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Патент USA US3085916

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April 16, 1963
Filed July 27, 1959
c. HARMON x-:T AL
REINFORCED PAPER
3,085,906
2 Sheets-511991l 1
M
ATTORNEY
April 16, 1963
c. HARMoN ET AL
3,085,906
REINFORCED PAPER
Filed July 27, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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1
ATTO R N EY
States
1
3,085,906
REINFORCED PAPER
Carlyle Harmon, Scotch Plains, and Richard M. Smith,
New Brunswick, NJ., assignors to Johnson & Johnson,
a corporation of New Jersey
Filed July 27, 1959, Ser. No. 829,662
11 Claims. (Cl. 117-122)
EQ@
3,085,90â
Patented Apr. 16, 1963
2
drated woodpulp fibers, rubbery binder solids portions
distributed substantially uniformly throughout the web,
and a multiplicity of relatively large flexible and tough
thermoplastic reniforcing members distributed substan
tially uniformly throughout the web in bonding relation l
with the woodpulp übers. The woodpulp fibers are ar
ranged in overlapping crossing relation with one another
so as to define a multiplicity of minute interstices between
them. The relatively large reinforcing members define
This invention relates to unified paper backings for
various uses, more particularly to flexible paper backings 10 a corresponding multiplicity of space `between the members
unified by impregnating the paper with rubbery binder
solids until the paper is internally strengthened and is
in the web. The average distance across the spaces be
particularly suitable for use as a backing material for
than the average distance across, or the size, of the rela
products such as pressure-sensitive adhesive masking
tapes and the like.
Backings of this type, particularly those which must be
used in flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, must
tively minute interstices between the woodpulp fibers so
that several of these interstices generally are located in
each of the spaces between the reinforcing members.
possess a number of important physical properties to a
tween the reinforcing members is considerably greater
The rubbery binder solids portions hold the woodpulp
fibers together between reinforcing members.
The structure of the reinforced web product of this
high degree. These include flexibility, delamination
strength, tensnile Strength, 'and various other properties 20 invention is determined to a large extent by the relative
sizes lof the woodpulp fibers and the thermoplastic rein
such as edge tear strength, elongation, abrasion resistance
forcing members, and the relative proportions by weight
wet and dry, and the like. Various attempts have been
-of >these components in the web. The woodpulp fibers
made to build all of these properties into paper backings
are relatively small when compared with the reinforcing
which are particularly suitable for pressure-sensitive ad
hesive tapes and similar products. Backings of this gen 25 members, i.e., the woodpulp fibers are in the range of
about 0.04 to 0.4 mils in thickness and about 0.4 to 0.8
eral type are described in United States Patents 2,726,967;
mils in width, and are less than 1A inch in length nor
2,848,105; and 2,848,355. All of these patents describe
mally within the range of about 80 to 240 mils, while the
the problem in some detail and provide various ways for
reinforcing members are in the range of l to 35 mils in
unifying the backing 'sheet by impregnating it with a
rubbery binder material, as well as different ways of im
proving the binder and enhancing the effectiveness of the
fiber binder relationship.
30 cross dimension and may be as long `as an inch or more,
depending upon shape factors such as their length-to
width ratio. For instance, if they are in the form of rods
having a more or less circular cross section and a length
to-width ratio of 2 to l, normally over l0 to l or more,
as Well as flexibility. For instance, it has been common 35 their cross dimensions may fall within the range of about
In products of this general type, it is highly desirable
to improve delamination strength and tensile strength,
in the manufacture of backings Afor pressure-sensitive ad
hesive tapes of vthe type described in the above patents to
impregnate the starting paper web with 80 yto 100` percent
l to 5 mils; and they may be between about ïÁgg and l
inch or `over in length, although rods below about 1A
inch in length may be preferred. However, when the
length~to-width ratio of the reinforcing members is de
Normally, this involves “saturating" 40 creased until length `and width become more nearly equal
or more of a rubbery binder material by weight of the
dry paper fibers.
the paper web, ie., substantially filling in the interstices
to each -other and the members are in the form of gran~
ules, the cross dimension of the reinforcing members may
be between about 5 and 35 mils.
binder solids. There is a tendency of such papers either
In a given product according to this invention, the
to become stiff or too rubbery, either of which may be
45 sizes of the reinforcing members and the woodpulp fibers
undesirable for various applications.
are of different orders of magnitude, i.e., the individual
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide
reinforcing members are at least about 5, preferably l0 or
an improved unified paper backing which possesses ten
more, times larger in cross-sectional area than the indi
sile strength and delamination strength to a high degree
vidual woodpulp fibers. Thus, even if equal proportions
and in addition possesses a high degree of flexibility.
Another object of the invention is to provide such a 50 of the woodpulp fibers and reinforcing members are used,
the above-described relationship exists wherein the spaces
backing which possesses these three properties to a high
between the reinforcing members 4are considerably larger
degree and which contains a comparatively low propor
than the interstices between the woodpulp fibers, and the
tion of rubbery binder solids, i.e., normally not above
binder solids portions form a multiplicity of bonds be
50 percent of the weight of the paper fibers, although as
high as 70 or more percent of the binder solids may be 55 tween the woodpulp fibers in the spaces between the re~
formed between the interlacing paper fibers with the
employed for certain applications.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an
improved unified paper backing for pressure-sensitive ad
inforcing members. However, the reinforcing members
and the binder solids are applied in the web in certain
definite proportions which contribute to the desired struc
ture. Normally, the over-all weight of the reinforcing
improved tensile strength, delamination strength flexibil 60 members with respect to the dry woodpulp fiber solids
hesive tapes, such -as masking tapes, which possesses
ity and openness when compared with prior art backings
falls within the range of about 5 to 30 percent, although
of the same general type, and yet contains a much lower
as little as 2 or 3 percent and as much as 50 percent yof
percentage of rubbery impregnant solids.
the reinforcing members by weight may be used with
A further object of the invention is to provide im
desirable results for certain applications. The range for
proved paper backings of the type described which are 65 the reinforcing members of 5 to l5 percent by weight is
more economical than prior art backings of the same
general type.
particularly preferred for products such as paper backed
pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes such as masking tapes
and the like. As mentioned above, the normal range for
Other :and further objects of #the invention will be ap
parent from the following description and claims taken
the rubbery binder solids portions, particularly for pres
together with the drawings.
