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Патент USA US3086456

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April 23, 1963
_1. A. T01-TEN
3,085,446
COFFEE BREWING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 6, 1960
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1
J5 JZ
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April 23, 1963
J. A. To'rTENA
3,086,446
COFFEE BREWING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 6. 1960
Z
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
44
3,086,446
United States Patent Oiiice
Patented Apr. 23, 1,963
1
2
FIG. 1 is an elevational view, partially in section of
l
the coffee brewing -apparatus portion of a vending
3,086,446
COFFEE BREWING APPARATUS
machine;
John A. Totten, Hammond, Ind., assignor, by mesne as
FIG. 2 is a schematic picturization, essentially in eleva
tion, some of the operative elements of a vending machine,l
signrnents, to Rock-Ola ‘Manufacturing Corporation,
Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Delaware
Filed 9ct. 6, 1960, Ser. No. 60,906
16 Claims. (Cl. 99-283)
particularly those of FIG. l; land
.
.
FIG. 3 is a schematic wiring diagram of the control
system of the coffee brewing apparatus.
This invention relates to coffee brewin-g apparatus and,
The upper portion of the drawing in FIG. 1 is essential
more specifically, to coffee brewing apparatus adapted Ito 10 ly a reproduction `of FIG. 2 of the drawing in my above
-sequentially brew single cup quantities of coffee.
mentioned patent. `Reference may be had to that patent
This application is related to my Patent No. 2,931,288,
for details of construct-ion and operation not given here
issued April 5, 1960.
,
`
1n.
It has 'been found desirable to provide vending
In FIG. l of the drawing hereof, the numeral 10 des
machines of a nature adapted to brew single cup quanti, 15 ignates generally an insulated enclosure for a coffee brew
ties of coffee, ie., labout 160 cc. Thus, each vendee re
ing unit. The unit 10 may be supported on the main frame'
ceives -a cup of coffee complete with the highly pleasing
10a of the vending machine (not shown).
‘
aroma associated with freshly brewed coffee iand with
Mounted at top enclosure 10 is a hopper, generally des
none of the bitterness that often attaches to coffee that
ignated 11, and which is adapted to hold solid particles
has been brewed sometime previously. This aroma
of freshly ground coffee. The enclosure 10 is equipped
persists only a short time, a matter of minutes. The
withv an aperture 12 which permits the introduction of the
aroma, however, contributes materially to the sales -ap
coffee particles into the enclosure 10;
peal of vending machine coffee. In the past, this has had
The bottom of the hopper 11 is equipped with a fun
to be sacrificed in order to deliver cup quantities of
nel 13 which is >aligned with and extends partially into
coffee frequently. The brewing cycle was felt to be too 25 the opening 12 of the enclosure 10‘.
`
long in a single cup brewer to make the installation of
The housing 10 is equipped with a blower 14 and motor
such a device feasible, for example, in an industrial plant
15 for the purpose of circulating air within the 'housing
installation vending several hundred cups of coffee daily.
10 as indicated by the arrows placed in FIG.v land for
Those versed in this art, however did not lose sight of
the purposes set forth in detail 'in my above-mentioned
the sales appeal of the freshly brewed single cup and at 30 patent. Also, a heater 16 is provided within the enclosure
tempted a number -of expedients in order to adapt the
10 for the purpose of maintaining the interior at a tem
single cup brewer to high speed operation;
perature just below the boiling point of water, i.e. of
These «expedients were uniformly unsuccessful and, in
the order of 205° F.
