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Патент USA US3086357

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April 23, 1963
3,086,347
w. R. KEEN ETAL
METHOD AND MEANS FOR PRODUCING VARIABLE YARN
Filed Aug. 21. 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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April 23, 1963
w. R. KEEN ETAL
3,086,347
METHOD AND MEANS FOR PRODUCING VARIABLE YARN
Filed Aug. 21, 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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April 23, 1963
3,086,347
W. R. KEEN ETAL
METHOD AND MEANS FOR PRODUCING VARIABLE YARN
Filed Aug. 21, 1961
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United States Patent 0 " ice
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or spinning frame incorporating the improvement of the
present invention;
3,086,347
METHOD AND MEANS FOR PRODUCING
VARIABLE YARN
3,986,347
Patented Apr. 23, 1963
_
William Rollin Keen, Media, Pa., and Royal C. Harris,
Leonard W. Morton, and William T. Satter?eld, l\_lor
wood, N.C., assignors to Collins 8: Aiken Corporation,
New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware
Filed Aug. 21, 1961, Ser. No. 132,711
10 Claims. (Cl. 57-383)
This invention relates to a variable yarn and to the
method of and apparatus for producing such yarn.
The term variable yarn is here used to describe a yarn
which varies in content lengthwise along the yarn. Such
variation will usually be in the ?ber make-up or compo
sition of the yarn, but the variation may be merely in
the quantity of ?bers. Or, the variation may be merely
in the color of the ?bers, the ?ber content being other
wise the same.
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the drafting or spinning frame
of FIG. 1 but showing also a portion of the reciprocating
traverse means;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are top and side elevational views re
spectively of the reciprocating traverse mechanism of
FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of the truncated cone back
rolls as seen along the line V—V in FIG. 2 looking in
the direction of the arrows and showing the relative posi
tions of two rovings in the nip of the cone rolls at a
particular assumed instant;
FIGS. 6 and 7 illustrate a cam type of traverse mecha
nism for providing a dwell in the transverse motion; and
FIG. 8 is an enlarged illustration of one form of var
iable yarn.
In describing the preferred embodiment of the inven
tion illustrated in the drawing, speci?c terminology has
By the means and the method of the present inven 20 been resorted to for the sake of clarity. However, it is
not our intention to be limited to the speci?c terms so
tion, yarn of two-tone, multi-tone, or completely random
selected, and it is to be understood that each speci?c
color effects may be produced. Or the yarn may merely
term includes all technical equivalents which operate in
vary in thickness. Or, it may vary in both tone and
a similar manner to accomplish a similar purpose.
thickness.
We have selected for illustration in the drawing, an
The object of the present invention is to produce a 25
arrangement in which two rovings 11 and 12 are drafted
variable yarn by a novel and relatively simple method
and apparatus.
Another object is to provide a yarn having at least
two-tone color effects, and to provide a novel method
and blended. The two rovings may be assumed to be
either of different ?bers which take dye differently, or
may be assumed to be of the same ?bers which have
30 previously been dyed in different colors. Rovings 11
and apparatus for producing such yarn.
and 12 are supplied from two packages, a package 13,
A further object is to provide yarn having a completely
random color effect, and to provide a novel method and
apparatus for producing such yarn.
A still further object is to produce a yarn which varies
in thickness and to provide a novel method and means
for producing such yarn.
These objects are achieved by employing at least one
roving, usually two rovings, and drafting such roving
or rovings on drafting mechanism which includes a pair
of cone-shaped back drafting rolls through the nip of
which the roving or rovings are drawn by conventional
front delivery rolls while at the same time the roving or
rovings are moved transversely of the nip of the cone
shaped back rolls in back and forth manner. Where two
rovings are involved, each roving is moved back and
forth transversely of the nip of the cone back rolls, the
transverse movement of one roving being out of phase,
for example, 180° out of phase, with that of the other.
Where two rovings are used, one roving may be com
prised of ?bers which dye differently from the ?bers of
which the other roving is comprised. For example, one
roving may be comprised of viscose ?bers while the
other roving is comprised of acetate ?bers. Or, the two
rovings may ‘be comprised of the same ?bers which,
prior to drafting on the apparatus provided by this inven— 55
tion, have been differently dyed.
While the description which follows will describe the
drafting of one roving, or the drafting and blending of
two rovings, on the apparatus of the present invention,
and another not shown in the drawing. Rovings 11 and
12 are fed through eyes 15 and 16 respectively, in the
traverse guide arms 17 and 18, to the nip of a pair of
drafting back rolls 19 and 20, later to be described.