70 sure-sensitive adhesive tapes and the like, is between about
The backing of this invention comprises a web or
20 to 50 percent by weight of the woodpulp fiber solids
network of moderately hydrated or substantially unhy
and reinforcing members, although binder solids may be
3,085,906
3
4
applied within the range of about 10 to 70 percent or
more by weight on the same basis for particular applica
tions.
While the exact reason for the improved delamination
strength of backings according to this invention is not
deñnitely known, it is possible to offer more than one
possible explanation. For instance, as shown best in FIG.
When substantially unhydrated woodpulp fibers and
fiexible and tough thermoplastic reinforcing members
bearing the above-described size and weight relationship
2, it is believed that the binder members 14 act some
what like large logs in a mill pond or marbles in a
match box to cause certain of the woodpulp fibers 11 to be
to one another are distributed in a web in the propor
come upended or more angularly disposed with respect
tions by weight set forth above, the desired structure of
to the plane of the web so that a fairly high percentage of
the backing of this invention is obtained. In this struc
ture, the spaces between the reinforcing members are con 10 woodpulp fibers have a component in the direction of the
thickness of the backing. This should increase delamina
siderably greater in size or cross dimension than the size
tion strength, since it becomes necessary to tear more
or cross dimension of the interstices between the over
lapping crossing woodpulp fibers.
fibers to delaminate the web, as opposed to tearing fewer
fibers and then separating laminar sections of the web.
The structure of the fabric of this invention will be
explained and may be better understood by reference to 15 Another way of saying this is that the presence of the
relatively large reinforcing members 14 causes a higher
the following drawings wherein:
degree of woodpulp fiber orientation in the direction of
FIGURE 1 is a schematic plan view of a paper web
the thickness of the web. This also may tend to increase
according to this invention as one embodiment may
the flexibility of the web.
appear;
It also is possible that a high percentage of this in
FIG. 2 is a schematic sectional view along the line 2_2
creased delamination strength may be due to the fact
of FIG. 1;
that the fiexible and tough reinforcing members l14, them
FIG. 3 is a graph of tensile strength versus percent
selves, extend through a high proportion of the thickness
impregnation for a paper web according to Example V
of the web as illustrated in FIG. 2. Thus, in order to
herein;
PIG. 4 is a graph of Gurley stiffness versus percent 25 delaminate the backing, it is necessary to rip through a
impregnation for the paper web of FIG. 3; and
FIG. 5 is a graph of delamination resistance versus
large number of the reinforcing members 14.
The increased tensile strength of backings according
percent impregnation for the paper web of FIG. 3.
to this invention also may be due to the fact that the
`Referring to the drawings, relatively short and small
reinforcing members 14, themselves, possess considerable
woodpulp fibers 11 are arranged in overlapping crossing 30 strength and act like the steel rods in reinforced con
relation with one another so as to form a multiplicity of
crete to add tensile strength to -the web.
interstices 12 between them. The woodpulp fibers are
In forming backings according to this invention, it is
bonded together by rubbery binder solids portions 13
distributed substantially uniformly throughout the web,
preferred to distribute the reinforcing members in the
web during the papermaking step. Normally, this step
as well as a multiplicity of relatively large rod-shaped 35 involves distributing the woodpulp fibers in a substan
fiexible and tough thermoplastic polymeric reinforcing
tially nonhydrated or moderately hydrated state in wa
members 14 distributed substantially uniformly through
ter to form an aqueous slurry of woodpulp fibers and
out the web.
mixing the proper proportion of thermoplastic reinforc
It is believed that the reinforcing members 14 may per
ing members with the woodpulp fibers in the slurry until
form various functions in the web structure. First of all, 4.0 they are distributed substantially uniformly in the slurry
each of the reinforcing members 14 bonds a large num
and intimately intermingled with the woodpulp fibers.
ber of woodpulp fibers 11 which pass through or into
The slurry is then drained through some sort of collect
contact with the member. As shown most clearly in FIG.
ing means for making paper such as a Fourdrinier wire,
2, the individual reinforcing members 14 entrap a num
a drum screen, a hand sheet mold, or the like to form a
ber of adjacent or contiguous woodpulp fibers 11 in the 45 paper web. After drying and pressing as is conventional
plane of the web and perpendicular thereto, or through
in papermaking, heat and pressure are applied to the web
the thickness of the web. The woodpulp fibers 11 are held
containing the reinforcing members in such a way as to
firmly in the individual reinforcing members 1-4 since the
soften and preferably fuse the thermoplastic reinforcing
woodpulp fibers passing through each member 14 are in
members and press them through the thickness of the
contact with the material of the reinforcing member along
web so that they entrap a large number of woodpulp
a high proportion of the length of the woodpulp fibers 11.
fibers. Temperature and pressure are controlled care
The reinforcing members 14 define a multiplicity of
fully so that the material of the reinforcing members
spaces 15 between them; and the average distance across
does not iiow too freely and cause the members to lose
the spaces is considerably greater than the average
their shape. `For instance, if temperature is too high,
distance across the interstices 12, or the size of the inter
stices, formed between interlacing woodpulp fibers 11.
