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Патент USA US3086398

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April 23, 1963
G. E. LAYTON
3,086,387
RETRIEVABLE CASING TESTER
Filed June 15, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
FlGg3
INVENTOR.
GERALD E. LAYTON
ATTORNEY
Aprll 23, 1963
G. E. LAYTON
3,086,387
RETRIEVABLE CASING TESTER
Filed June 15, 1959
7
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVEN TOR.
§
-
FIG. 2,
"
GERALD E. LAYTON
BY
ATTOR
NEY
United States Patent O?ice
1
3,086,387
Patented Apr. 23, .1963
2
vpointed ‘out in my claims, and illustrated by the accom
3,086,387
panying drawing, in which—
I
RETRHEVABLE CASING
‘
,
FIGURE 1 is a vertical section longitudinally through
the lower ‘end portion of a casing length positioned for
1
Gerald E. Layton, 3663 Monaco Parkway, Denver, Colo.
Filed June 15, 1959,“Ser. No."820,'206
8 Claims. (Cl. 73-—‘40;5)
placement within an earth bore with a‘ typicalembodi
'ment of the invention shown in axial section as associated
with the casing in its retrievable or potential-use condi
This invention relates to equipment useful in the con
ditioning of deep earth bores, such as 01]. wells, and the
like, for extension and production, and more particularly
tion, an intermediate length portion of the view not es
sential to an understanding of the invention being broken
‘to an item of such equipment repetitiously applicable to 10 .away to conserve space.
FIGURE 2 is a vertical sectional view similar to FIG
facilitate test for imporosity o? casing lengths ‘as appro
URE 11 showing the ?eatures and elements thereof in an
priate during placement of the casing forconventional
alternative condition of operative interrelation.
operation within a bore, and has an object to provide a
FIGURE ‘3 is a section transversely ‘through the or
novel and improved unit selectively applicable to and
retrievable ‘from sealing coaction with the lower end in 15 ganization ‘according to the preceding views taken sub
stantially on the indicated line 3~—3 of FIGURE 1.
terior of a casing length entered to ultimate use position
FIGURE 4 is a section transversely through the or
at any depth‘within an’ earth bore. _
'
ganization according to the preceding views taken sub
A further object of the invention 1s to provide a novel
stantially on the indicated line 4-4 of FIGURE 2.
and improved unit selectively applicable to and retrrevable
from sealing coaction with the lower end interior of a 20
casing length within an earth bore by means commonly
available during and in reaction'to conditions conven
tionally attending placement of the casing.
.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel
‘and ‘improved repetitiously-employable, retrievable unit
selectively applicable ‘to scaling coaction with the lower
end interior of a casing length within an earth Iboreun
reaction to ?uid pressures regulably applied to the casing
Deep earth bores developed for the production of
water, petroleum oils, gases, and the like, are commonly
conditioned for production, andvfor extension in depth,
through the ‘provisionof bore linings in the form of con
tinuous lengths of rigid, tubular, usually metallic casing
25 ‘assembled through the intercouplingot separate, like sec
tions at the mouth of the bore as the completed length is
lowered therethrough. As conditioned for casing, the
bore con?nes, or may be charged with, a column of liquid
whichis availed of .to, in an importantmeasure, counter
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel 30 act the progressively-increasing weight of the casing
length descending therein, for which purpose the other
and improved repetitiously-employable junit selectively
wise open, lower end of} the casing length is obstructed
applicable to scaling coaction with the lower end interior
by a tubularrplug, termed a ?oat collar, coaxially and
of ‘a casing length within ‘an earth bore in reaction ‘to
?xedly associated in anyva-ppropriate conventional man
?uid pressures regulably applied to the casing interior
and retrievable'upon abatement of such pressure through 35 ner with the end of the casing ?rst inserted in the bore to
restrict, but not to close, the path of liquid access to the
the sole agency 05 a line conventionally complementary
casing interior, which plug, or ?oat collar, is subsequently
‘to casing placement operations.
drilled out of the- casing upon completion of the desired
A further object of the invention is to provide a‘novel
interior thereabove.