From the nip of the back rolls 19 and 20, the rovings
are drawn by conventional drafting mechanism, illus
trated as comprising an apron 24 and a pair of front
delivery rolls 27 and 28. On apron 24, the rovings pass
under the carrier rolls 22 and 23. The rovings may be
delivered from the front or delivery rolls 27 and 28
through eyelet 30 to a rotating spinning package 50, as
shown, or to any other suitable packaging equipment.
In accordance with our present invention, back rolls
19 and 29 are cone shaped, preferably truncated, i.e.,
frusto-conical, as seen in the drawing. The large di
ameter end of one cone roll is in pressure contact with
the large diameter end of the other, while the smaller
diameter portions of the one cone roll are in pressure
contact with the corresponding diameter portions of the
other, as clearly illustrated in FIG. 5. Bottom cone roll
20 is preferably a knurled-face steel roll and is driven
at constant speed by a drive shaft 21 to which the cone
roll 20 is ?xed. Top cone roll 19, which is preferably
rubber covered, is rotated by pressure contact with bot
tom cone roll 20, the top roll 19 revolving about the sta
tionary shaft 32.
Apron 24 is driven by roll 25 mounted on shaft 26.
The carrier rolls 22 and 23 ‘are supported by the apron
it should be understood that the invention is not neces‘ 60 24. The bottom front delivery roll 28 is driven by drive
shaft 29. The top front delivery roll 27 is driven by
sarily limited to two rovings, it being readily apparent
pressure contact with bottom roll 28. The front delivery
that the principle employed may be used to handle three
rolls 27 and 28 are preferably rotated at a constant pe<
or more rovings, if desired. Ordinarily, however, not
ripheral speed which is equal to or higher than the pe
more than two rovings would be drafted and blended
ripheral speed of the large diameter end of the cone back
65
to produce the variable yarn.
rolls 19 and 20. Thus, as the rovings 11 and 12 pass
The present invention will best be understood from
through the nip of the truncated cone back rolls 19 and
a consideration of the following detailed description of
20, the amount of the draft to which each roving is sub
a preferred embodiment illustrated in the drawing in
jected is dependent on the transverse position of the rov—
which:
70 ing in the nip of the cone rolls, the draft being least when
the roving is ‘at the large diameter end and greatest when
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view, partly broken away
at the small diameter end.
and partly in section, illustrating a portion of a drafting
13
3,086,347
The front and back pairs of rolls 27, 28 and 19, 20,
respectively, are weighted by a pressure system not shown.
The traverse mechanism for moving the rovings 11 and
12 ‘back and forth along the nip of the truncated cone
rolls 19 and 20 may be any suitable means. In the draw
ing, the traverse mechanism is illustrated as comprising
a pair of guides 17 and 18, one for each of the rovings 11
and 12. Guides 17 and 18 are af?xed to horizontally
4
and when the traverse mechanism reaches a point 180°
out of phase with that just described, the percentages of
the two rovings in the resultant yarn willl be reversed. A
portion of such a resultant yarn is illustrated in enlarged
form in FIG. 8, in which yarn 110 is shown to consist of
a black roving 111 and a white ‘roving 112, each of
which varies in thickness in complementary fashion, the
black roving 111 becoming thicker as the white roving 112
disposed traversing bars 10 and 14 mounted for recip
becomes thinner, and the black roving becoming thinner
rocating horizontal movement in different horizontal 10 as the white roving becomes thicker.
planes, to permit each roving to pass by the other bar.
If both rovings are of the same ?ber or blend of ?bers,
In the drawing, ‘guide 17 for roving 11 is shown affixed
but the ?rst roving has three times the weight of the sec
to an upper traversing bar 10 while guide 18 for rov
ing 12 is shown affixed to a lower traversing bar 14.
In a typical drafting or spinning frame, traversing bars
10 and 14 are continuous for the length of the frame, and
if the frame be double sided, are mounted on each side
of the ‘frame. Traversing bars 10 and 14 are guided in
their horizontal paths by the grooves 40 and 44, respec
tively, in the roll stand 48. Traversing bars 10 and 14 are pivotally connected at 33 and 34 to connecting rods
35 and 36, which in turn are pivotally connected on studs
37 and 38- mounted on disks 41 and 42. Disks 41 and
42 are ?xed as by screws to the hub of sheave 43, prefer
ably in such position that the studs 37 and 38 are 180°
apart. Sheave 43 is mounted in ?xed upright supports 39
which serve as bearings. The sheave 43 is shown driven
by belt 45 connected to a driving sheave 416 driven by
motor 47 through reduction gearing 49.
