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Патент USA US3085805

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April 16, 1963
A. sNlPE ETAL
3,085,795
MINING MACHINES HAVING A ROTARY CUTTING HEAD
Filed Nov. à, 19Go
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By
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Attorney;
April 16, 1963
A. sNlPE ETAL
3,085,795
MINING MACHINES HAVING A ROTARY CUTTING HEAD
Filed Nov. 8, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
By
www, coll, «6M »f lfm
A tlorney5
April 16, 1963
A. sNlPE ETAL
3,085,795
MINING MACHINES HAVING A ROTARY CUTTING HEAD
Filed Nov. 8. 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
April 16, 1963
A. sNlPE ETAL
3,085,795
MINING MACHINES HAVING A ROTARY CUTTING HEAD
Filed Nov. 8. 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
B
wml cva, ¿7AM a Mmm
AttorneyS
United States Patent C) M Ce
3,685,795
Patented Apr. 16, 1953
l
2
3,085,795
obstruction in suc-h space or spaces minimises breakage
of the lumps as they are propelled from the head.
MINING MACHINES HAVING A RUTARY
CUTTING HEAD
Arthur Snipe, 4 Alston Road, and Terrence R. Bingham,
43 Brierley Road, both of Bessacarr, Doncaster, Eng
land, and Raymond Bingham, “.lalna,” Doncaster Road,
Branton, near Doncaster, England
Filed Nov. 8, 1960, Ser. No. 68,606
Claims priority, application Great Britain Nov. 12, 1959
6 Claims. (Cl. 262-27)
’I’his invention relates .to mining machines such as are
used in collieries, ore mines, and the like, and more par
As a direct consequence oh the direction of the mined
material by the head to the conveyor there is very little
re-circulation of the material so that any tendency for
the picks to throw the material beyond the plough is
greatly reduced.
ln addition to defining the axial length of the cutting
head, and, consequently, the depth of cut, the end-plate
and its picks provide a lead-in for the leading pick on the
adjoining end of a vane, so that that pick is not subjected
to high impact loading, which might damage or distort
ticularly to mining machines of the type having a rotary
the helical vane, each time the material to be mined is
cutting head provided with picks and adapted to be oper
met. Two vanes are advantageous when the head oper
ated with the axis of rotation perpendicular to the work 15 ates in faulty material to be mined, because it breaks into
reasonably sized pieces any large mass that might tend
ing face of a seam, so that the picks carried by the head
break out the material being mined to a depth substan
to fall as a whole at the onset of attack by the head.
tially equal to the axial length of the head and to a height
Preferably, the pitch may be right-hand or left-hand,
substantially equal to the overall diameter of the head
in accordance with the direction of rotation of the head
and its picks, as the head is progressed by the machine 20 with respect to the direction of traverse, it being preferred
for the picks to be carried by the head downwardly
in a direction parallel to the face from a previously cut
gate-end in the face.
»
through the material being minded, to encourage the fall
ing material to move downwardly to the underside of
It is common practice to mount such a machine over a
conveyor laid parallel and close to the face, with the ma
chine adapted to traverse along the conveyor, so that as
mining proceeds the material broken out tends to fall on
to or close by the conveyor. However, since the cutting
head extends laterally of the body of the machine and
the head as it is propelled towards the conveyor. How
ever, the machine may make an operative return along
the face, without of course reversing the direction of ro
tation of the head, the picks of which are then carried
upwardly through the material being mined. The plough,
of reversible type, is in this case removed to the other
beyond one side of the conveyor, a considerable amount
of material fails to fall on to the conveyor, and great 30 end of the machine.
diii‘iculty has been experienced in providing the machine
To facilitate a non-cutting return run of the machine,
with effec-tive mechanical means for feeding or directing
a pick-carrying section of the end-plate may be removably
this material directly on to ythe conveyor.
secured to the -rest of the end-plate, together with an ad
joining pick-carrying part of a vane. With the machine
stopped when this removable section of the head is upper
Therefore it
is usually permitted to fall alongside the conveyor and
then has to be ploughed on to the latter by a plough car
ried along with the machine. However, the quantity of
fallen material is invariably too great for the plough to
handle, so that a considerable amount spills over the top
most, i.e., nearest the roof, removal of the section avoids
contact between the head and bar supports for the roof.