_
‘and improved casing testing adjunct selectively applicable
casing placement. It being customary to ?nally-cement
cal use in condition for reuse‘ to leave unaltered the casing
?ned ?ow therethrough, .it .is. approved practice to pr'es—
sure-test thecasing length for imporosity after placement
‘to and retrievable‘from sealing coaction with the lower 40 the‘ placed casing. in its ‘use position within the bore, and
it ‘being material to ultimate efficient production through
end interior of a casing length within an earth bore that
the casing that the latter be 'free .from leak-age of con
is‘imme'diately recoverable after each'instance of practi
zone thereby engaged.
‘
-
g’
A further object of the‘invention is to ‘PI'QVldG’ a novel
,and before cementinglthereofrelative to the bore, in ex
and improved casing testing adjunct selectively ‘applicable
peditious, economical, (and practical .ifurtheranc‘e whereof
‘torand retrievable ‘from sealing coaction withthe lower
end interior of ‘a casing length ‘within an earth bore that
the instant invention is directed to the provision of an
adjunctive unit retrievably coacta'ble with the-?oat collar
of a placed casing length to function as an abutment clos
is compact in a light-weight unitary assembly ‘amenable
to controlled adjustment longitudinally of and oper 50 ing the lower end of the length in reaction to pressures
applied interior-1y o‘f-the casing thereabove ?or test of
atively within earth bore casings in attachment to a line
casin g -' integrity.
_
.
conventionally complementary to casing ‘placement oper
ations.
A further object of the invention
.to provide a novel
and improved construction and operative correlation of
elements constituting a testing adjunct selectively applica
ble to and retrievable from sealing coaction with the
lower end interior of a casing. length within an earth bore.
‘A'further object oi the invention is to provide‘ a novel
and improved retrievable casing tester that is ‘simple and
inexpensive of ‘production from available materials in an
extensive range of desired sizes, that is‘ durable through
out a long life of repetitious use, that is effectively oper
Typifying the use environment of the invention, the
lower end‘ portion of a continuous length of conventional
tubular casing is indicated "by the nuineral'lt) and shown
in the views of the drawing .as looselyengaged at any
appropriate depth within an earth bore for '?xed em
placement relative thereto, and as furnished 'with a con
ventional, ‘tubular, cementitious ?oat collar 11, carried
as is customary in a coupling 12 threadedly connectible
with and as an-exten'sion of said casing length, partially
obstructing its otherwise fully open lowerend to repre
sent a ?at, annular shoulder transversely of and opposed
to the interior .of said length 10.
table in automatic reaction to in?uences regulably applied 65 Selectively and retrievably operable‘to realization of
to and through the end of the casing accessible at ground
its purposes within the environment typi?ed by the casing
level, and that is positive and efficient in attainment of
vportion 10, ?oat collar 11, and coupling 12, the improve
the ends for which designed.
ment-of the invention is a smoothly-cylindrical, axially
With the foregoing and other objects in view, my in
elongated, unitary assembly of the elements hereinafter
vention consists in the construction, arrangement, and 70 speci?ed having a diameter substantially less than the
operative combination of elements as hereinafter set forth,
interior diameter of the casing 10 adapting it for free
3,086,887
3
reciprocation within the casing. 'lthe cylindrical, unitary
assembly characterizing the invention 18 comprised from
a generally-tubular lower end member 13 of rigid ma
terial, such as metal, a similar, generally-tubular upper
end member 14 of rigid material coaxial with and spaced
from said member 13, a thick-walled, tubular sleeve 15
of resilient material, such as rubber, or the equivalent,
away from the lugs 25 being such as to fully separate
said plug from the member 14 and its seat 23 therein
when the lugs 25 are in engagement with the annular
shoulder at the inner end of the bore 22, substantially
as represented by FIGURE 1, and to engage said plug
within its seat 23 when said lugs are adjacent the end
of the skirt 24 remote from the member 14 at the limit
of stem 16 travel inwardly through the ‘bore 22, as repre
sented by FIGURE 2. Telescopically coactable with the
end members 13 and 14 in exteriorly-smooth, cylindrical
conformity therewith, and stem components 16 and 1/ 10 inner end of the stem 16 within the sleeve 15, the stem
17 is tubular in a maximum diameter less than that of the
coaxially engaged with said end members, sleeve, and
skirt 21 interior and is closed at its end receivable in said
each other for relative axial displacement.
