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Патент USA US3085955

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United States
atent
1
1
3,085,945
Patented Apr. 16, 1963
2
during the fourth day. During the rapid growth stage,
3,085,945
MALTING PRGCESS
Wayne W. Luchsinger, Wauwatosa, and John G. Flecken
Stein, Brook?eld, Wis, assignors to Kurth Malting Com
pany, Milwaukee, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin
No Drawing. Filed June 27, 1960, Scr. No. 38,714
20 Claims. (Cl. 195-40)
the kernels give o? considerable heat and carbon dioxide.
Usually heat and carbon dioxide are continually taken
from the grain by temperature controlled and humidi?ed
air currents. The temperature of the air entering the ger
minating compartment usually approximates 52-60“ F.
in order to maintain the temperature of the germinating
grains between 60-510“ F. When the acrospire has grown
This invention relates to malt and processes of produc
from three-quarters to the full length of the kernel in the
ing malt. More particularly, this invention is concerned 10 great mass of the kernels, it generally indicates that the
with a novel melting process which gives improved re
enzymes and enzymatic system of the barley have been
coveries, or yields, of malt.
developed and conditioned so that, when the malt is sub
It is well known that cereal grains such as barley, rye,
sequently ground and treated with water at suitable tem
peratures, the barley malt will function to efficiently con
oats and wheat can be germinated, i.e., malted, to modify
the kernel structure, composition and enzyme content. 15 vert (a) starches to dextrins and sugars and (b) insolu
The resulting malts have many important uses in foods
ble proteins to soluble proteins during mashing operations
for animals and humans. Most important of all, how
in a brewery or distillery, and (0) provide a source of
ever, is malted barley which is a basic material used in
desirable taste and aroma which carries through into the
the brewing and distilling industries.
?nished product, such as beer.
The production of malt from barley can be considered 20
In the fourth step, when the germination has proceeded
as consisting of four main steps.
to the desired extent, the batch of malt is scooped from
The ?rst step is to store the barley. Freshly harvested
the germinating compartments and conveyed to the drying
barley does not germinate well and after harvest must go
or kiln compartments where heated air is passed through
through a period of rest and “sweating” before reaching
the malt to reduce its moisture content and to stop further
good germinating energy and capacity. The “sweating” 25 growth. Finally, the dried malt is removed from the kiln
in the resting stage is caused mostly by the breathing of
compartments, cleaned and stored. Cleaning usually re
the kernels, which give oil water vapor and carbon di
moves the rootlets, loose hulls and broken kernels.
oxide. Usually, from about 30 to 60 days’ storage time
The barley malt diifers from the barley grain in a num
is sufficient to condition the barley kernel for germination.
ber of respects. It contains less moisture, and is there
The second main step is to “steep” the barley kernels 30 fore more suitable for storing and grinding. Also the
by immersing them in a tank of water, which may or may
endosperm has been modi?ed and is mellow compared to
not ‘be aerated. During the steeping process, respiration
the hard endosperm of the original barley kernel and the
of the kernels becomes noticeable and heat and gases are
enzymatic values of the malt are greatly increased com
given ol‘r' although no signi?cant growth takes place dur
pared to those of the original ‘barley grain. The barley
ing steeping. The barley kernels are usually left soaking 35 malt now has ?avor and aroma and is readily extracted
or “steeping” for from two to three days in water at a
temperature from about 50~65° F. so as to ensure pene
tration of water into the barley grain itself and generally
until a moisture content of approximately 35-45% is
reached. This is usually done in several stages and advis
ably designated as ?rst, second and third steeps. When
and converted. Similar conversions take place in the
melting of other cereal grains or legumes.
The ei?ciency of the malting process is evaluated nor
mally by reference to the number of bushels of malt ob
tained per bushels of grain that are malted. Thus, with
reference to barley, I bushel of barley usually will yield
the steeping is completed the white tips of the barely
a maximum of about 1.18 to 1.20 bushels of malt in a
rootlets should not be more than just appearing
well controlled conventional melting operation. If the
malting operation could be made completely e?icient, a
(“chitting”).