'
many instances, created `additional problems. To obtain
Enclosurel() is equipped with a bottom wall 17 in
a faster 4bre-wing cycle, an expedient was employed that
»which is mounted Ia pivotal door 18, the door 18 being
utilized finer ground coffee. This immediately necessitat
`-opened at the end of each brewing cycle to permit gravity
ed the installation of a liner filter screen to keep the
discharge of spent coffee grounds. The mechanism for
“lines,” from being delivered to the cup. This then posed
opening the door 18 4as well as manipulating portions of
a problem of cleaning and worse, introduced -a variable
>the brewing chamber is generally designated by the numer
flow resistance into the system. When the resistance of
al 19, and the brewing chamber itself is generally design
the system varies from cup to cup and with the same time
ated by the numeral 20. The brewing chamber 20 is
employed for each cup quantity to be brewed, there arise > '
radical 'differences in the quality of the brewed coffee.
Lack of uniformity from cup to cup is considered even
equipped with openable top and bottom closures, the bot
tom closure being designated by the numeral 21 and, in
FIG. l,.is seen in its open condition in solid line and in
worse than absence of aroma insofar as inducing patrons 45 its closed condition in broken line. It will be appreciated
to utilize'the vending machine. For example, ra given cup l _ ~that -the _same conditions are available for the top closure
might be strong to the point of being almost as distasteful
as the bitter coffee resulting from standing which was a
characteristic drawback of the multi-cup brewers previous
ly employed.
which is designated 22 `while the' intermediate portion or
casing of the brewing vunit 20 is designated by the numeral
23.
"
,
50.. The manipulating mechanism 19 is also operatively con
.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an
nected to a funnel -24 which is seen in solid line in its
apparatus for sequentially producing single cup quantities
inoperative condition and` in broken line `in its position
when it is operativeto channel fresh coffee particles into
of coffee that avoids the drawbacks and disadvantages
outlined above. Still another object is to provide a single 55 lthe brewingchamber 20. When the funnel 24 is in this
cup brewing apparatus in which a pressure ñuid is used
operating condition, the top closure 22 is open as is indi
sequentially ñrst to achieve brewing Áand thereafter to
cated by the broken line conñgurat-ion also designated 22
in FIG. 1.
,
.
,
achieve purging of the brewed chamber. Still another
object is to provide a single cup brewing `apparatus in
Briefly, the sequence of filling the »brewing chamber
which a novel arrangement of hot water storage facilities 60 20 comprises closing the bottom closure 21, opening the
is employed to uniformize the brewed coffee output. Yet
top closure 22, pivoting the funnel 24 into the dotted
another object is to provide single cup brewing apparatus
yline condition, discharging fresh coffee particles from the
hopper 11 through the hopper funnel 13 into the casing
in which a novel electro-mechanical control system is em- >
ployed which renders the apparatus independent of timing
23 (as equipped with the bottom closure 21), and there
f
devices and thus achieves the desirable uniformity of 65 after closing the top closure 22.
quality from cup to cup while also retaining the advantage
All of the structure housed within the enclosure 10 is
ous freshly-brewed coffee aroma. Other objects and ad
schematically depicted by the block designated 10 in FIG.
vantages of this invention may be seen in the details of
2. Referring now to FIG. 2, the numeral 25 desig
construction and operation set down in this specification.
nates generally yan insulated tank forthe storage of heated
Invention will be explained in conjunction with an 70 water, the heating being achieved by a heating element 26.
illustrated embodiment in the accompanying drawing in
Water for the tank 25 `is derived from a raw - water
which
reservoir 27 _which may be equipped with 4a float valve
3,086,446
3
as a safety means to recirculate water from tank 25 to
meral 55 in FIGS. 2 and 3), and (3) the storage cham
ber 31 itself, as indicated schematically in FIG. 3. Thus,
when the water level 55 contacts electrode '35, the ground
circuit for relay 53 is completed, the relay 53 is ener
gized, and this in turn repositions the three movable con
tacts thereof 53a, 53h, and 53C to the positions therefor
reservoir 27 in the event heating element 26 should mal
shown in FIG. 3.
28. The reservoir 27 may be conveniently connected to
a metropolitan water supply (not shown) and water from
the reservoir 27 flows by gravity -through the conduit 29
to the tank 25. The tank 25 is also connected to the
reservoir 27 by means of an air vent 30 which also serves
function and overheat or boil the water in tank 25.