.
spanning between and permanently interconnecting said
skirt by a frusto-conical plug 29 adapted to coactively
engage at times with the seat 20 inwardly terminating the
15 bore 18 of the member 13; the tubular portion of the
stem 17 being of a length to maintain telescopic associa
with the passage through the ?oat ‘collar 11 and hence
tion with the inner end of the stem 16 in all operating
presents a flat, perpendicularly-transverse end face adapted
positions of the latter and in all correlations of said stem
to conformably oppose the annular, upper shoulder of
17 with its seat 20.
said ?oat collar 11, to which ?at end face of the member
A casing length 10 furnished with a ?oat collar 11
13 is concentrically af?xed a compressible annulus 19
having been lowered within an earth bore and positioned
engageable with sealing effect between opposed areas of
therein ready for cementing in place, testing of such length
said ?oat collar and lower end member when the latter
for leakage is very much facilitated and expedited through
descends through the casing 10 to rest upon said collar.
use of the improvement hereinabove described. A uni
Inwardly of said member 113, the bore 18 1s divergently
tary assembly exemplifying the invention being available
enlarged as a frusto-conical seat 20 from the great diam
in a diametric size freely and loosely reciprocable within
eter base whereof said member extends as a concentric
the casing length to be tested, the same is lowered in at
tubular skirt 21 having an inner diameter greater than
tachment to a line 27 as set forth through the casing
that of the bore 18 and an outer diameter less than that
length to engagement of its lower end against the annular
of the outer end portion of said member, over which skirt
shoulder presented by the upper face of the ?oat collar
one end of the sleeve 15 is telescoped and ?xedly en- I
The assembly lower end member 13 is formed with
a right-cylindrical, outer end portion traversed by an
axial bore 18 substantially equivalent in ?ow capacity
gaged, as by one or another of the well-known tech
wherewith the annulus 19 coacts to seal about the passage
niques for securing rubber to metal, to conformably reg
ister the exterior of the sleeve with the greater-diameter
base portion of the member 13 and to desirably register
the tubular interior wall of said sleeve with the bore of
enlarged diameter through said skirt. Identical with the
through the collar, the weight of the assembly, the separa
end member 13 save for an alternative location of the
frusto-conical seat associated with the bore therethrough,
tion of the valve plug 28 from its seat 23 incident to the
lowering operation, and the absence of any restraint in
hibiting lifting of the valve plug 29 from its seat 20
combining in an obvious manner to promote descent of
the assembly through the liquid column present in the
casing and to charge the assembly interior with the liquid
the upper end member 14 is formed with a right-cylin
drical outer end portion traversed by an axial bore 22
of such column. With the annulus 19 at the lower end
of the assembly resting upon the upper face of the ?oat
whereof the outer end is divergently enlarged outwardly
collar 11 as tension on the line 27 is relaxed to free the
thereof as a frusto-conical seat 23, said bore 22 and seat
23 being desirably the functional equivalents of the bore
18 and its seat 20, and with a tubular skirt 24 conform
able With the skirt 21 concentrically extending therefrom
in shouldered relation about the inner end of the bore
22 to telescopic engagement within and ?xed attachment
to the end of the sleeve 15 opposed thereto.
In a straight, rigid, cylindrical conformation of a diam
eter considerably less than that of the bore 22, the stem
16 is loosely accommodated in and for axial reciproca
tion relative to said bore in a length such as to extend
at one end well -within the sleeve 15 in simultaneous pro
jection of its other end outwardly beyond the end mem
ber 14 housing said bore, and lugs 25 ?xedly project
radially and outwardly from said stem 16 interiorly of the
skirt 24 as a stop diametrically of said stem in an effec
tive length greater than the diameter of the bore 22
adapting them to engage at times with the shoulder at
the junction of the skirt 24 with its member 14 for con
sequent limitation of stem 16 travel outwardly of said
assembly from such in?uence, the upper end of the casing
length is suitably closed by means accommodating input
of ?uid under pressure to the interior of the ‘length and a
pressure charge is developed within the casing with con
stant reference to gauge readings responsive thereto.