The third main step is the germination of the barley 45 yield of about 1.31 to 1.32 bushels of malt would be
kernels.
Germination can be accomplished in a number
obtained per bushel of barley.
Although more bushels
of ways but it broadly involves removing the barley grain
of malt are obtained than bushels of barley started with,
it must be noted that l bushel of barley weighs 48 pounds
from the steeping tank and subjecting it to appropriate
and 1 bushel of malt weighs 34 pounds.
conditions of temperature, moisture and oxygen supply
Losses in the malting operation take place in each step
for a time su?icient for the interior portion of the barley 50
although in varying quantities. The main losses, how
kernel (the endosperm mass) to be made porous and
ever, are about a 1% by weight loss of solids in steeping,
growth facilitated. This is frequently accomplished in
compartments where the barley is spread out in beds of
a 5 to 8% loss during respiration through the formation
various sizes. During germination the respiration and 55 of carbon dioxide and water and a 3 to 5% loss in weight
in rootlets and loose husks. In addition to these losses,
growing process is accelerated. Growth starts slowly at
there is the normal loss in moisture due to drying. Ob
the embryo end of the kernel the ?rst day, the growth
viously, a malting process which reduces one or more of
being accelerated the second day, which is usually when
these losses would be economically useful.
additional water is given to the germinating grain. The
The use of gibberellic acid in the malting process has
barley kernel begins to “chit” at the base of ‘the kernel by 60 already been proposed and in fact does ?nd use in the
showing a white tip. Rootlets then grow outwardly away
production of certain malts. Its use, however, is limited
from the tip. The “acrospire" also starts from the base
by the reduced recoveries of malt obtained. The in
of the kernel and grows under the hull toward the top
creased growth induced by the growth promoting eifect
end of the kernel. The speed of growth may slow down
of gibberellic acid increases the losses due to respiration
assaults
4
untreated malt and, in fact, almost reaches the ultimate
object of going from grain to malt without loss. The
nomically by a reduction in malting time or other gains.
1% loss in the aciduiated-gibberellic acid treated malt due
In United States Patent No. 2,698,275, issued Decem
to steeping and abrasion is presently considered unavoid
ber 28, 1954, there is described a malting process in which
chitted grain (barley) is acidulated, such as with sulfuric 5 able but negligible compared to the reduction in other
losses.
acid, and then treated with a plant growth inhibiting
The avoidance of wasteful rootlet formation in the
hormone. The process is reported to lower losses due
process of this invention is particularly signi?cant since
to respiration and rootlet growth without reducing the
the germinating grain (barley) is more readily stirred
malt extract. The resulting loses, however, are still ap
parently high and appear to amount to from about 70% 10 and because matting is avoided. The barley thus requires
and rootlet growth and these losses are not overcome eco
less volume during germination so that more barley can
to almost 90% of the control losses.
According to the present invention there is provided
a novel malting process which gives greatly increased malt
recoveries and with other bene?ts which will be disclosed
hereinafter. There is also provided a novel malt produced 15
be malted with existing equipment than when rootlet
growth takes place. For example, instead of germinating
250i) bushels in a bed, from 3500 to 4000 bushels can be
having substantially retarded, and/or essentially free of
rootlets. This novel malting process broadly comprises
germinated. The increased productive capacity leads to
lower costs. Furthermore, the essentially rootlet-free
malt produced according to this invention requires much
acidulating a cereal grain, as well as contacting the cereal
less storage volume and transportation space than con
ventional malt with rootlets. In addition, this malt has
grain with a growth-stimulating amount of gibberellic
acid, in the period from initial steeping to the growth or 20 a higher bushel weight than conventional malt after the
rootlets are removed.
germination stage prior to any signi?cant growth or
The reduction in loss due to respiration is also highly
germination, viz, usually within about 6 hours, and as
important, not only because of the waste of the kernel
constituents which is avoided, but also because of the
By “acidulating ” is meant applying an acidic substance 25 reduced amount of heat developed in respiration. This
heat must be removed to maintain the grain at a proper
to the grain, such as by spraying or immersing the grain
malting temperature. Since less heat is evolved there is
in an aqueous solution of the acidic substance to inhibit
less to remove. Turning of the malt to avoid overheat
growth. Thus, the acidic substance can be incorporated
ing thus can be reduced. There is also less expense in
in the steep water at any stage of the steeping operation
or it can be applied to the grain at steep out or thereafter 30 volved in refrigeration since less cool air is needed to
maintain the malting temperature.