In operation, roving guides 17 and 18 are moved back
and-forth in reciprocating fashion, preferably 180° out of
phase with each other, by the reciprocating traversing arms
10 and 14, thereby causing the rovings to be moved back
and forth along the nip of the truncated cone rolls 19
and 20 in corresponding 180° out-of-phase manner.
A5 indicated previously, the peripheral speed of the front
delivery rolls 27 and 28 is ‘at least equal to, and prefer
ably higher than, that of the largest diametric portion of
ond roving, and the same traverse is used as described
above, the resultant yarn would be 12.5% over average
weight when the ?rst roving was traversed fully to the
large diameter end y and the second roving was at the
small diameter end x. Conversely, the resultant yarn
would be only 87.5% of average weight when the rov
ings were reversed in position at the nip of the cone rolls.
Thus, it will be seen that it is readily possible, by means
of the present invention, to combine rovings of different
weight, one roving being of one ?ber and the other of
different ?ber, so that variations of both size and com
position of the resultant yarn are accomplished at the
same time.
In addition to the above discussed variations, the tra
versing may be varied in speed within wide limits. For
any given speed of the back rolls 19 and 20, the faster
the yarn is traversed, the more closely spaced will be
the variations in the blend of the resultant yarn.
As a further variation, the traversing movement may
be made intermittent with a dwell at a selected point or
points. Assuming both rovings are given a dwell at
the same time, the blend will be held constant during the
dwell period. Also, one of the two rovings may be given
a dwell while the other continues to traverse.
Mechanism for providing such dwell as mentioned
above is illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7. There, the con
necting arms 135 and 136, corresponding respectively
the truncated cone rolls 19 and 20, so that preferably each
of the rovings 11 and 12 is drafted to some extent. It 40
to arms 35 and 36 of FIGS. 2-4, are shown connected
is by now clear that the amount of draft differs according
to cam rollers 137, 138 which ride in cam tracks or
to the position of the roving through the nip of the cone
rolls, that the draft is greatest when the roving passes
through the nip of the cone rolls at the small diameter
end, as at point x in FIG. 5, and that the draft is least
when the roving passes through the nip at the large di
ameter end, as at y. Thus, assuming both rovings to be
of equal ?ber content prior to drafting, as the rovings
pass back and forth in out-of-phase fashion through the
cone rolls, the ?ber content of the combined roving or yarn -
delivered from the delivery rolls 27 and 28 varies, the
quantity of ?bers contributed by one roving being different
from that contributed by the other, except when the two
rovings pass through the nip of the cone rolls at the same
point.
The cone rolls 19 and 20 may preferably be of identical
size. In a typical case, the large diameter may be two
inches, and the small diameter may be one inch.
Except for the truncated cone back rolls, the drafting
mechanism illustrated in the drawing is conventional.
While a single apron system is illustrated, it will be un
derstood that any suitable drafting system may be used,
such. as a double apron system, or a system employing rolls
with carriers.
It is apparent that many different effects may be ob
tained by controlling differently the traverse of the rov
ings in the nip of the truncated cone rolls 19 and 20.
For example, if the rovings 11 and 12 are of the same
weight and are traversed in similar but 180° out-of-phase
fashion, one roving traversing from x to y (FIG. 5) while
the other is traversing from y to x, the blend of the re
sultant yarn will vary from 62.5% to 37.5%. That is to
say, when the ?rst roving is at point x and the second rov
ing is at point y, the resultant yarn will be composed of
62.5% of the ?rst roving and 37.5% of the second roving,
grooves 151 and 152 in disks 141 and 142, respectively.
In the illustrated embodiment of FIGS. 6 and 7, the cam
tracks 151 and 152 are shaped to provide a dwell for
each of the connected arms 135 and 136, the dwell for
one arm being concurrent with that for the other. It
will be apparent that the cam tracks may be given other
con?gurations to accomplish other variations in traverse
movement.
For a given traverse and a given back roll speed, a
de?nite pattern is produced. If it is desired to break up
the pattern to secure a random effect without resorting
to complicated methods of driving the traverse, one yarn
may be drafted or spun with a given traverse, then a
second yarn may be drafted or spun from the same rovings
using a different traverse or a different speed of traverse
which is not a simple multiple of the ?rst traverse speed.