Pressure developed within the closed casing length above
the assembly resting upon the ?oat collar immediately acts
to intensify the sealing action of the annulus 19 about the
passage through the collar and to securely close the valve
plug 29 in and to its seat 20 and thereby prevent escape
of the applied pressure from the lower end of the casing
length, to initially invade the interior of the sleeve 15
through the unplugged seat 23 and bore 22 of the upper
end member 14, and to progressively contract the axial
length of the sleeve and end member assembly with radial
distention of the sleeve into tight sealing coaction with
the casing interior pursuant to closing coaction of the
valve plug 28 with its seat 23, as in FIGURE 2. Closed
at its lower end with a seal deriving from and propor
tioned in effectiveness to the ?uid pressure applied thereto,
the interior of the casing re?ects the input pressure of
member. The end of the stem ‘16 exterior to the mem
the ?uid when secure against leakage andv will register
ber 14 is formed with an eye 26, or the equivalent, con
any imperfections by a drop of pressure below the ?uid
nectible with an end of a line 27 whereby the unit of 65
input
value, as is conventionally recognized. Upon com
the invention may be translated within the casing 10
pletion of the test, the applied pressure is relieved, the
when the lugs 25 are in engagement with the shoulder
upper end of the casing length opened, and the line 27 re
about the inner end of the bore 22 as a consequence of
tracted from the casing to ?rst lift the valve plug 28 from
stem 16 travel to the outer-most limit of its shiftable
its seat 23 and open an outlet from the sleeve 15 as the
range relative to the member 14. Exteriorly adjacent 70 latter
contracts to normal diameter away from engagement
the member 14 in an appropriate spacing from the lugs
with the casing, whereafter continued retraction of the
25, a frusto-conical valve plug 28 is coaxially ?xed to the
line 27 lifts the stem 16 to engagement of its lugs 25
stem 16 in a conformation appropriate for sealing co
action with the seat 23' outwardly terminating the bore
22, the spacing of said plug 28 axially of the stem 16
with the shoulder at the inner end of the bore 22 and
thereby retrieves the assembly from the casing in condi
tion for check of its operative perfection and for reuse
3,086,387
5
without addition or alteration as occasion may arise.
Manifestly ‘advantageous by reason of its simplicity and
economy‘of constructiomlight weight, ease and conven
ience of use, retrievability for reuse, and dependability of
performance, the improvement evidences merit of high
order as a practical adjunct useful to ‘facilitate conven
tional operations signi?cant in the casing of deep earth
bores.
for sealing coaction with the ?oat collar-at the limit of
vassembly travel downwardly through the casing, a stern
loosely through and reciprocable axially of the passage
at the‘other end of ‘the assembly, means at the end of
said stem exterior to the assembly connectible with a
line manipula'ble to regulate assembly travel relative to
the casing, lugs ?xedly projecting radially from said stem
interiorly of ‘the assembly adapted to limit relative .dis
placement of said ‘stem outwardly ‘of the assembly, an
Since changes, variations, and modi?cations in the form,
construction, and arrangement of the elements shown and 10 outwardly-divergent valve seat terminating the passage
‘described may be had without departing from the spirit
‘traversed ‘by said stem, a valve plug coactable with said
.;seat -;?xe_‘d';to said stem in a'spacing from said lugs such
of my invention, '1 wish to be understood as being limited
solely by the scope of the appended claims, rather than ;as to separate .theplug from its seat when said stem .is
by any details of the illustrative showing and foregoing
"at thelimit of its displacement outwardlyrof the assembly,
15-‘a tubular stem-telescopically associated with said ?rst
description.
stem interiorly ,of‘the assembly, a valve plug terminating
I claim as my invention:
1. A tester unit for retrievable coaction with ‘a length
of tubular well casing downwardly terminated by a con
ventional ?oat collar, comprising a cylindrical assem
‘said ‘tubular ‘stem at the end thereof ‘remote from said
?rst stem, and _'a valve seat ,coactable with the plug car
;ried by ‘said tubular ‘stem terminating the ?ow passage
bly loosely receivable within the casing for free recipro 20 :theretoopposed interiorly of the assembly, whereby to
cation longitudinally thereof, means at one end of said
conditionsaid assembly for the accommodation of ?uid
assembly connectible with a line manipulable to regulate
assembly travel relative to the ‘casing, means at the ‘other
?ow upwardly therethrough when suspended ‘in tension
ponent intermediately intercoupling the opposite end por
'4. ,A tester unit for retrievable coaction with a length
of :tubular well casing downwardly terminated by a con
:ing relation with the manipulating line :and for inhibition
end of the assembly adapted for sealing coaction with the
;of ?uid ?ow downwardly relative to either end thereof
?oat collar at the limit of assembly travel downwardly 25 when seated upon the'?oat collar with consequent relief
through the casing, an elongated, tubular, resilient com
of line tension.