Thus, several of these interstices 12 generally are located
in each of the spaces 15 formed between the reinforcing
members 14.
In a sense, the web is “interrupted” by the reinforcing 60
members 14 so as to form a multiplicity of web “islands”
corresponding to the web areas in the spaces 1S between
under certain pressures surface tension may cause the
material in the reinforcing members to “ball up”; and of
course if pressure is too high, it will squeeze the reinforc
ing members and fiatten them out to too great an extent.
It is inevitable in this process that the reinforcing mem
bers be ñattened to a certain extent, and allowance can
be made for this. Thus, the cross dimension of the re
inforcing members in the resulting fabric may be as
great as twice that of the rods or granules from which
they are formed, although the increase in cross dimen
islands are formed by the woodpulp fibers 11 in the spaces 65 sion due to the application of lheat and pressure during
15 and the rubbery binder solids portions 13 which hold
the bonding of the reinforcing members normally is not
these fibers together to form a connected network struc
this great.
ture. The reinforcing members 14 defining the islands
After the bonds between the reinforcing members and
may be compared to hinges between islands which provide
the
woodpulp fibers have been formed and the web has
elements of fiexibility scattered throughout the web struc 70
been allowed to cool to permit the bonds to become set,
ture. It is believed that the hinged island structure just
the rubbery binder solids may be applied thereto. Nor
described may contribute to the improved fiexibility of
mally, this is accompiished by impregnating the web
backings of this invention, although other factors such as
with an aqueous dispersion of a natural or synthetic rub
the lower percentage of binder solids portions present and
fiber orientation also may affect iiexibility.
75 bery latex, or by impregnating it with a natural or syn
the reinforcing members 14, which are joined together by
the reinforcing members. Continuing this analogy, the
3,085,906
5
thetic rubber composition deposited from solution in a
volatile organic solvent. These methods are taught in
United States Patents 2,726,967 and 2,236,527, respec
tively.
Woodpulps, the fibers of which are suitable for use in
producing backings in accordance with this invention,
include relatively long fiber kraft-type pulps, such as,
Duracel pulp sold by the Canadian International Paper
Company. The pulp may be either unbeaten (unhy
6
polymers, copolymers of vinyl chloride with other mate
rials lsuchas vinyl acetate and vinylidene chloride, chloro
prene rubber and various other similar elastomeric poly
mers. Copolymers of butadiene and unsaturated nitriles,
such as yacrylonitrile and the like, have been found to be
particularly suitable for this purpose.
`Before application to the fibrous web, the rubbery binder
ysolids may be in the form of relatively small particles
ranging in size from «about 0.004 to 0.2 mil in cross sec
tion, preferably not `above ‘about 0.04 mil, normally hav
ing a length-to-width ratio in the neighborhood of 1:1.
As the rubbery binder is applied to the web formed by
it has a Schopper-Riegler freeness of at least about 600
the woodpulp fibers 11 and the reinforcing members 14,
cc. or more. Thus, Webs formed from the fibers of such
the rubbery binder solids portions 13 yare formed between
a pulp are open and comprise fibers overlapping and
crossing one another and forming myriad relatively 15 the Woodpulp `fibers. The rubbery binder material may
remain in the form of the original relatively small latex
minute interstices between them. As mentioned herein
particles in which it is deposited. However, as the amount
before, the individual woodpulp fibers are in the range
of the rubbery binder in the web is increased, the original
of about `0.104 to `0.4 mil in thickness and about 0.4 to
drated) or slightly hydrated but not to the extent that
it is not definitely fibrous in form. Generally speaking,
latex particles tend to'join one another and form an at
0.8 mil in width, and generally are less than about 1A
inch, say about S0 to 240 mils, in length. From the 20 least partially continuous rubbery matrix with the rub
bery binder solids portions connecting the woodpulp fibers
above, it is apparent that the woodpulp fibers are some
in the areas 15 between the binder members 14 being in
what flat, or ribbon like, in shape. They may be more
the form of agglomerates which may be somewhat film
or less straight or somewhat curled and kinked as may
like in character. As the concentration of the rubbery
result from being subjected to treatment such as de
scribed in United States Patent 2,516,384 to provide 25 binder solids portions is increased, the Vdeposited binder
material becomes less particle-like and more like a con
curlated fibers.
tinuous matrix in nature.
The relatively flexible and tough thermoplastic rein
Backings according to this invention have many uses.
forcing members of this invention preferably are se
As mentioned hereinbefore, their qualities make them par
lected from among a number of long-chain polymeric
materials which form flexible and tough solid granules 30 ticularly suitable as backings for pressure-sensitive ad
hesive tapes, particularly pressure-sensitive adhesive mask
or rods. Nylon `6 comprising polycaprolactarn gives par
ing tapes and the like. They also are suitable for pressure
ticularly good results when used as the material for the
sensitive packaging, identification, labeling, patching or
reinforcing members of this invention. Other materials,
mending, splicing, strapping, bundling and decorative
which may be employed for the reinforcing members,
include Nylon -1\1 such as sold under the trademark 35 tapes and the like and similar tapes of a non-pressure
sensitive nature. In addition to its use in tta-pes, ‘backings
“Rilsan” by Organico, S. A., of France, Saran, poly
of this invention ‘are particularly useful in sandpapens,
amides other `than `Nylons y6 `and l1, polyvinyl chloride,
protective papers, and similar fibrous web materials where
polyethylene, polyurethane, polystyrene, polyvinylidene
cyanide, plasticized cellulose acetate, plasticized ethyl .40 in flexibility and toughness are required.