The contact 53a communicates with one side of the
relay 53 via iixed contact 53d and also with the long or
Positioned within the upper central portion of the tank
25 is a water storage chamber generally designated 31. 10 lower electrode 48. When the liquid level 55 drops below
the lower end of the upper or short electrode 35, the
The chamberV 31 may be insulated, although when sub
stantially fully received within the tank 25 requires little
relay 53 wil-l remain energized by virtue of the electrical
circuit established by contact 53a through the long elec
if any insulation since »it will be maintained at the tem
trode 48. This condition will continue to persist during
perature of the water within the tank 25. Further, being
the dispensing of water from the storage chamber 31 until
in the upper portion of the tank 25, it will be in contact
with the hottest water. The tank 25 and the water stor
age chamber 31 are interconnected via a conduit having
portions 32 and 33. The portion 32 extends substantially
to the bottom of the storage chamber 31 while the branch
33 is equipped with the solenoid operated valve 34 (see
also FIG. 3). Thus, when the valve 34 is opened, the
water from the tank 25, under the inñuence of pressure
exerted from the reservoir 27', ñows upwardly through
branch ’33 and downwardly through branch ‘32 into the
the level 55 drops -to the dotted line level 55a at which
time ground circuit for the relay is disrupted and relay 53
is deenergized. As indicated above, the discharge of
water from the storage chamber y31 is achieved through
the application of compressed air -from the compressor
38 and by virtue of the cooperation of the electrodes 35
and 48, the same volume of water will be dispensed fromv
the storage chamber 31 -for each operation of the mecha
nism irrespective of the liquid ñow resistance introduced
storage chamber I31. The amount of heated `water deliv 25 into the system, as by the iineness of grind of the colîee
particles within the brew chamber 20‘.
ered to the storage chamber 31 is regulated or controlled
by the liquid level element 35 which m-ay take the form
The introduction of water into the storage chamber 31
of -an electrode. The function of the control system will
to establish the level 55 is achieved at deenergization of
be ydescribed in greater detail hereinafter.
the relay 53 through the circuit closing movement of the
The water storage chamber 31 is a closed vessel ex 30 contact 53b with fixed contact 53e which is series~concept for the above-mentioned branch 32 and another
nected with the solenoid of the valve 34. During the
branch conduit 36. The branch conduit 36 along with
refilling step, which will be described in greater detail
another branch conduit 37 connects the interior of the
hereinafter, the relay 53 is not energized since there is
tank 31 with an air compressor 38. When pressurized
no complete circuit to ground through electrode 35, the
ñuid from the compressor 38 enters lthe storage chamber
water within chamber 31 and the casing of the latter.
31,`heated water from «the storage cham-ber 31 tlows up
wardly through the branch conduit 3-2 and thence -to the
brewing chamber Within the enclosure 10` as by the branch
conduit 39. The branch conduit 39 is equipped also with
Thus, the normally closed contacts 53b and 53e directs
slightly above the inlet to or bottom of branch 32. Inter
condition.
current from the voltage source V to energize the solenoid
of the rvalve 34, opening the latter, and permitting water
to flow through the branch conduits 33 and 32 into the
a solenoid operated valve `40 and when the valve 40 is 40 storage chamber 31. When su?l‘icient water has entered
opened, the valve 34 is closed.
the storage chamber 31 to raise the level to that designated
When heated w-ater flows upwardly through the enclo
55 (FIG. 3), the circuit through the electrode 35, the
sure 10, the brewing chamber having its top and bottom
waterwithin chamber 31 and the casing of the chamber
closures 22 and 21, respectively, closed at this point, it
31 is completed, again energizing the relay 53 and opening
extracts the fresh cotîee particles and thence flows via
the contact 53b by moving it to its FIGURE 3 position
the conduit 41 to a three-Way valve 42. At this time the
and thereby `shutting off valve 34.