The invention will now be described in detail with
edge of the plough and remains alongside the conveyor 40 reference to 4the accompanying drawings, in which
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic plan of a mining machine
after .the machine has moved clear.
having a rotary cutting head according to the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a min
ing machine of the type referred to with an improved
cutting head that itself directs mined material towards
in use underground;
I
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic side elevation of FIG
the body of the machine so that, with a machine so pro 45 URE `1;
-FIGURE 3 is a detailed plan of one form of cutting
vided and mounted over and traversing along a conveyor,
head in a position corresponding to that of the cutting
relatively little of the mined material fails to lfind its way
head in FIGURE l, the head having a single-start helix,
directly to the conveyor. A furthe-r object is to provide
i.e., with only one helical vane;
such a cutting head that will produce large lumps of
FIGURE 4 is an elevation in the direction of the arrow
mined material, thus reducing the proportion of small
material.
.
i
According to the present invention, a rotary cutting
head for a mining machine of the type referred to com
prisesat least one helical vane extending towards the ì
body -of, the machine from a ñat circular end-plate delin
ing the axial length of the head, with means for rigidly
mounting picks at intervals around the vane and end
plate peripheries. With the head rotated by the machine
IV of FIGURE 3;
FIGURE 5 is an elevation in the direction of the arrow
V of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is an eleva-tion in the direction of .the
arrow VI of FIGURE 3;
FIGURES 7 and 8 are enlarged Afragmentary sections
on the lines VII--VII and VIII-VIII respectively of
FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 9 is an 'enlarged fragmentary section on the
in such a direction that the helical Vane “screws” itself 60 line lX-IX of FIGURE 6;
towards the working face, mined material is directed by
FIGURE l0 corresponds to part of FIGURE 4, but
shows a modification;
FIGURE l1 is a perspective view of a larger but simi
body of the machine and the conveyor along which the
lar head to that shown in FIGURES 3 to 6;
machine is traversed. Such relatively little of the mined
FIGURE l2 is a perspective view of a rotary cutting
material as fails to be directed by the helical vane or 65
head with two-start helix, i.e., with two helical vanes;
vanes to the conveyor and so falls alongside the latter,
FIGURES 13 and 14 correspond to parts of FIGURES
is well within the capacity of a plough moving along with
4 and 6 respectively, but show a further modiiication;
the machine. With the or each vane having a pitch equal
FIGURE l5 is a section on the line XV-XV of FIG
to the length of the head, the picks on the periphery of a
URE 13, and
the or each fvane away from the face, i.e., towards the
vane can bring large lumps of material into the large 70
space or spaces between the convolutions of the vane or
vanes and the end-plate, and the substantial absence of
FIGURE 16 is a section on the line XVI-_XVI of
FIGURE l5.
In FIGURES l and 2, a mining machine 1 is supported
3,085,795
A
à
by wheels 2 on the stationary trough walls of a scraper
conveyor 3, along which the machine is adapted to tra
verse itself by means of a motor driven drum 4 and a
cable 5 extending between fixed anchors (not shown) at
each end of a mine working.
Since the drive is inde
pendent of the wheels 2, the machine may be elevated
the head from the arbor.
The trailing end 27 of the vane
9 is recessed at 28 to iit over an existing arbor 8.
Metal blocks 29 with parallel sockets 3G (FIGURES 7
and 8) of rectangular cross-section, formed by broaching
bored lengths of round bar, are welded into recesses 31 at
regular intervals round the periphery of the helical vane
9, to receive the corresponding shank 32 of pointed picks
by chocks 6 to suit the diameter of a rotary cutting head
33, with set-screws 34 to secure the Shanks in the sockets.
7 mounted on the arbor 3 of the machine. The drive
Each block 29 is inclined to the periphery of the vane 9
for the drum 4 is reversible so that the machine may be
traversed forwardly, i.e., from left to right, or in reverse. 10 so as to align the axis of its pick 33 with the plane of ro
tation of its point, so that axial stresses induced in the
The rotary cutting head 7 has a helical vane 9 extending
head 7 by the angle of the helical vane 9 will be kept to
towards the body of the machine 1 from a ñat circular
end-plate 10 deiining the axial length of the head, and
picks (not shown, but presently to be described with
a minimum and high cutting efliciency is ensured.