Normally, backing webs according to this invention
cellulose, and the like.
have »a basis weight between about -25 to 30 pounds; Íi.e.,
The size of the reinforcing members may vary over
a wide range.
If the reinforcing members are in the
shape of rods, prior to fusing, they normally would fall
480 sheets `24 inches by `36 inches weigh this amount.
However, this invention is not limited to this range of
within the range of about 6.5-‘100 denier, correspond 45 weight. For instance, the flexibility ‘and therefore the
conformability of protective papers having a basis weight
ing to about 0.0005-0‘004 inch in diameter prior to fus
ybetween about `60 and I80 pounds may be increased sub
ing for the flexible and tough thermoplastic materials of
stantially in accordance with this invention without de
this invention, and 1,4»,2 to 1 inch in length. Preferably,
tracting from other desirable properties. In the same
the rods would be between about 10 and 60 denier, cor
way,
backings ‘accor-ding to this invention may
responding to about 00012-00034 inch in diameter 50 have 'asandpaper
basis
weight
as high :as 150 pounds.
prior to fusing, and in the neighborhood of 1A inch or
Various embodiments of reinforced papers in accord
less in length. If the reinforcing members of this in
ance with this invention Will be illustrated in the following
vention are in the shape of granules, prior -to fusing, they
examples.
normally would be of such a size that 7 0 percent of the
Example I
granules would not pass through a 200 mesh screen. 55
Preferably, the majority of the particles are of a size that
A resin-'bonded backing is made up using curlated Sunila
would not pass through a 1100 mesh screen. This means
pulp beaten to a Schepper-Riegler freeness of 870 cc. and
that generally speaking the average granule size will be
waste Nylon `6 rods averaging about .054 inch in length
within the range of about 0.004-0‘015 inch in diameter
.and ‘about i60 denier per filament. Sunila pulp is a rela
prior to fusing. Rods and granules outside the indicated 60 tively long semibleached kraft-type soft woodpulp im
ranges may be used provided that they are at least about
ported from Sweden and sold by Pulp Sales Corporation
5, preferably 10 or more, times larger in cross-sectional
of New York. The materials are combined in an 8-inch
area than the woodpulp fibers with which they are used.
diameter circular sheet mold in the following proportions:
The rubbery solids portions may be supplied from
various natural yand synthetic elastomeric materials, or 65
mixtures of an elastomeric component with -a thermoset
ting component, such as are 4described in United States
Patents 2,848,105 land 2,848,655. As mentioned herein
Curlated Sunila Pulp ....................... _-
Dry.
Dryy
Weight, g.
Percent
1. 275
85
Nylon 6 Rods _______________________________ ._
0.225
l5
before, the elastomer, or elastomeric mixture, may be in
the form of :an aqueous dispersion of a synthetic rubbery 70
The wet sheet is removed from the sheet mold with a
latex or a natural or synthetic rubber composition in solu
blotter, pressed at 2.3 pounds per square inch, and dried.
tion in a volatile organic solvent. Suitable synthetic rub
Then, it is bonded in a Carver press at 200 pounds per
bery latices may comprise polymers of butadiene and
square inch pressure and 425° F. for l0 seconds. 'The
other conjugated dienes and their homologues, and co
polymers «and tripolymers based thereon, vinyl chloride 75 finished sheet basis Weight (including the Nylon 6) is «28
3,085,906
8
'Z
pounds -per ream (l ream=480, 24 inches x 36 inches).
Example I in such a way that the percent impregnation
The bonded sheet is impregnated with a synthetic im
is 45% with the following results:
pregnant comprising a rubber latex and la synthetic resin
curing agent in accordance with the following_ formulation
g
Delamlnation
and then is dried and cured. The percent impregnation, 5
Web containingresistencia, l
based on the weight of the unimpregnated sheet, is 10.3%.
Ouncâllìcll, ucl
»
Ingredients
Manufacturer
io
Pîäîrênt
\r 1
t; ......................................... _-
69.9.
NZIÑYYOÃHG __________________________________________ __ 39 (average),
10
_
G
d
h ____________________________ __
74.0
_ Iàlglijigëtitïnilchî_El-ö?._.í._l__.i ...... -_
-
_
_
t
.
._
....... _. Dgfvçzciiâiiiicctii
Example IV
._
.
____ __
.
0.5
.
,
.
A resin-bonded backing is made up using curlated
Sunila pulp beaten to a Schepper-Riegler freeness of
,
l
1
.
.
The following
delamination resultsd are
obtained when l5 Íäqut
8670rois
Cdc’ using
arid emeh
long’ wddemer ger fllânâellt
.
disheet Containing
i yion
same proce'ure as escri e in
comlgalred glflth a comparable Stan ar
Example I in the following proportions to form a web
no
having approximately the same basis weight:
yon
'
Dclamlnation
W
t m~
eb con a ing
__
it
20
v
_Dm
ouläcsespîlllcâmh
Width
15% Nylon n
38.4.
No Nylon 6
16 (average).
c
I
t
“eig , g.
Dri’y
Percent
Sunila Pulp _______________ _.
