer of a thermal insulating material provides a desired separation between the outer above the platforms to enable a person to travel in a 20 hull of the ship and the ship’s hold to militate against fore and aft direction-the space between the hulls being any possible transmission of the cold from the cargo to suf?cient for the passage of a person therebetween. the ship’s hull which might otherwise cause destruction The space between the hulls is divided laterally by a of the ‘ship. This enables the outer hull of the ship to be series of plates, hereinafter referred to as bulkheads 40, fabricated of steel plate ordinarily used in the construc which extend upwardly substantially continuously from 25 tion of ships, otherwise it would be necessary to make use the bottom to the top of the side Walls to subdivide the of special metals which would not lose their ductility space between the inner and outer hulls into a plurality when reduced to low temperature. This would result in of wing tanks. amateria-l increase in the cost of the ship from the stand The outer surface of the inner hull is similarly stiffened point of the metals employed and their assembly, and and reinforced with longitudinally extending frames or it would possibly result in reduction of the stability of beams 46 and crosswise extending ribs. The girders can the ship from the standpoint of the strength of the metals Openings 42 are provided in the web frames for ven tilation, and access openings 44 still larger in dimension are provided in the web frames in the areas immediately be used to provide a means for attachment of the inter employed in its construction. connecting plates or girders 34 and 36 and interconnecting The construction wtih the inner and outer hulls ar tie bars 36a, thereby to effect a rigid and fully reinforced ranged in closely spaced apart, substantially parallel rela 35 tion enables the beams extending crosswise of the ship connection between the inner and outer hulls. As de?ned in the aforementioned application, the ship’s and the girders extending lengthwise of the ship to inter hold can be divided lengthwise by a plurality of coffer connect the hulls in a manner which enables the outer dams which extend crosswise between the hulls. In such hull to incorporate the inner hull as a part of its rein crosswise extending coiferdams, it is desirable to make use forcement and support. This enables increased rigidity of a pair of walls 50 and S2 spaced apart by a distance 40 and strength to be incorporated into the hull structure to enable a person to pass therebetween. The described while making use of beams and girders of considerably reinforcing and stiffening beams, girders and plates can lesser width than would otherwise be demanded. This also be embodied between the walls to enable access to results in lesser space being occupied by the beams and the space between the walls and for subdivision of the girders joined to the adjacent surfaces of the ship’s hulls space into communicating wing tanks. The inner surface of the inner hull 28 is lined with a relatively thick layer 54 of an insulating material of low heat conductivity and preferably characterized by having a'structural strength capable of supporting loadto enable 45 so that more space can be made available in the ship, materially to increase the cargo-carrying capacity of the ship. This condition is not available in a construction wherein a tank is fabricated within the hold of a ship and interconnected to the hull for support, since the de attachment to the walls of the inner hull and to enable the 50 scribed parallel relation and interconnection whereby the cargo tanks to be carried between insulation without inner hull can be tied into the outer hull to enable use direct‘ attachment to the walls of the ship. For this pur of girders and beams of lesser width would not be secured. pose, use can be made of panels of balsa wood or quippo, Further, the necessity to permit free expansion and con or use can be made of foamed glass or foamed plastics traction of the cargo tanks will militate against the rigid which are capable of‘ standing up under the temperature 55 connection between the tanks and the hull of the ship. conditions to which the plastic will be submitted in the In the construction with the inner hull arranged in presence of the cargo. The cargo tanks 56 of large dimen closely spaced apart parallel relation with the outer hull sion are adapted to be arranged in side by side relation and having. girders and ribs in between, a ?at‘ and sub within the insulated hold space to'provide a cluster with stantially continuous surface is provided throughout the means harnessing the tanks at the top and operatively 60 cargo space of the hold onto which the relaitvely rigid engaging the tanks at the bottom to hold the tanks in a layers of the substantially strong insulating material can predetermined relation within the insulated hold while be applied thermally to insulate the entire hold space in permitting free expansion and contraction movements in which the cargo tanks are to be arranged. When use is the lateral and vertical directions responsive to changes made of a structurally strong insulation, such as balsa or variations in‘ temperature which might take place. 