valve element 4‘3 of the 'valve 42 is positioned to commu
A third movable contact 53e associated with the relay
nicate the conduit 41 to conduit l44 which terminates in
53 is normally engaged with contact 53f, but when the
a discharge head 45 positioned above a cup or other recep
relay 53 is energized (i.e., in the condition shown in
tacle 46 mounted within a cup holder 47 provided as part 50 FIG. 3), the movable contact 53C closes with its asso
of the frame 10a of the vending machine.
ciated ñxed contact 53g. This enables the current to flow
The over-all cycle of operation will now be described
yfrom the voltage source V through the contact 52a of
in greater detail and with specific reference to FIG.l 3,
the coin switch 52 and through the contacts 53e and
which is a schematic wiring diagram. The wiring dia
53g. From here, current llows through the contact 56a
gram, in addition to valves 34, 40 and 42 previously de 55 of `switch 56. The switch 56 is maintained in its FIGURE
scribed and t-he electrode l35 and compressor 38, includes
3 position by virtue of the cam 49a provided as part of
a long electrode 48 (see also FIG. 2)- which is positioned
the brew motor 49 which is now in the “rest” or “ready”
Still following the tlow of current through
connected into the control circuit is the motor 49' of the
switch 52, relay contact 53C, and switch 56, current
manipulating mechanism 19 and two solenoids 50 and 5'1 60 then tlows through the normally closed contacts 54a and
which are associated with the coin switch 52 provided as
54d (deenergiz'ed position) of vend relay 54, and thence
part of a conventional vending machine coin mechanism.
through the coil 5G. The coil 50 is associated with a coin
Further, the electromechanical circuit includes an isolat
return or coin reject mechanism (not shown), and when
ing transformer T and multi-contact relays 53 and 54.
thecoil 50 is not energized, a coin inserted into the
Just before a coin is inserted into the coin mechanism 65 vending machine is inelîective to start the vending cycle.
(not shown) of the vending machine (also >not shown),
It will be appreciated that this is a conventional expedient
the electromechanical elements are in the condition seen
and it may assume a variety of forms well known to those
in FIG. 3. Voltage is continuously applied to the circuit
skilled in the art so that it is believed that additional
as at V and the voltage is applied to the primary of the
details of operation need not be given here. Thus, during
transformer T. One _side of the'secondary of the trans 70 the iilling of storage chamber 31, the relay contact 53C
former T is grounded as at Tg'; The otheruside of the
must be open or engaged with contact 53)c and a. coin
secondary of the transformer T is coupled to the relay
inserted into the vending machine will be rejected because
53, the other side of the relay 53 .going to Iground through
coil 50 is not energized.
(l) the electrode 35, (2) the water .Within the storage
During this same “ready” condition, the relay 54 is not
chamber 31 (the level of which is designated by the nu 75 energized inasmuch `as the coin switch 52 is positioned
3,086,446
5
6
The flow of water (ultimately coffee), -as just described,
persists until the liquid level 55 falls to the level desig
nated 55a in FIG. 3. This phenomenon signals the end
of the brewing cycle Iand immediately deenergizes the re
54a, 54b yand 54e, of which 54b `and 54C are of the Ul lay 53, there then being no completed circuit to ground
through the casing of the storage chamber 31. Upon de
normally open variety and 54a is normally closed, this
energization of the relay 53, the contact 53e reverts to its
`last contact having been referred to just previously. When
normal condition engaged with contact 53]“, which causes
relay 50 is energized contact 54b is connected through
as shown, i.e., coupled to contact`52a. Introduction of
a coin changes the position of switch 52 to establish a path
for current flow through contact 52b.
The relay 54 is Vequipped with three movable contacts
current to ñow through contacts 59b and 57b (cams being
ñxed contact 54e «in series with the switch 57 operated
by motor cam 49b, and with the brew motor 49 itself 10 at 180° position from shown) to brew motor 49, causing
the brew motor to rotate 180° and stop upon the disen
through contact 57a. This serves to actuate the motor
gagement of contact 5717 by operation of switch 57.