Instead of having a rectangular section, the socket may
be circular in cross-section and tapered axially, as shown
reference to FIGURES 3 to l0) are mounted rigidly at
at 35 in FIGURE l0 to receive a correspondingly tapered
intervals around the peripheries of the helical vane and
shank 36 to eifect securing of the shank initially without
end-plate. With the head 7 rotating in clockwise direc
employing a set-screw, loosening of a worn or broken
tion (as viewed in FIGURE 2), the machine 1 traversing
pick 33 being effected by insertion of a drift or other
forwardly over the conveyor 3 alongside a working face
11, and with the head starting from a gate-end (not 20 suitable tool (not shown) into a slot 37 in the back of
the recess 31 into which the block 29 is secured by weld
shown), material 12 behind the face 11 is mined by the
ing. In the event of a drift or the like not being available,
head and directed by the helical vane 9 towards the
a `blow on the end of the shank 36 may sufîice to loosen
body of the machine. The picks are carried downwardly
the pick 33.
through the material 12 so that the latter is brought down
A single pointed pick 33X mounted in a block 29X
under the head 7, which will result in a major propor
welded in a recess 31X in the end-plate 1t), close to the
tion of the material being directed by the helical vane 9
leading end 21 of the helical vane 9, serves to initiate at
on to the conveyor 3 directly behind the body of the
every revolution of the head 7 the point-strike action
machine 1. The minor proportion of mined material
which is progressed axially along the head by the picks
which fails to be directed by the head on to the conveyor
is soon after directed on to the conveyor by the forward
30 33 on the helical vane as they meet in turn the material
to be mined.
ly-facing half 13 of a reversible plough 14, which is towed
The remainder of the periphery of the end-plate 10 is
along behind the head by the machine.
formed lwith recesses 33 at regular intervals into which
The machine 1 may be traversed in reverse, i.e., from
are welded blocks 39. These blocks are also formed
right to left, with the head 7 starting from a gate-end
(not shown) at the other end of the working and again 35 from lengths of round bar, but are bored and breached at
right-angles to their axes to provide sockets 40 (FIG
driven clockwise. Although the picks will then be car
URES 6 and 9) of rectangular cross-section to receive
ried upwardly through the material to be mined and sub
the corresponding Shanks 4l of shearing picks 42 having
sequently will tend to throw the material away from the
V-shaped leading edges e3 and tips 44, again with set
head, a substantial proportion of the mined material will
be directed by the helical vane 9 on to the conveyor 3, be
neath the body of the machine, while the remainder, fall
ing alongside the body of the machine 1, will be well
within the capacity of the rearwardly-facing half 15 of
the plough 14, which is then towed behind the other end
of the machine.
The diameter of the head 7 is selected in accordance
with the depth of the working, e.g., the depth of a coal
seam, and the arbor 8 brought to mid-height by using
40 screws 45 to secure the Shanks in the sockets. The sockets
4i) are inclined to Ythe plane of the end-plate 10~-except
for that of the block shown in section in FIGURE 6,
which socket lies in the plane of the end-plate-to a great
er or lesser degree, so that their respective picks 42 to
gether produce a `wide lead-in cut extending inwardly,
with respect to the head 7, to beyond the iirst pick 33
-wholly on the helical vane 9, so that that pick and the
pick 33X are not subjected to high impact loading, which
rnight damage or distort the helical vane, each time the
chocks 6 of appropriate depth, except for the minimum
permissible diameter, usually about 30 inches, when the 50 material to be mined is met.
chocks 6 are dispensed with.
lIn FIGURES 3 to 6, the helical vane 9 makes one com
plete turn about the axis of the head 7 (as is also the
case in FÍGURES l and 2), but is divided along a radial
line 16 into two parts 9A, 9B facilitating handling under
ground and fabrication from sheet metal and welding to a.
journal 17, which is split into two equal lengths 17A, 17B
each having a bore 1S to fit on to the »arbor 8 of the ma
A block 29Y, similar to the blocks 29 is welded to the
trailing end 27 of the vane 9, to receive a further shearing
pick 42X the purpose of which is to produce a clean
finish to the point-strike action progressed along the
head 7 from the end-plate 10 by the picks 33, and is
afforded the maximum effect by being inclined outwardly
away from the end-plate.