and before any signi?cant growth or germination has re
Malts produced using the combination of acidulation
sulted, viz, within about 6 hours and as much as 1 day
and gibberellic acid generally have a 3 to 5% higher
or slightly longer after steep out. However, malt re
laboratory extract content compared to control malts
coveries are generally progressively lowered as the acidu
lation treatment is delayed after steep out. Nevertheless, 35 from the same barleys. This is an important economic
gain since the extract represents iermentable sugars of
the malt recoveries generally obtained after such tardy
value in the brewing process.
or deferred acidulation are higher than without such treat
These malts also have husks which are more tightly
ment.
held than malts produced conventionally. They thus can
Acidulation without the adition of gibberellic acid to
the grain inhibits growth but the grain is not converted to
be handled without as much damage or loss as conven
usable malt, especially at low pH values below 3.8. Gib
tional malts.
berellic acid alone without acidulation promotes growth
Grain treated according to this invention can be ger
but losses due to respiration and rootlets are excessive.
minated at a lower moisture content, such as about 43%
Surprisingly, the combination of acidulation and gib
as compared to conventional processes where the moisture
much as 1 day, or slightly longer, after steep out, and
thereafter completing the germination.
berellic acid
reatl
inhibits res iration and practically 45
totally inhibitsgrootlet growth while simultaneously stimu-
.
.
.
Foment ‘3 ,mammmcd at about 450,92" A? a result: there
lating hydrolytic enzyme systems which convert the grain
is less moisture to. be removed during drying. This also
into malt. This can be best seen by reference to Table
10W“? the Productlon Cost;
germination.
acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, perchloric acid and
‘
'
A which gives loss data for a typical commercial malt, an
A?duhtms Pf lhB gram can be effected Wlth a Wld?
experimental untreated control malt, a malt made with a an “mety of acid“: substances although the Strong to mod‘
erately strong inorganic and organic acids are advisably
combination of aeidulation and gibberellic acid treatment,
employed including the mineral acids such as sulfuric
and a barely which has been steeped and kilned without
TABLE A
Losses (gms)
Barley 11% Malt 4%
moisture, moisture,
gins.
gins.
steeping
Moisture
and
Rootlets
Respiration
2. 4
3. 2
4. t)
5. 3
Recovery
ratio bnj
bu. malt
to barley
a rasion
Typical commercial melting .................... _.
Experimental untreated melting _______________ __
100
1B0
S5. 0
82. 8
7. 6
7. T
1. 0
1.0
100
90. 4
7. 4
1.0
0
160
91.7
T. 3
1. 0
0
1.20
1.1?
Experimental aeidulated and gibberellie treated
maltirig ______________________________________ __
l. 2
l. 28
Barley steeped and kilued without germination
to 4% moisture _______________________________ __
Trace i
1. 29
phosphoric acid and monocarboxylic acids such as acetic
The data in Table A show that the losses in the malting
process of this invention in which acidulation and gib 70 acid, monochloroaeetic acid, trichloroacetic acid and lac
berellic acid are employed are very close to those obtained
when barley is steeped and kilned without germination
or conversion to malt. The data, furthermore, show that
tic acid. In addition, aciduiation can be achieved with
acid salts such as sodium or potassium acid sulphate,
diacidphosphate and superphosphate.