tions of said assembly in ?ow communication there
through, slidably-interrelated means coaxial with said
ventional ?oat collar, comprising an elongated, tubular,
component reciprocable axiallyiof the assembly to accom 30 resilient ‘sleeve :loosely receivable within the casing for
modate ?uid ?ow upwardly therethrough in automatic re
free reciprocation longitudinally thereof, like, cylindrical
action to lowering of the line-suspended assembly within
*members of rigid material ?xed to and coaxially closing
the casing and-concurrently to inhibit ?uid ?ow down
the opposite ends of said sleeve in exterior conformity
wardly through the assembly, and elements in said latter
therewith, ?ow passages axially through said members
eans automatically reactive to supported engagement of 35 in an ?lT?CllVEySlZ?rT?tdllCéd relative ‘to the’ sleeve interior,
the assembly with the ?oat collar and ‘consequent relief
an outwardly-divergent valve seat exteriorly terminating
of tension on the line to interrupt communication between
one of said passages, a stem loosely through and recipro~
the interiors of said component and the casing, whereby
cable axially of said latter passage, a valve plug ?xed to
to apply ?uid pressures introduced to the casing above the
said stem exteriorly of and for coaction at times with said
collar-seated assembly for length-contraction of said com 40 seat, lugs ?xedly projecting radially from said stem in
ponent and concomitant radial expansion thereof into seal
teriorly of said sleeve adapted to limit relative displace
ing compression against the surrounding casing.
ment of said stem outwardly of the member thereby tra
2. A tester unit for retrievable coaction with a length
versed in a spacing from said plug such as to separate the
of tubular well casing downwardly terminated by a con
latter from its seat when said stem is at the outward limit
ventional ?oat collar, comprising a cylindrical assem 45 of its travel range, means at the exterior end of said stem
bly loosely receivable within the casing for free recipro
connectible with a line manipulable to regulate travel of
cation longitudinally thereof, means at one end of said
the sleeve and member assembly relative to the casing,
assembly connectible with a line manipulable to regulate
whereby to oppose the member remote from said stem to
assembly travel relative to the casing, means at the other
and for seated coaction with the ?oat collar, a check
end of the assembly adapted for sealing coaction with the 50 valve accommodative of ?uid ?ow upwardly and inhibi
?oat collar at the limit of assembly travel downwardly
tive of ?ow downwardly through the passage ‘of the
through the casing, an elongated, tubular, resilient com
member remote from said stem, and a resilient sealing
ponent in said assembly, a ?ow passage serving the in
ring circumscribing the passage opening through the ex
terior of said component through the opposite ends of the
posed end of said latter member.
assembly, a check valve automatically accommodative of 55
5. A tester unit for retrievable coaction with a length
upward flow and inhibitive of downward ?ow at the lower
of tubular well casing downwardly terminated by a con
end of said passage, and a complementary check valve at
ventional ?oat collar, comprising an elongated, tubular,
the upper end of said passage reactive to tension of the
resilient sleeve loosely receivable within the casing for
manipulating line to open the passage end thereby con
free reciprocation longitudinally thereof, like, cylindrical
trolled when the line is under tension and to close said 60 members of rigid material ?xed to and coaxially closing
passage end when line tension is relieved through seated
the opposite ends of said sleeve in exterior conformity
engagement of the assembly with the ?oat collar, whereby
to apply ?uid pressures introduced to the casing above
therewith, ?ow passages axially through said members in
an effective size reduced relative to the sleeve interior, an
the collar-seated assembly for length-contraction of said
outwardly-divergent valve seat exteriorly terminating one
component and concomitant radial expansion thereof into 65 of said passages, a stem loosely through and reciprocable
sealing compression against the surrounding casing.