65 wood, for independently supporting the cargo tanks, it is Thus, the tanks are mounted relatively independently of desirable to enable prefabrication of the balsa wood into the insulated hold space, but arranged‘ and constructed boards and planks which can be applied to the support, substantially completely to ?ll the hold space. and it is also desirable to be able to incorporate the sup The means for harnessing the cargo tanks is the subject porting structure as a backing for the insulation, whereby matter of another application of Farrell, et al., Serial No. 70 the insulation can rely upon its support for strength. 634,571, ?led January 16, 1957, now Patent No. 2,954,003, Further, when it is desired to make use of the layer of and entitled “Means for Transportation of Low Tempera insulation as a “second line of defense” to block penetra ture Liquids.” The means for lining the walls of the tion of the cold boiling lique?ed gas through the insula inner hull with panels of balsa wood is also the subject tion to the metal support, in the event of failure of the matter of a still further applicationv of Dosker, Serial No. 75 cargo tanks or in the event of spillage of the cargo, it “3,085,538 6 is desirable to be able to make use of the support as a sealing means along the outer surface of the insulation layer, whereby a vapor space will be built up upon evapo ration of the liquid to prevent further penetration of the liquid through the insulation layer. This new and novel concept of an internally lined container to prevent pene tration of a low boiling lique?ed gas which is directly in contact with the porous insulation is more fully de?ned in of a dangerous condition to enable protective measures to be taken. Such instrumentation would record tem perature changes resulting from the development of cold spots possibly caused by the failure of a cargo tank or portions of the insulation in particular areas. These are desirable from the standpoint of protection of the outer hull from refrigeration to a temperature where the steels might lose their ductility and strength. the copending application of Morrison, Serial No. The closely spaced apart relation between the inner and 692,388, ?led October 25, 1957, and entitled “Insulated 10 outer hulls and the subdivision of the space into wing Tank for Storage" and Transportation of Low Boiling tanks permits the control of temperature in the space Lique?ed Gas.” The beams and girders ordinarily pres between the walls to make certain that safe operating ent as reinforcement and stiffening members in ship con struction or in tanker construction would be incapable of conditions are maintained. In the event of failure of the insulation or in the event of the presence of liquid cargo providing the desired surface. On the other hand, the con 15 outside of the cargo tanks in the hold space, the area tinuous and ?at surface of the inner hull is ideal for receiv between the hulls can be heated by means of steam coils ing the insulation lining, thereby to make all of the space and the like to maintain a desired temperature condition within the inner hull ‘and between the cofferdams available between the walls. This will prevent the transmission of as cargo space, thereby materially to increase the capacity cold to the outer hull and it will also operate to maintain of the ship and utilization of the ship as a liquid methane 20 the inner hull at a temperature suf?cient to prevent loss carrier. of ductility and strength. It will also permit maintenance The foregoing represents some of the more important of the temperature of the inner hull at a uniform and technological advances capable of being derived from the combination of closely spaced apart inner and outer hulls, desirable level for controlling heat loss through the in extend throughout the entire length of the ship, but the important area resides along the portion spaced inwardly to conduct cold away from (i.e., furnish heat to) the walls and for controlling the temperature of the walls to maintain safe and controlled operating conditions. It will be understood that changes may be made in sulation. Instead of making use of the con?ned space as with the inner surface of the inner hull lined with a 25 a means for heating the walls, the space between the hulls thick layer of thermal insulating material to provide an can be used for the rapid circulation of water or other insulated hold space. The double-walled construction can liquid or fluid over the adjacent surfaces of the hulls a short distance from the bow and aft of the ship wherein the cargo space is located. Insulated coiferdams ex tending crosswise of the ship can provide the desired sep the details of construction, arrangement and operation > aration and support for the insulation, and the unlined without departing from the spirt of the invention, space in the bow and aft can be employed for housing