Very small amounts of acid or an acid salt are needed
the malt produced by this invention has much less loss
by respiration and rootlets than the commercial malt or 75 to acidulate the grain. In effecting acidulation in the
3,035,945
5
6
In addition to gibberellic acid its growth promoting
steeping stage sut?cient acid or an acid salt is advisably
incorporated in the steep water to bring the pH below 4
and particularly in the pH range of 1 to 3. Conventional
steeping gives a pH of about 6.3 or higher. Acidulation
chemical equivalents and derivatives can be employed
such as the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal salts
thereof, alkyl esters thereof and particularly the methyl,
in the ?rst steeping requires a higher acidity than in the
second steeping which in turn requires a higher acidity
ethyl, propyl and butyl esters, as well as acyloxy deriva
tives thereof such as acetyl gibberellic acid. The term
“gibberellic acid” as used herein and in the claims is in
than in the third steeping, if there is one. This is be
lieved due to the acid diluting and extracting ability of
tended to include the free acid as well as chemical equiv
the nonacid containing steepings which follow the acidu
lation which lower the amount of acid held by the grain 10 alents thereof.
Very small amounts of gibberellic acid are needed in
kernels.
the malting process of this invention. Based on the weight
of the barley, from about 1 to 3 ppm. are entirely ade
quate with the use of larger amounts serving no useful
or advantageous purpose. The gibberellic acid can be
applied during any of the steeping stages or at steep out
By applying the acid or acid salt in aqueous solution to
the grain at steep out, or shortly thereafter but before
signi?cant germination results, acidulation can be achieved
with considerably less acid or acid salt than during steep
ing. This is because all of the acid is applied directly to
the grain and is held by it and essentially none is lost
prior to signi?cant germination; however, application at
through drainage.
steep out is more effective.
Laboratory determination of the quantity of acidic sub
stance (acid or acid salt but not including gibberellic acid)
The malt produced according to this invention can be
used in food stuffs as well as the brewing and distilling
needed to effect acidulation of the grain is as follows:
Measure the amount of acidic substance which is bound or
held by a 50 g. sample of acidulated green malt germ
inated for one day upon mixing with 50 m1. of water
and standing for one hour. In the practice of this inven
tion this gives a solution with a pH below 6, advisably
below 5 and desirably below 3.8 and between 2.0 and 3.8.
The following procedure can be followed to make this de
termination:
industries.
Unless otherwise stated herein the matting process of
this invention employs conventional matting techniques
and conditions so that those skilled in the art can readily
adapt the invention to existing equipment and operations.
This invention can be used to make malt of cereal grains
including barley, rye, wheat and cats.
The following examples are presented to illustrate the
Barley is malted according to the experimental matting 30 invention but it is understood that the invention is not to
be limited to these speci?c embodiments.
procedure described in Example 1 infra. One day after
the beginning of the germination period 50 g. of green
malt is weighed into a 250 ml. beaker. The rnalt is covered
Example 1
with 50 ml. of room temperature distilled Water and al
lowed to stand for one hour. The pH of the malt-water
The following experimental malting process was used
to test various melting methods employing both sulfuric
acid and gibberellic acid:
mixture is then determined.
The malt-water can then be ?ltered and 25 ml. of the
?ltrate titrated with 0.1 normal sodium hydroxide solu
tion to pH 10. The difference between an untreated malt
EXPERIMENTAL MALTING PROCESS
titration and the acidi?ed malt titration can also be used 40
as a measure of the amount of acidic substance absorbed
by the malt.
350 grams of barley was steeped a ?rst time in 450 mls.
of water at 55° F. for 7 hours.
The water was drained
The just described procedures were used on various
off and the barley was couched (drained of water) for 17
samples of green malt prepared according to this inven
hours. The barley was steeped a second time for 3 hours
tion and the results obtained are reported in Table B. 45 in an additional 450 mls. of water, after which the water
was drained off and the barley couched for 2 hours.
TABLE B
Water necessary to bring the barley to desired moisture
Green
Ml.
was added and the barley was germinated for ?ve days
pH of malt
Mn N
Sample Treatment (procedure 01 Example 1) steep
test, NaOH 50 under controlled conditions of aeration (300 ml. per
pH
to p11
10
Control ___________________________ -.
6. 78
6.10
0. GO
1 ppm. gibberellic acid at steep out.
_ 0.5 ml. cone. (36 N) H2804, 2nd steep.
1.0 ml. cone. (36 N) 112804, 2nd steep.
6. 80
2.00
1. 70
6.02
3 89
3.20
0. 50
0.85
1. 40
_
1.51111. cone. (36N)I-l2SO4,2ndstecp.