The trailing end 27 of the helical vane 9 is also pro
vided with a stiiïening ñange 46 extending radially from
the parting line of the vane and the adjacent ends of the 60 the journal length 17B, a triangular ilange 47 extending
from the vane part 9B to the bolting ñange 19 on that
journal lengths to enable the two parts to be bolted se
vane part. The end-plate 10 is provided with substantial~
curely together. The leading end 21 of the helical vane
ly rectangular gussets 43 extending radially from the hol~
9 is welded to end-plate 10 consisting of an annulus to
chine, pairs of mating flanges 19, 20 being provided at
low truncated cone 22 to some of the blocks 39.
the inner edge of which is welded the larger base end of a
The -vane part 9B is also provided with a blade 49 ex
hollow truncated cone 22, itself welded at its smaller end 65
about the journal length 17A towards the end 23 adjacent
the journal length 17B and a ring 24 bridges the annular
gap between the truncated cone `and the other end 25 of
tending radially from the journal part 17B and axially
from the vane part, and a blade 50 extending radially
outwards beyond the recess 28 and stiffened by a gusset
51, to throw material carried by the head 7 away from
the journal length 17A. The end 25 provides an annular
shoulder to be abutted by the usual locking plate (not 70 the axis of the head, «which action is also assisted ‘by the
bolt flanges ‘19 and the stiifening ñange 46.
shown) for retaining the head on the arbor 3, and the
Apart from directing and conveying a major or sub
hollow truncated cone 22 provides accommodation for
stantial proportion of the mined material to the conveyor,
the locking plate within the contines of the head 7. Four
the head 7 will produce the mined material in larger
tapped holes 26 in the journal length 17A enable an ex
lumps than normal, since the space afforded within the
tracting tool (not shown) to be attached for removal of
3,085,795
5
confines of the head is greater lthan has hitherto been
possible in rotary cutting heads of equivalent duty. Fur
thermore, the space afforded is substantially free from
‘obstruction so that large lumps of mined material are
not appreciably broken down while -being directed by the
vane 9 to the machine end of the head.
The construction of FIGURES 3 to 10 is generally suit
able for heads ranging in diameter from the minimum of
about 30” to about 50". For heads ranging in diameter
from about 50” to about 70” the degree of stiffness is
maintained by using thicker material for the helical vane
9 and the end-plate l0, as shown in FIGURE 11, and by
welding further stitïening plates 52 between the gussets
48. A greater number of picks are preferably employed
yon both the helical vane and the end-plate to give substan
tially the same spacing between successive picks, but the
number of picks on any head may be varied to suit the
quality of the material to be mined. The types of pick
6
length substantially equal to the length of the head, and
pick-mountings carried at closely spaced intervals round
the peripheries of both the end-plate and the vanes.
3. A cutting head for a long-wall coal-cutting ma
chine, the head comprising a journal to be applied to and
driven by the usual shaft of such machine projecting
perpendicularly to the wall to be worked, a circular end
plate secured to the journal and terminating the operative
length of the head, a helical vane also secured to the
journal and starting at the end-plate, the vane being of
the same diameter as the end-plate and having a pitch
length substantially equal to the length of the head, and
pick-mountings carried at closely spaced intervals round
the peripheries of both the end-plate and the vane, and
adjoining mounting-carrying peripheral portions of the
end-plate and the vane being removably attached to the
rest of the end-plate and the vane, and united to each
other as a section removable from the head with the
employed on the helical vane and/or the end-plate also
corresponding pick-mountings.
may be varied to suit the material to be mined. Thus in 20
4. A cutting head for a long-wall coal-cutting ma
FIGURE 12, shearing picks alone are intended to be used,
chine, the head comprising a journal to be applied to
blocks 53 similar to the blocks 39 being provided through
and driven by the usual shaft of such machine projecting
out the head. Also two helical vanes 9X, @Y are pro
perpendicularly to the wall to be worked, a circular end
vided in two-start relation leading away from the end
plate secured to the journal and terminating the operative
plate dll, the two vanes having the same diameter as the
length of the head, a helical vane also secured to the
end-plate, with a greater number of blocks 53 on the vane
journal and starting at the end-plate, the vane being of
9X than on the vane 9Y. Again, the vane 9X is divided
the saine diameter as the end-plate and having a pitch
into two parts 9C, 9D and the vane 9Y is divided into two
length substantially equal to the length of the head, and
parts 9E, 9F, with the parts 9D, 9F united by welding to
pick-mountings carried at closely spaced intervals round
the journal length 17B.