These two yarns may be then twisted or plied together.
Since in twisting, complete 100% control of each ply is
seldom if ever achieved, and since the length of the re
peat in each ply is dissimilar, a completely random effect
is produced.
In addition to varying the traverse motion or the trav
erse speed, or in lieu thereof, variation in the resultant
yarn may be achieved by using rovings of different weight,
and the resultant yarn may be made both thick and thin
and of varying blend by combining rovings that are both
‘different in weight and also of different dyeing character
istics. Or, only a single roving may be used and the
variable drafting means of the present invention employed
to produce a roving which varies in thickness lengthwise
of the roving or yarn.
Variegated or spaced color yarns may also be produced
directly by using two rovings of the same or different
?bers which have previously been dyed to different shades.
3,086,347
5
6
It will now be apparent that the variations which may
readily be made in the resultant yarn along its length are
back rolls having a nip formed between surface portions
of corresponding diameter; means for driving said front
indeed numerous.
and back rolls at such constant relative speeds that the
peripheral speed of the front delivery rolls is equal to
It should be understood that while it has been said
that the resultant yarn has variations in blend along its
length, this is an overall effect. Actually, using two
or greater than that of the back rolls at the large diam~
eter end; and traverse means, including dwell means, for
directing each of two different rovings to and across the
nip of said cone back rolls in interrupted back-and-forth
out-of-phase manner, thereby at a given time to cause
different rovings, there is only minor intimate mixing
of the different ?bers in each roving.
Rather, the two
rovings essentially lie side by side in spiral relationship
with the twist imparted in spinning. In the single yarn,
10 one roving to be drafted a greater amount than the other
used in spinning since this is the ?nal drafting operation,
except when both rovings are passing through a common
point on the nip of said cone back rolls.
6. In a textile drafting apparatus having a source of
?rst roving and a source of second roving; a pair of front
delivery rolls; a pair of frusto-conical back rolls so
mounted that each is in surface contact with the other
forming a nip therebetween, each of said cone rolls hav
the cone roll and traverse principle may also be used in
ing its large diameter surface in contact with the large
a preliminary drafting operation. Thus, the rovings l1
diameter surface of the other and its small diameter
surface in contact with the small diameter surface of the
other; means for driving said front and back rolls at
this produces a sort of barber pole effect, but the width
or concentration of each band varies as the traverse
varies.
It should also be understood that while FIGS. 1 and 2
illustrate a spinning frame, and while the cone-roll and
traverse mechanism of the present invention is preferably
and 12 on the spinning frame may be rovings which have
already been processed by the cone roll-traverse principle
of the present invention.
The preferred embodiments of this invention have been
such constant relative speeds that the peripheral speed of
the front delivery rolls is equal to or greater than that
of the back rolls at the large diameter end; and a pair of
reciprocating guide means for directing said first and sec
described in some detail. It will be obvious to one skilled
in the art that various modi?cations may be made without
departing from the invention as hereinafter claimed.
Having described our invention, we claim:
1. In {an apparatus for drafting textile rovings; a pair
motion, said ?rst roving traversing from the large diam
ond rovings to, and moving said rovings transversely
along, the nip of said cone ‘back rolls in a back-and-forth
of cooperative cone-shaped back rolls adapted to be
eter end to the small diameter end of said cone rolls
driven at constant speed and having a nip formed be
tween surface portions of corresponding diameter; a pair
of front delivery rolls adapted to be driven at constant
speed such that their peripheral speed is equal to or
greater than that of the cone back rolls at the large diam
eter end; and pre-set travel control means for directing a 35
during the time that the second roving is traversing from
the small diameter end to the ‘large diameter end, thereby
through a common point on the nip of said cone back
rolls.
rolls, drafting said roving between said back and front
at a given time to effect a different amount of draft for
said first roving than for said second except when both
said rovings are passing through a common point at the
nip of said cone rolls.
7. In a textile drafting apparatus, sources of first and
roving to different pro-selected transverse positions along
second rovings of different character; a pair of front de—
the nip of said cone back rolls to cause said roving to
livery rolls; a pair of truncated-cone back rolls so mounted
be drafted different amounts between said cone roils and
that each is in surface contact with the other forming
said delivery rolls according to the transverse position of
said roving in the nip of said cone back rolls.