1.40
3.10
1.45
1.0 ml. cone. (36 N) H2804, 2nd
steep, 1 p.p.m. gibberellic acid at
steep out.
200
3.32
1.20
______ __
2. 79
2.15
H4804 at
...... _.
2.50
2.90
H2804 at steep
...... ._
2. 91
2.10
1.60
3.61
1.00
4.30
5. 69
0. 60
...... ..
3. 95
0.00
______ __
3.11
1.70
...... __
3. 51
1.25
...... _.
4.71
1.00
7 _____ __
0.5 ml. cone. (36 N) H1804 at steep
8 ..... ..
0.75 ml.
out.
cone.
(86 N)
steep out.
9...
_.
0.5 m1. cone. (36 N
out, 1 p.p.m. gi berellic acid at
steep out.
10 ____ __ 2 ml. cone. (12 N) H61, 2nd steep,
1 p.p.m. gibberellic acid at steep
11 ____ _.
out.
1 ml. glacial acetic acid, 2nd steep,
1 p.p.m. gibberellic acid at steep
out.
12 ____ _.
1 gm. NaHSOrI-DO at steep out,
13.___ .
2 g. NAHSOMBO at steep out,
_
1 ppm. gibberellic acid at steep
out.
1 ppm. gibberellic acid at steep
out.
14 ____ __
1 ml. 70% HC104 at Steep out,
1 p.p.m. gibberellic acid at steep
out.
15 ____ __
0.5 g. CLCI'IZCOOH at steep out,
1 ppm. gibberellic acid at steep
out.
min/sample) humidity (above 95%), temperature (60
65° F.) and agitation.
At the conclusion of the germination period, the weight
of the green malt was determined and it was dried under
the desired conditions of temperature (120° F. for 20
hours and then 170° F. for 4 hours) and air ?ow to about
4% moisture.
The total weight of the dried malt was determined and
60 then the weight of the rootlets and clean~out was deter
mined. The weight of the ?nished clean malt was calcu
lated from these two ?gures.
Samples of barley (kindred variety) were malted ac
05 cording to the experimental method of malting described
above. A sample was run as an untreated control. Other
barley samples were steeped the ?rst time in water con
taining various amounts of concentrated sulfuric acid.
Still other barley samples were steeped the ?rst time in
70 water containing various amounts of concentrated sul
phuric acid but these samples were also treated with gib
berellic acid in the ?rst steep, the second steep, or at
steep out. Other relevant data and the results are shown
75 in Table 1 following.
See Table l {or footnotes.
3,085,945
10
Example 3
at steep out than in the second steep which, in turn, is
The procedure of Example 1 was followed except that
the sulfuric acid was added at steep out. The results are
shown in Table 3 following.
more e?ective than sulfuric acid treatment in the ?rst
steep. Thus, less sulfuric acid is needed at steep out than
if it is added in the second steep and less sulfuric acid is
TABLE 3
1 Too low to determine by test procedure.
The data in Examples 1 to 4 establishes the following:
(7) Although the alpha-amylase value for gibbercllic
(1) Sulfuric acid treatment alone increases the recovery from the untreated barley but the barley is not signi-
acid-sulfuric acid treated malt is sometimes decreased
from the control value, the alpha-amylase content meets
?cantly changed to malt.
all malting requirements.
(2) The addition of gibberellic acid to an acidi?ed 65
(8) The application of test acid after germination has
barley has little or no effect on the recovery obtained
started is not as effective as at steep out or in the steeping
with sulfuric acid alone (viz., the gihberellic acid does not
lower the increased recovery obtained with acid), but
stages.
malt is obtained.
Example 5
‘
‘
(3) The addition of gibberellic acid alone reduces the 70 The expenmental maltlng P1136‘?SS of Example 1 Was
malt recovery from that of the untreated Conn-0L
followed and various acids were tested with and without
(4) Sulfuric acid alone inhibits the formation of alphagibb?r?llic acid in the making PIOCESS The test acid was
amylase activity but gibberellic acid counteracts this inadded in the ?rst Steep and the gibbel’enic acid was added
hibition.
in the second steep.