3. A tester unit for retrievable coaction with a length
of tubular well casing downwardly terminated by a con
ventional ?oat collar, comprising a cylindrical assembly
axially of said latter passage, a valve plug ?xed to said
stem exteriorly of and ‘for coaction at times with said
seat, lugs ?xedly projecting radially from said stem in
loosely receivable within the casing for ‘free reciproca 70 teriorly of said sleeve adapted to limit relative displace
ment of said stem outwardly of the member thereby tra
tion longitudinally thereof, an elongated, tubular, resilient
versed in a spacing from said plug such as to separate
component constituting the major length of said assembly,
the latter from its seat when said stem is at the outward
a ?ow passage serving the interior of said component
limit of its travel range, means at the exterior :end of said
through the opposite ends of the assembly, means circum
scribing said passage at one end of said assembly adapted 75 stem connectible with a line manipulable to regulate travel
spams?
7
U
of the sleeve and member assembly relative to the casing,
whereby to oppose the member remote from said stem
end member remote from the sealing ring includes an
outwardly divergent valve seat at the exterior end of the
to and ‘for seated coaction with the ?oat collar, a valve
passage, a stem loosely through and reciprocable axially
seat divergent toward the interior of said sleeve inwardly
terminating the passage through said latter member, a
tubular stem telescopically associated for reciprocation
0
of the passage so modi?ed, means on said stem interiorly
of the assembly adapted to limit relative displacement of
the stem outwardly of the assembly, means connectible
with the manipulating line at the exterior end of said
iorly of said sleeve, and a valve plug terminating said
stem, and a valve plug coactable at times with said seat
tubular stem at the end thereof remote from said ?rst
?xed to said stem exteriorly of the assembly in a spacing
stem for coaction at times with the valve seat opposed 10 outwardly away from said seat when said stem is at the
thereto.
limit of its displacement outwardly of the assembly.
6. In a tester unit ‘for retrievable coaction with a length
8. The organization according to claim 6, wherein the
of tubular well casing downwardly terminated by a con
check valve controlling ?ow through the passage remote
with and as a coaxial extension of said ?rst stem inter
ventional ?oat collar constituted as a cylindrical assem
from that circumscribed by the sealing ring includes a
bly loosely receivable within the casing for free reciproca 15 stem reciprocable axially of the assembly and extending
tion longitudinally thereof, means conditioning said as
therewithin, and the check valve controlling ?ow through
sembly to function as a stopper obstructing the casing
the passage circumscribed by the sealing ring is organized
adjacent the ?oat collar in automatic reaction to ?uid
as a valve seat divergent toward the interior of said sleeve
pressures introduced to the casing thereabove, said means
at
the inward end of the passage opening through the
comprising an elongated, tubular, resilient sleeve con 20
sealing ring, a tubular stem telescopically associated for
stituting the major length of said assembly between like,
reciprocation with the terminal portion of said ?rst stem
rigid members ?xed to the ends thereof, ?ow passages
within the assembly, and a valve plug at the end of said
through said end members in an e?ective size reduced
tubular sleeve remote from said ?rst sleeve coactable with
relative to the sleeve interior, a resilient ring circum
scribing the passage opening through the exposed end of 25 the valve seat opposed thereto.
one of said members adapted for sealing coaction with the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?oat collar at the limit of assembly travel downwardly
through the casing, a check valve accommodative of ?ow
UNITED STATES PATENTS
upwardly‘and inhibitive of ?ow downwardly through the
passage circumscribed by said ring, a check valve accom 30
modative of ?uid ?ow upwardly from and inhibitive of
?ow downwardly through the passage of the other end
member, and means, including a line manipulable to
regulate assembly travel relative to the casing, associated
with said latter valve to permit closing thereof only when
tension on the manipulating line is relieved.
7. The organization according to claim 6, wherein the
check valve controlling flow through the passage of the
1,652,472
Erwin _______________ __ Dec. 13, 1927
1,822,925
1,955,113
2,128,716
Granger _____________ __ Sept. 15, 1931
Davenport _________ __.__ Apr. 17, 1934
Smith ________________ __ Aug. 30, 1938
2,545,102
Miller _______________ __ Mar. 13, 1951
2,715,444
Fewel ____ -5 _________ __ Aug. 16, 1955
2,767,795
Bush ____. _____________ __ Oct. 23, 1956
2,841,007
2,963,092
Loomis ___________ __-____ July 1, 1958
Anderson et al ________ __,__ Dec. 6, 1960
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