0. 75
50
Nylon 6 ------------------- --
0' 75
50
25
_
'Ihe resulting sheet is bonded, impregnated with the same
Delamination resistance is measured in‘this and in all of
formulation `in the Same manner, dried and cured as in
the following examples in accordance with the test method
Example I in such a way that the percent impregnation
defined by I, R. Dunlap in “Some Factors Affecting Ply
is 14,5% with the following results;
Adhesion in `Latex Saturated Papers,” appearing in Tappi, 30
Volume 40' No' 8’ August l19 57’ page 677“
Delamlnatlon,
Gurley
Tensile, 1b./in.
Web eontaiuingoz./in.
Stillness,
of width
Example Il
mg./iii.
A similar resin-bonded backing is made up using un
.
.
beaten Duracel pulp of the type described
hereinbefore
35
5o
and Nylon 6 rods, of .the same type and Size as described
N0 Nylon ------------ n 12.0 (averasel- 52 (ßvcrßsßl- 11.2 (avßrasel
in Example I, using the same procedure as for Example I
in the fOllOWÍUg PYOPQIÍ10I1§Í0 fOfm a Web having aPPTOXI-
1
........... _%l\Iyou
C
1d
t
Sigianlii’iiate.
23.5 ....... -_
1 .0.
7
Gurley stiffness «is measured by a standard Gurley stiff
maîely the Same baSlS Welghtf
ness tester using the standard test procedure recom~
Dryy
Weight, s.
40 mended by W. and L. E. Gurley, Troy, New York, and is
expressed in milligrams per inch of width. Tensile
Dry,
Percent
strength is measured by la standard tensile break test.
Duracel Pulp _______________________________ __
1.44
9G
Nylon 6 Rods ............................... _-
0~ 06
4
Example V
45
_
,
„
_
A resin-bonded backing is made up using curlated
M
_
_
~
_
Sunila pulp beaten to a Schepper-Riegler freeness of
the resulting sheet is bonded, impregnated with the same
about 870 CC, and 1/16 inch, 60 denier per filament Nylon
fofmulalloll lll the Same manner’ drled and, Cured as, m
6 rods and using the same procedure as described in Ex
Example in such a way that the percent impregnation
ample I Iln the following proportions to form a web
'1S 72% Wllll the followlllg results:
50 having approximately the same basis weight:
W
_ _
Dela'mination
0b contammg*
width
Sunila Pulp _______________________________ __
Nylon 5 ----------------------------------- --
4% Nylon 5 __________________________________________ __
51.6,
37 (average).
_
Drv
Percent
1. 35
-l5
90
l0
The resulting sheet is bonded, impregnated with the
60 formulation used in Example I to four different percent
ExampIe III
y,
Weight', g.
55
No N ylon 6 __________________________________________ _.
.
Dry
ouiiccsesltlìrrlclîi’ch
_
_l
A. feslll'bollded bacllllg ls made ‘,lP l uslllg Cul al@
d
ages of impregnation, and then dried and cured in the
same manner as in Example I. That the resulting product
Sllfllla Pulp beafenl Í0_ a SChOPPef-Rleglef ffeelless 0f
possesses higher tensile strength and delamination resist
about 870 CC- alld ¿l lllcll long’ l5 dellleÃPel lllanlellt
ance and lower stiffness than a comparable standard sheet
_Nylon 6 f0d5~llslllg the s_ame Procedure as lll EX‘ÈmPle I
containing no Nylon 6 is illustrated in the graphs of
ln lll@ followlllg Proportlçns t9 form a web llavlllg aP‘ 65 FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 for tensile strength, Gurley stiffness and
proximately the same basis weight:
delamination resistance, respectively, versus percent im
pregnation based upon the weight of the unimpregnated
Dry,
Weìghhg.
Dry,
Percent
sheet.
Example V1
70
(iì’ulp ................................. _
y“
"""""""""""""""""""""" "
_
_
l
S118
‘ a
_ Various handsheets are made up using curlated Sunila
pulp 0f 870 cc. freeness and each of the bonding materials
set forth in the second table below using the same proce
The resulting sheet is bonded, impregnated with the same
dure as in Example I. The bonding material in rod form
formulation in the same manner, dried and cured as in 75 and the Sunila pulp are Vapplied in the following propor
p 3,085,906
10.
9 _
tions to form a web having approximately the same basis
unbeaten Duracel pulp containing 10.5% Nylon 6 rods.
weight:
The rods are 1/16 inch long and 15 denier per filament.
The ñnished sheet weight (including the Nylon 6) is 30
pry,
Weight, g.
s
Dry,
Percent
pounds per ream (l reain=480 sheets, 24 inches x 36
5 inches). The sheet is bonded by passing it twice between
1 P I
un' a
a IO-inch diameter pressure roller and a 4-foot diameter
___________________________ ..- ____ __
1.275
Bonìîmglìfate?al ___________________________ __
.
85
.225
'
15
_
heated drum at a speed of 25 feet per minute. The osur
face temperature of the drum is approximately 450: F.
_
A ëáß inch thick silicone rubber belt passing over the
S'Iflhìrîgsuhtmzgoäheetsnïe bonded m a. Cârver Press £32.11? 10 pressure roller serves to equally -distribute the pressure
the t S a at
P0311 s pçr îguaäeblmcbnf’ressmêha
a
and prevent sticking to the pressure roll. Pressure is sup
.me rârgiâïd ërîlsl tsh O‘fvn m1 tiìn af 165x :nmlv' I t ây arî
plied at 60 pounds per square inch to two 6-inch diam
labg tg45 t 7(1) e n‘ìrmfutîl . o e maan? gas ä epîlsll
eter hydraulic cylinders at either end of the pressure
rawusheet gveichîerîlì roe l îeânêlìlrdgc ed 'in eth Orsi e
roller. The sheet makes contact with the heated drum
manner” as fOrCEXâm la I îvlîth th follllâwino reselta'me 15 about three inches before going through the pressure
Pe
1
e
C’
u s'
nip. In passing the sheet through the second time, the
sheet is reversed so that the opposite side is in contact
_
Leigh’ tiìpäirioei' $195133?? ägfengt, DI???