30 the peripheries of both the end-plate and the vane, and ad
To enable the machine 1 (FIGURES 1 and 2) to be
joining mounting-carrying peripheral portions of the end
traversed Áin reverse, with the head inoperative, for min
„plate and the vane being removably attached to the rest of
the end-plate and the vane and a base plate uniting these
ing roof bars 54 above Ithe conveyor 3 to support the roof
portions as `a section removable from the head with the
55 exposed behind the machine l, the head '7 may be pro 35 corresponding pick-mountings, with transverse slots in
vided with a small `section 56 adapted to be removed from
the base plate, and transverse T-ribs on the rest of the
the head after being brought to the uppermost position, so
end-plate and vane to engage the slots, together with a
ing to proceed again in the forward direction, after plac
as not to be obstructed by the roof bars. FIGURES 13
to 16 show such a section 56 formed as part of the head
hole in the base-plate and a spring-plunger on the sec
tion for engagement with the hole to secure the section
of FIGURES 3 to 6, the section comprising a portion 57 40 in position.
Aof the vane part 9A and a portion 58 of the endplate l0,
5. A cutting head for a long-wall coal-cutting ma
close to the leading end 2l of the vane, united by a
chine, the head comprising a cylindrical journal part and
tapered base plate '59, which is provided -with slots 60 for
a truncated cone journal part secured co-axially to the
receipt of the Webs 61 of T-section ribs 62 on a plate 63
cylindrical part, the whole to be applied to 'and driven
bridging the gap between the vane and the end-plate over 45 by the usual shaft of such machine projecting perpen
the length of the section 56, together with a spring-loaded
dicularly .to the wall to be worked, a circular end-plate
plunger 64 for engagement Iwith a hole 65 in the bridge
secured to the base end of the truncated cone part and
63, to lock the section in position 'when it has been cor
terminating the operative length of the head, and a two
rectly aligned by engagement `of the portion 57 -with the
part helical vane starting at and of the same diameter
ends 66 of the ribs 62. The portions 57, 58 are braced 50 as the end-plate, one part of the vane being secured to
by webs ‘67. Sliding of the section 56 towards the body
the truncated cone part and the other to the cylindrical
of the machine 1, after lifting of the plunger 64 from the
part and the two vane parts together having a pitch length
hole 65 against the spring-loading, enables the section 56
substantially equal .to the length of the head, and pick
to be `detached completely from the remainder of the
mountings carried at closely spaced intervals round the
head 7.
55 peripheries of both the end-plate `and the vane.
What we claim is:
1. A cutting head for 'a long-wall coal-cutting ma
chine, the head comprising a journal to be applied to
and driven by the usual shaft of such machine projecting
6. A cutting head for a long-wall coal-cutting ma
chine, the head comprising a journal to be applied to
and driven by the usual shaft of such machine projecting
perpendicularly to the wall to be worked, a circular end
perpendieularly to the wall to be worked, a circular end 60 plate secured to the journal and terminating the operative
plate secured to the journal and terminating the oper
length of the head, a helical vane also secured to the
ative length .of the head, a helical vane also secured to
journal and starting at .the end-plate, the vane being of
the journal and starting at the end-plate, the vane being
the same diameter as the end-plate and having a pitch
of the same diameter as the end-plate and having a pitch
length substantially equal to the length of the head, pick
length substantially equal to the length of the head, `and 65 mountings carried at closely spaced intervals round the
pick-mountings carried at closely spaced intervals round
peripheries of both the end-plate and the vane, and a
the peripheries of both the end-plate and the vane.
throwing blade extending radially from the journal and
2. A cutting head 'for a long-wall coal-cutting ma
axially from the Vane near the end of the vane remote
chine, the head comprising a journal to be applied to `and
Afrom
the end-plate.
driven by the usual shaft of such machine projecting 70
perpendicularly to the wall to be worked, a circular end
References Cited in the tile of this patent
plate secured to the journal and terminating the operative
UNITED STATES PATENTS
length of the head, two helical vanes also secured to the
journal «and starting at the end-plate, each vane being
Barrett ______________ __ May 2,7, 1958
2,83 6,408
of the same diameter as the end-plate and having a pitch 75 2,967,701
Wilcox ______________ __ Jan. 10, 196,1
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