(5) The treatment with sulfuric acid is more effective 75 given in Table 5.
The relevant data and results are
3,085,945
14
13
berellic acid to barley in the period from initial steeping
of the barley to before signi?cant germination of the
Example 8
The effect of the combination of sulfuric acid and gib
berellic acid in the malting of rye, oats and wheat was
steeped barley begins, said acidulating being sufficiently
extensive in itself to inhibit rootlet growth and modi?ca
tion of the barley apart from the use of gibberellic acid,
germinating the barley until it is modi?ed to malt, and
drying the resulting green malt.
3. The process of melting which comprises both acidu
evaluated using the experimental malting process de
scribed in Example 1.
reported in Table 8.
The relevant data and results are
TABLE 8
Treatments:
(1) Control malt
lating and adding a growth promoting amount of gib
berellic acid to a steeping cereai grain, said acidulating
being suf?ciently extensive in itself to inhibit rootlet
growth and modi?cation of the cereal ‘grain apart from
the use of gibberellic ‘acid, germinating the grain until it
(2) 2 ml. cone. HZSO, added in ?rst steep
(3) 2 ml. cone. H280; added in ?rst steepI 1 ppm. gibberellln added
at steep out
(4] 1 ppm. gibberellin added at steep out
Grain
Run No.
Treatment
Malt recovery
from 350 g.
is modi?ed to malt, and drying the resulting green malt.
4. The process of malting which comprises both acidu
original grain,
grams
lating and adding a growth promoting amount of gib
berellic acid to a cereal grain between steep out and
303. S
signi?cant germination of the steeped grain, said acidu
327. 4
329. 0
301. 2
314. 9
taseocwnm»-1
‘O to [IQ N do
331. 1
330. 9
313. 6
lating being sufficiently extensive in itself to inhibit rootlet
20 growth and modi?cation of the cereal grain apart from the
use of gibberellic acid, germinating the grain until it is
modi?ed to malt, and drying the resulting green malt.
5. The process of melting which comprises acidulating
a cereal grain in the period from initial steeping of the
25 grain to shortly before signi?cant germination of the
steeped grain begins, said acidulatinig being sufficiently
Wheat ______________________ __
extensive in itself to inhibit rootlct growth and modi?ca
tion of the cereal grain apart from the use of gibbereliic
Example 9
acid, adding a growth promoting amount of gibberellic
Experimental malt samples were prepared as in Exam 30 acid to the cereal grain between steep out and signi?cant
ple 1 and used in brewing experiments as follows:
germination of the steeped grain, germinating the grain
until it is modi?ed to malt, and drying the resulting green
Brew l—Control malt—untreated with sulfuric acid and
malt.
gibberellic acid.
6. The process of malting which comprises adding a
Brew 2-—-Malt prepared using 0.206 milliequivalent of
sulfuric acid per 100 gms. of barley in ?rst steep and 35 growth promoting amount of gibberellic acid to a cereal
1 ppm, based on the initial barley weight, of gii -
grain in the period from initial steeping of the grain to
berellic acid in the second steep.
before signi?cant germination of the steeped grain begins,
said acidulatinig being sufficiently extensive in itself to
inhibit rootlet growth and mod?cation of the cereal grain
sulfuric acid per 100 gms. of barley in second steep.
1 ppm. of ‘gibberellic acid was added to part of the 40 apart from the use of gibberellic acid, acidulating the
cereal grain between steep out and signi?cant germination
barley in the second steep and to another part was
of the steeped grain, germinating the grain until it is
added 1 ppm. of gibberellic acid at steep out. The
modi?ed to malt, and drying the resulting green malt.
?nished malts were composited and used in the brew.
7. The process of melting which comprises both acidu
Analyses of the resulting beer produced according to 45 lating and adding a growth promoting amount of gib
conventional techniques are reported in Table 9. This
berollic acid to a cereal grain in the period from initial
data shows that the malts produced according to this in
steeping of the grain to before signi?cant germination of
vention are suitable for brewing.
the steeped grain begins and germinating the grain until
Brew 3--Malt prepared using 0.206 milliequivalent of
it is modi?ed to malt without appreciable rootlet growth,
TABLE 9.~—BEER ANALYSIS
50 said acidulation continuing until a 50 gm. sample of one
Alcohol
Real Original
extract gravity
Brew Bailing pH Color Haze
calc.