° F.
With the heated drum. The sheet is then impregnated
oz./in
with a latex impregnant of the following composition:
20
Polyethylene (Hyl'ax) __
DyIleL-
1A@
‘ 1s
17
15
266
325
' M6
15
365
69.2
64- 6
Control (no rods) ................................ __
79.2
67- 2
57Í2
6810
46.5
30.5
Material
Percent
25 Hycar OR 25 ________________ __
Example VII
'
Handsheets
are
made
up
_
using
curlated
Sunila
pulp
B. F. Goodrich ___________ __
70,0
Naugatex 2740.-.
.- Naugatuck Chemical 0o-...
17. 5
Marmix _____ __
_
Marbond Chemical Co ____ __
10.0
Durez 14798
_
Durez Plastics Co _________ ._
2.0
_ . _ -_
Dow Chemical Co ________ __
0.5
Versene _ _ _ _ . _ . _ _ .
of 8170 cc. freeness and various bonding materials in
granular form using the procedure of Example I in the 30
fOHOWlUg Proportion? t0 _form a Web having aPPl‘OXl-
Water iS added t0 give 30% total solids.
The impregnated sheet is dried and then cured for 60
mately the Same ‘03515 Welghtï
seconds at 350° F. Physical properties of the impreg
Dry,
elg
nated and cured sheet when determined as described in
the foregoing examples are:
Dry,
W ‘ ht,
.
P
g
t
.
me“
.
35 Percent impregnation ________________________ __ 52
,
`
i
Solids
Compo
Supplier
_________________________________ __
1. 2’5
85
isslèllllldzinguiiïmeriai ___________________________ __
.213,5
i5
Delamination resistance
_
_
ounces/inch ____________ __ 40
’
.
Tensile, pound/ inch of width __________________ __ 14
'
Elongation to break, percent __________________ _..
4_
The resulting sheets are bonded in a Carver press for 10 40
The sheet is then kiiife-coated on one side with a nitro
seconds at 200 pounds per square inch pressure at the
cellulose solution to give a coating weight of 0.3 ounce
temperatures shown in the table below. The particle
size distribution is also shown in the following table.
per square yard. On the opposite side itis reverse-roll
coated with a 33% solids toluene solution of a pressure
Percentage of Particles
Bonding Larger
Temp., than 13.8
° F.
9.8-13.8
mils
7-9.8
mils
5.9-7
mils
4.1-5.9 2.9-4.1
mils
mils
mils
Smaller
than
2.9 mils
Formvar 15/958 (polyvinyl for
mai) _________________________ __
Etiiyi Cellulose N-ioo _________ ._
365
300
17
19
25
20
18
10
6
5
10
3
4
i3
Butvar 55/ 98 (polyvinyl butyral) _
374
65
14
10
3
1
2
5
Cellulose Acetate PM 203 ...... __
437
21
29
19
7
6
6
12
The bonded sheets are impregnated with the impregnant
fOrIIlUle 0f Example I t0 dePGSÍÍ beiWeeH abOUt 35 and
45% ‘0f impfegnanî based. 01‘1 the Welght 0f the dfY Sheet
20
30
sensitive adhesive of the following composition to pro
vide a masking tape according to this invention which
possesses greatly improved ñeXibility and conformability:
and are dried and cured in the same manner as for Ex- 6o
ample I, and delamination resistance is measured as de'
b
'th the followin
scribed a ove, wi
GRS 1022 ________________________________ __
-
percent.
Imprßgnatwn
_
iii
A
tt
I
203
_
.
_
34.1
5’1
Aluminum hydrate C 730 ___________________ __ 20.3
Dáiìlilägâgân
Piccolyte S115 ____________________________ __ 32.4
01111ce Per meh 65 m-Tolylene diisocyanate ____________________ __
Amberol M88 ___
1115/195S.Ñ_.1bb--------------- _
t
‘
‘
.
gânltlrgisînocfoâsî ___________ __
.t.
o 1 s compo“ lon’ Pergêns
----------------------- -----‘
g
riuiïaises/ilsïîîìzüïl-
S 1_d
Pale crepe rubber
results:
____
1.0
4.1
âgâ
Santovar A _______________________________ __
ggg
101101 ---------------------------------- --_-\- 0-8
.
25.8 70
.
.
.
0.8
.
Example VIII
The dried weight of adhesive is 2.28 ounces per square
yard.
1
Example 1X
i
Rolls of pressure-sensitive tape are made using a resin-l
bonded backing material. The paper for the backing is
_The Peper 0f Example VH iS treated ín accordance
Wlfh the method 0f Urllîed States Patent NO- 2,524,245>
made on a l2-inch experimental paper machine using 75 to increase its elongation to break and delamination re
3,035,906
12
11
It is bonded by the same technique described
and exemplified the manner in which it may be carried
in Example VII and impregnated with the formulation
described in Example I. The impregnated sheet is dried
into practice, it will be readily apparent to those skilled
in the art that innumerable variations, modifications,
applications, and extensions of the basic principles in
volved may be made without departing from its spirit and
sistance.
and then cured for 60 seconds at 350° F. Physical prop
erties of the impregnated and cured sheet are as follows
when measured in accordance with the foregoing ex
scope.