40 a nip therebetween, each of said cone rolls having its
large diameter surface in contact with the large diameter
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 characterized in
surface of the other and its small diameter surface in
that said pre-set travel control means for directing said
contact with the small diameter surface of the other;
roving comprises traverse means for moving said roving
means for driving said front and back rolls at such con
back and forth along the nip of said cone rolls in recipro
stant relative speeds that the peripheral speed of the front
cating manner.
delivery rolls is equal to or greater than that of the back
3. In an apparatus for drafting textile roving; a pair
rolls at the large diameter end; and a pair of guide means
of front delivery rolls; a pair of cooperative truncated
for directing said ?rst and second rovings to and moving
cone back rolls having a nip formed between surface por
said rovings transversely along the nip of said cone back
tions of corresponding diameter; means for driving said
front and back rolls at such constant relative speeds that 50 rolls in back-and~forth out-of-phase motions, said ?rst
roving at a given time being subjected to either greater
the peripheral speed of the front delivery rolls is equal
or lesser amounts of draft than said second roving except
to or greater than that of the back rolls at the large
when both said rovings are passing through a common
diameter end; and traverse means for directing each of
point at the nip of said cone rolls.
two different rovings to and across the nip of said cone
8. The method of drafting textile rovings comprising
back rolls back-and-forth in out-of-phase relationship,
the steps of feeding a textile roving to and passing it
thereby at a given time to cause one roving to be drafted
through the nip of a pair of frusto-conical back rolls to
a greater amount than the other except when both rovings
the nip of a pair of cylindrical front delivery rolls, draft
pass through a common point on the nip of said cone
ing said roving between said front and back rolls by
back rolls.
rotating said front delivery rolls at a substantially con
4. In an apparatus for drafting textile rovings; a pair
stant peripheral speed equal to or higher than the sub
of front delivery rolls; a pair of cooperative frusto—conical
stantially constant peripheral speed of the large diameter
back rolls having a nip formed between surface portions
end of the frusto-conical back rolls, and moving said
of equal diameter; means for driving said front and back
fed roving transversely relative to the nip of said frusto
rolls at such constant relative speeds that the peripheral
conical back rolls according to a pro-selected plan of
speed of the front delivery rolls is equal to or greater
travel to vary the draft according to the transverse position
than that of the back rolls at the large diameter end;
of said roving in the nip of said frusto-conical back
and traverse means for directing each of two different
rolls.
rovings to and across the nip of said cone back rolls in
9. The method of drafting textile rovings comprising
reciprocating manner with the motion of one roving 180°
the steps of feeding a textile roving to and passing it
out of phase with that of the other thereby at a given
70 through the nip of a pair of back rolls of varying diam
time to cause one roving to be drafted a greater amount
eter to the nip of a pair of cylindrical front delivery
than the other except when both rovings are passing
5. In an apparatus for drafting textile rovings; a pair
rolls by rotating said front delivery rolls at a substantially
constant peripheral speed equal to or higher than the
of front delivery rolls; a pair of cooperative cone-shaped 75 substantially constant peripheral speed of the largest
3,086,347
7
8
diameter portion of the back rolls, and moving said fed
to vary the draft according to the transverse position of
roving transversely relative to the nip of said back rolls
the particular roving in the nip of said frusto-conical
according to a pre-selected plan of travel to vary the
back rolls.
draft according to the transverse position of said roving
in the nip of said back rolls.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
10. The method of drafting textile yarn comprising
UNITED STATES PATENTS
the steps of feeding two textile rovings to and passing
24,010
Crowell ____________ __ May 17, 1859
them through the nip of a pair of frusto-conical back
320,344
Fuyat ______________ __ June 16, 1885
rolls to the nip of a pair of cylindrical front delivery
Dreyfus et a1 _________ __ Feb. 21, 1933
rolls, drafting said rovings between said front and back 10 1,898,085
1,987,453
Thomas et al. ________ __ Jan. 8, 1935
rolls by rotating said front delivery rolls at a substantially
constant peripheral speed equal to or higher than the
2,064,804
Lownes et al. ________ __ Dec. 15, 1936
substantially constant peripheral speed of the large diam
2,306,377
Bird et al. __________ __ Dec. 29, 1942
eter end of the frusto-conical back rolls, and moving said
2,792,931
Husung et al. ________ __ May 21, 1957
‘fed rovings transversely relative to the nip of said frusto 15 3,019,593
Reid ________________ __ Feb. 6, 1962
conical back rolls in back-and-forth out-of-phase fashion
3,035,404
Roscoe _____________ __ May 22, 1962
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