the especially as de?ned in the following claims. mechanism powering the ship and for the storage of other I claim: liquids and fuels or cargo which do not require the main 1. A ship for the transportation of a liquid cargo which tenance of low temperatures. needs to be maintained at a temperature far below the A large number of further advantages are available freezing point of water comprising the combination of in a tanker construction embodying spaced inner and an outer hull, an inner hull joined to the outer hull and outer hulls with insulation lining the inner surface of the 40 spaced in parallel relation to the outer hull throughout inner hull to provide an insulated hold space. the major portion of the ship, horizontally disposed, ver The spaced inner and outer hulls, providing a sealing tically spaced-apart stiffening and reinforcing members relation therebetween, enable utilization of the space as wing tanks wherein water or other ?uid can be used as secured to the inner surfaces of the outer hull and the ballast in navigation of the ship. For this purpose, the space can be divided by the bulkheads and the like into separate sections to provide separated wing tanks with individual pumping system ‘for handling the ?uid. To outer surfaces of the inner hull respectively, horizontally disposed vertically spaced-apart platforms extending cross wise between the inner and outer hulls and spaced apart by an amount greater than said stilfening and reinforc ing members to subdivide the space between the inner make most et?cient utilization of the ship’s space, the and outer hulls into vertically separated compartments, wing tanks and the like non-cargo spaces can be used for 50 vertically disposed and longitudinally spaced-apart walls the storage of liquid petroleum products which do not re extending crosswise between said inner and outer hulls quire refrigeration or maintenance at low temperature. to subdivide the space therebetween into longitudinally For example, most ef?cient utilization can be made of the separated wing tanks, some of said walls having passages space between the walls to carry a liquid fuel or petrole therethrough above the platforms for communication be um products which can be used as ballast and which 55 tween the wing tanks, instruments mounted within the can be circulated for temperature control and which can space between the bulls for indicated changes in condi even be heated when necessary to conduct cold away tions existing therein, bulkheads extending crosswise of the from the walls. ship in longitudinally spaced-apart relation to subdivide The spaced relation between the inner and outer hulls the space within the inner hull into ?uid-tight cargo enables one to enter the space for visual inspection of 60 spaces, panels of thermal insulating material mounted the outer walls of the inner hull for purposes of detect on the inner surface of the inner hull to line the cargo ing deterioration in the construction in su?icient time in space with a thick layer of thermal insulating material, advance to prevent failure which might otherwise lead and at least one liquid cargo tank of large dimension to difficulties and even to the destruction of the ship. It within each of said insulated cargo spaces. 65 simpli?es replacement and repair of sections of the inner 2. A ship as claimed in claim 1 in which the thick hull without tying up the ship in drydock or the like, and lining of thermal insulating material lining the inner it provides space wherein additions can be made to shore surface of the inner hull comprises preformed panels of up weaknesses which might develop in the construction balsa wood secured at their outer surface to the inner to anticipate a dangerous situation which might otherwise 70 hull to provide a substantially continuous lining thereon. develop. 3. A ship as claimed in claim 1 in which each of Still further, the spaced relationship between the hulls the bulkheads subdividing the cargo space comprises a enables instrumentation 160 of the ship’s hulls for ‘auto pair of walls in closely spaced apart parallel relation. matically recording changes in conditions as would pro vide a warning sufficiently in advance of the development 75 (References on following page) 3,085,588 8 References Cited in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 411,201 991,507 1,302,547 1,779,786 2,738,749 Rich ______ _; ________ __ Sept. 17, 1889 Hitch?eld ______________ __ May 9, 1911 Henry ________________ __ July 28, 1959 Rupp ________________ __ Aug. 4, 1959 Henry _______________ __ Sept. 22, 1959 667,215 Great Britain _________ __ Feb. 27, 1952 Macy et al ____________ __ Mar. 20, 1956 Morrison ______________ __ July 9, 1957 ’ 2,807,143 Schnellhardt __________ __ Sept. 24, 1957 Beckwith _____________ __ Oct. 22, 1957 10 Howard ______________ __ Apr. 26, 1960 FOREIGN PATENTS Heidenreich ___________ __ May 6, 1919 5 Unzue _______________ _.. Oct. 28, 1930 2,798,364 2,810,265 2,896,416 2,897,657 2,905,352 2,933,902 OTHER REFERENCES “The Oil and Gas Journal,” March 22, 1954 (pages 104, 105 relied on).