amples:
The invention claimed is:
l. A reinforced paper web comprising a continuous
Percent impregnation ________________________ __ 51
network of moderately hydrated woodpulp fibers less than
Delamination resistance, oz./in. _______________ __ 56
Tensile, pounds/inch _________________________ __ 12
Elongation, percent __________________________ __ 25
10 about 1A inch in length, said fibers being arranged in over
lapping crossing relationship with one another so as to
define a multiplicity of interstices between them, a multi
Example X
A resin-bonded backing is made up using curlated
plicity of relatively large flexible and tough thermoplastic
polymeric reinforcing members distributed substantially
uniformly throughout the web in bonding relation with
the woodpulp fibers, said reinforcing members being be
Duracel pulp, beaten to a Schopper-Riegler freeness of
875 cc. and Nylon 6 rods of the size described in Example
I, mixed in the following proportions to form a web hav
ing approximately the same basis weight:
Dry,
Dry,
Weight, g.
Percent
Curlated Duracel ______________ ._
Nylon 6 ________________________ _.
1. 35
0. 15
partially imbedded in said reinforcing members, and rub
bery binder solids portions distributed substantially uni
90
10
A control backing is made containing no Nylon 6. The
other sheets are impregnated with a solvent-base impreg
nant of the following solids composition:
Material
Supplier
Dry,
Percent
Depolymerized rubber (DPR) __
H. V. Hardman _________ -_
tween about 1 and 35 mils in cross dimension and at
least about five times larger in cross-sectional area than
said woodpulp fibers and defining a multiplicity of spaces
20 between said members, said woodpulp fibers being at least
3. 09
High Viscosity DPR ............... _-d
56.18
Amberol ST 137 .... ._
25. 77
Staybelite Ester #l0__
Hercules Powder Co ____ _.
12. 89
Zirex ______ __
Newport Industries Ine.. _
1. 03
Monsanto Chemical Co._-
0.52
Shell Chemical Co ...... __
0. 52
formly throughout the web, said solids portions forming
a multiplicity of bonds between the woodpulp fibers in
25 the individual spaces between the reinforcing members,
the reinforcing members and the binder solids being pres
ent in the web in amounts ranging between about 10 per
cent binder solids and 50 percent reinforcing members
and 70 percent binder solids and 2 percent reinforcing
30 members based upon the combined dry weight of the
woodpulp fibers and the reinforcing members.
2. A reinforced paper web according to claim 1 where
in said reinforcing members essentially comprise a long
chain polymeric material.
35
3. A reinforced paper web according to claim 2 where
in said polymeric material is nylon.
4. A reinforced paper web comprising a continuous
network of moderately hydrated woodpulp fibers less than
about 1A inch in length, said fibers being arranged in
The impregnant solids is adjusted with toluene to give
approximately 90% impregnation in both papers. The 40 overlapping crossing relationship with one another so as
impregnated backings are dried and cured 5 minutes at
350° F. and are then tested for physical properties in
multiplicity of fiexible and tough thermoplastic polymeric
accordance with the foregoing examples to give the fol
reinforcing members distributed substantially uniformly
lowing results:
throughout the web in bonding relation with the wood
pulp fibers, said reinforcing members being at least about
Percent Delamin- Stifîness,
Impreg. ation, oz. ing/in.
to define a multiplicity of interstices between them, a
Tensile, 45 ten times larger in cross-sectional area than said wood
l /in
pulp fibers and defining a multiplicity of spaces between
said members, said woodpulp fibers being at least partially
imbedded in said reinforcing members, and rubbery
binder solids portions distributed substantially uniformly
50
throughout the web, said solids portions forming a multi
The manufacturers’ product names and trademarks
plicity of bonds between the woodpulp fibers in the indi
used herein shall identify the following substances and
vidual spaces between the reinforcing members, the re
types of materials. Hycar 1502X426 is a butadiene
inforcing members and the binder solids being present in
acrylonitrile copolymer comprising about 67% butadiene
10% Nylon 6 _____________ __
No Nylon 6 .............. _-
90. 5
90. 2
65. 6
38. 4
24
52
4. 0
3. 5
and 33% acrylonitrile and is in the form of a latex, while
Hycar OR 25 is a more general name for the same type
of material. Latex 2001 is a copolymer of butadiene and
styrene in a 50:50 ratio. Naugatex 2740 is a similar co
polymer of butadiene and styrene. Marmix is a copoly
mer of butadiene and styrene with a high styrene content,
say about 85 to 90 percent, while GRS 1022 is a buta
diene-styrene copolymer with a low styrene content in the
neighborhood of about 25%. Durez 14798 and Amberol
ST 137 are heat setting phenol formaldehyde resins, and
Amberol M 88 is a rosin modified phenol formaldehyde
resin. Dynel refers to a high molecular weight copolymer
of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile with the latter being
the web in amounts ranging between about l0 percent
binder solids and 50 percent reinforcing members and 70
percent binder solids and 2 percent reinforcing members
based upon the combined dry weight of the woodpulp
fibers and the reinforcing members.