Percent Percent
weight
60
12
12
.
0
3. 84
3. 83
volume
4. iii)
5. 79
5. 96
11. 40
13. 47
13. 62
day germinated grain added to 50 ml. of water followed
by standing one hour gives a solution having an acidic
pH of below 5.
8. The process of claim 7 in which the grain is barley
and acidulation is effected with a member of the group
consisting of mineral acids and acid salts thereof.
9. The process of claim 7 in which acidulation is ef
fected between steep out and signi?cant germination of
the steeped grain.
Various changes and modi?cations of the invention 60
can be made and, to the extent that such variations
10. The process of claim 7 in which the gibberellic acid
is added between steep out and signi?cant germination of
incorporate the spirit of this invention, they are intended
the steeped grain.
to be included within the scope of the appended claims.
11. The process of melting which comprises both steep
What is claimed is:
ing a cereal grain in an aqueous solution of a member
l. The process of malting which comprises both acidu 65 of the group consisting of mineral acids and acid salts
lating and adding a growth promoting amount of gi=b—
thereof at a pH below 4 and adding a growth promoting
berellic acid to a cereal grain in the period from initial
amount of gibberellic acid to the cereal grain in the period
steeping of the grain to before signi?cant germination of
from initial steeping of the grain to before signi?cant
the steeped grain begins, said aicidulating being su?icient
ly extensive in itself to inhibit rootlet growth and modi 70 germination of the steeped grain begins, germinating the
grain until it is modi?ed to malt without appreciable root
?cation of the cereal grain apart from the use of gib
let
growth, and drying the resulting green malt.
berellic acid, germinating the grain until it is modified to
12. The process of malting which comprises both
malt, and drying the resulting green malt.
acidulating barley with sulfuric acid and adding a growth
2. The process of melting which comprises both acidu
lating and adding a growth promoting amount of gib~ 75 promoting amount of gibberellic ‘acid to the barley in the
3,055,945
15
16
period from initial steeping of the barley to before
said malt having a modi?cation index value above about
25 and an alpha-amylase Value above about 25.
19. Green cereal malt essentially free of rootlets hav
ing a modi?cation index value above about 25‘, and an
signi?cant germination of the steeped barley begins, germi
mating the grain until it is modi?ed to malt without appre
ciable rootlet growth, and drying the resulting green malt,
said sulfuric acid being used in an amount such that a
50 gm. sample of one day germinated barley added to 501
..
L)
alphaaamylase value above about 25, after being dried.
20. Green barley malt essentially free of rootlets hav
ml. of water followed by standing one hour gives a solu
ing a modi?cation index value above about 25, and an
tion having a pH of about 2.5 to 4.
alpha-amylase value above about 25, after being dried.
13. The process of claim 12 in which hydrochloric acid
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
is used in place of sulfuric acid.
10
14. The process of claim 12 in which phosporic acid
UNITED STATES PATENTS
is used in place of sulfuric acid.
2,960,409
Macy et al ___________ __ Nov. 15, 1960
15. The process of claim 12 in which nitric acid is used
in place of sulfuric acid.
FOREIGN PATENTS
16. The process of claim 12 in which perchloric acid is
28,884/30
Australia ____________ __ Sept. 8, 1930
used in place of sulfuric acid.
208,040
Australia ______________ __ May 9, 1957
17. Rootlet-free dried cereal grain malt from which
811,374
Great Britain __________ __ Apr. 2, 1959
essentially no rootlets have been removed subsequent to
OTHER REFERENCES
drying, said malt having a modi?cation index value above
20
about 25 and an alpha-amylase value above about 25.
Urquhart: “Note on Some Experimental Sleeping Treat
18. Rootlet-free dried barley malt from which essen
ments of Mailting Barley,” J. Inst. Brew., vol. 59, 1953,
tially no rootlets have been removed subsequent to drying,
pp. 56-58.
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