5. A reinforced paper web comprising a continuous
60
network of moderately hydrated woodpulp fibers less than
about 1A inch in length, said fibers being between about
0.04 and 0.4 mil in thickness and between about 0.4 and
0.8 mil in width and being arranged in overlapping cross
ing relationship with one another so as to define a multi
plicity of interstices between them, a multiplicity of flex
ible and tough thermoplastic polymeric reinforcing mem
bers distributed substantially uniformly throughout the
present in a relatively minor proportion. Versene is a
web in bonding relation with the woodpulp fibers, said
trade name for the sodium salt of ethylene diamine tetra
acetic acid. Piccolyte S 115 is a polyterpene resin. 70 reinforcing members being between about l and 35 mils
in cross dimension and at least about five times larger in
Santovar A is an alkylated polyhydroxyphenol, while
cross-sectional area than said woodpulp fibers and defin
Ionol is a ditert-butyldiparacresol. Staybelite Ester #l0
ing a multiplicity of spaces between said members, said
is a glycerol ester of hydrogenated rosin, and Zirex is a
woodpulp fibers being at least partially imbedded in said
zinc resinate.
Having now described the invention in specific detail 75 reinforcing members, and rubbcry binder solids portions
3,085,906
13
14
distributed substantially uniformly throughout the web,
about 1 and 35 mils in cross dimension and at least about
five times larger in cross-sectional area than said wood
said solids portions forming a multiplicity of bonds be
tween the woodpulp fibers in the individual spaces be
tween the reinforcing members.
6. A reinforced paper web comprising a continuous
network of moderately hydrated woodpulp fibers less than
about 1A inch in length, said ñbers being arranged in
pulp fibers and defining a multiplicity of spaces between
said members, said woodpulp fibers being at least partially
imbedded in said reinforcing members, and rubbery
lbinder solids portions distributed substantially uniformly
throughout the web, said solids portions forming a multi-V
plicity of bonds between the woodpulp iibers in the indi
vidual spaces between the reinforcing members.
multiplicity of rod-shaped thermoplastic polymeric re 10
9. A pressure-sensitive adhesive tape according to claim
inforcing members distributed substantially uniformly
8 wherein said reinforcing members essentially comprise
throughout the web in bonding relation with the wood
a long-chain polymeric material.
10. A pressure-sensitive adhesive tape according to
pulp fibers, said reinforcing members being between about
1 and 5 mils in cross dimension and at least about five
claim 9 wherein said polymeric material is nylon.
times larger in cross-sectional area than said woodpulp
l1. A flexible, high delamination strength pressure
fibers and defining a multiplicity of spaces between said
sensitive adhesive tape which comprises a reinforced paper
backing Web, and a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer on
members, said woodpulp Íibers being at least partially
imbedded in said reinforcing members, and rubbery
one side of said web, said web comprising a continuous
binder solids portions distributed substantially uniformly
network of moderately hydrated woodpulp fibers less than
throughout the web, said solids portions forming a multi 20 about 1A inch in length, said ñbers being arranged in
plicity of bonds between the woodpulp iibers in the indi
overlapping crossing relationship with one another so as
vidual spaces between the reinforcing members.
to define a multiplicity of interstices between them, a
multiplicity of relatively large iiexible and tough thermo
7. A flexible, high delamination strength pressure
sensitive adhesive tape which comprises a reinforced
plastic polymeric reinforcing members distributed sub
paper backing web, and a pressure-sensitive adhesive 25 stantially uniformly throughout the web in bonding rela
layer on one side of said web, said web comprising a
tion with the woodpulp fibers, said reinforcing members
continuous network of moderately hydrated woodpulp
being at least about iive times larger in cross-sectional
ñbers less than about 1A inch in length, said fibers being
area than said woodpulp iibers and defining a multiplicity
arranged in overlapping crossing relationship with one
of spaces between said members, said woodpulp fibers
another so as to deiine a multiplicity of interstices be 30 being at least partially imbedded in said reinforcing mem
tween them, a multiplicity of rod-shaped thermoplastic
bers, and rubbery binder solids portions distributed sub
polymeric reinforcing members distributed substantially
stantially uniformly throughout the web, said solids por
uniformly throughout the web in bonding relation with
tions forming a multiplicity of bonds between the wood
the woodpulp ñbers, said reinforcing members being be
pulp fibers in the individual spaces between the reinforc
tween about 1 and 5 mils in cross dimension and at least 35 ing members, the reinforcing members and the binder
solids being present in the Web in amounts ranging be
about five times larger in cross-sectional area than said
overlapping crossing relationship with one another so as
to define a multiplicity of interstices between them, a
woodpulp iibers and defining a multiplicity of spaces be
tween said members, said woodpulp `fibers being at least
tween about 10 percent binder solids and 50 percent
reinforcing members and 70 percent binder solids and 2
percent reinforcing members based upon the combined
partially imbedded in said reinforcing members, and rub
bery binder solids portions distributed substantially uni 40 dry weight of the woodpulp fibers and the reinforcing
formly throughout the web, said solids portions forming
members.
a multiplicity of bonds between the woodpulp iibers in
the individual spaces between the reinforcing members.
8. A flexible, high delamination strength pressure
sensitive adhesive tape which comprises a reinforced
paper backing web, and a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,848,732
2,880,112
Lfionne _______________ __ Mar. 8, 1932
Drclich _______________ __ Mal'. 31, y1959
in overlapping crossing relationship with one another so
572,962
Great Britain _________ _.. Oct. 31, 1945
as to define a multiplicity of interstices between them, a
708,622
Great Britain __________ __ May 5, 1954
on one side of said web, said web comprising a continu
ous network of moderately hydrated woodpulp ‘fibers less
than about 1A inch in length, said iibers being arranged
multiplicity of iieXible and tough thermoplastic poly
merio reinforcing members distributed substantially uni
formly throughout the web in bonding relation with the
woodpulp libers, said reinforcing members being between
FOREIGN PATENTS
OTHER REFERENCES
Hoch: “Mechanics of Latex impregnation,” TAPPI,
vol. 42, No. 3, March 1959, pages 164-465.
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