49 for a manipulation of the various closures, hopper,
During the second `180" rotation, the bottom closure 21
etc., when a vending cycle is initiated. Contact 54e of
is opened and, with valve `42 positioned to communicate
rel-ay S4 is connected via iîxed contact 54;c in series wi-th
the coil of relay 54 and the contact 58a of switch 58 15 branch conduits 36a and 41, the air from compressor 38
purges the conduit `41 of residual liquid and the brew
(which .is held in a closed position by the cam 49e when
chamber 20 of coffee grounds, as will be explained in
the brewer is in “rest” position), causing relay 54 to
detail hereinbelow.
stay “locked in” once it is energized.
The disengagement of switch 56 with the contact 5611
Upon the introduction of a coin into the vending
machine, the switch 52 is closed momentarily. The 20 results in stopping the compressor 38 and closing valve
40, thus stopping the ñow of water through the con
closing of switch 52- energizes the relay 54 closing con
duits 32 and 39 to the brew chamber. Thus, -air under
tacts 54b with 54e and 54e with 541‘, and opening contact
pressure is confined in conduits 37 and 36a between com
54a. The closing of contact 54b results in actuation of
pressor 38 and valve 42 as well as in conduit 36 and
the brew motor 49, which is provided as part of the
manipulating mechanism 19 in the following manner. 25 chamber 31 between the compressor and the water
trapped in conduit 32, between chamber 31 and the
Current ilows from the voltage source V through contact
closed valve 40. Thereafter, as can be appreciated from
54b, through the contact 57a of cam-operated switch
the contours of cams 49a and 49C, the engagement of
S7, and through the brew motor 49. The switch 57 is a
switch 58 with the contact 58a changes the condition of
cam-operated switch. When the brew motor has ro
tated a few degrees, the cam action causes switch 57 to V30 the valve 42 from that shown in FIG. 2 to where the
compressor 38 is connected to the top of the brew cham
lchange position to engage contact 57 b, thereby keeping the
ber 20, this being achieved through branch conduit «37,
brew motor energized through the contact 57b (held in
engaged position by the cam 49b) of switch 5'7. The
branch conduit 36a (see FIG. 2), valve 42 and conduit
brew motor will continue to -rotate 180°, at which time
l41. Here it will be appreciated that the top closure 22 is
switch 59 will change position from contact 59a under
the influence of cam 49d-thereby breaking the flow of
equipped with an upstanding nipple 22a (see FIG. l) for
the connection thereto of the conduit 41, which may in
clude a length of flexible tubing. In the same fashion,
ythe lower closure 21 is equipped with Ia nipple 21a for
coupling thereto of the branch -conduit 39.
54f has caused relay 54` to remain energized until the
With the reorientation of the valve element 43 of the
-brew motor cam 49C has rotated substantially 90° coun 40
three-way valve 42, air from the compressor 38 now
terclockwise from its position shown in FIGURE 3 caus
enters the top closure 22 and `is etfective to purge the
ing switch 58 operated by cam 49c to change its position
finely divided grounds from the screen ` (not shown)
to engage open contact 58b, breaking the flow of current
located therein. The screen in the top closure 22 is
~to relay 54,'thereby .allowing relay 54 to return to its
normal position. At the same time switch 58, by engaging 45 analogous to the screen 2lb provided in the bottom
closure 21 and which is seen in fragmentary- detail in
open contact 58b, also breaks the ñow of current to the
FIG. l. It will Ibe appreciated that a separate valved
three-way valve 42 causing valve 42 to communicate
line from the compressor may be employed to flush the
branch conduits 41 and 44.
bottom lid 21.
Upon initial actuation of the brew motor 49, the lower
During this operational sequence, as pointed out above,
closure 21 of the brew chamber 20 is closed, the upper 50
the lower closure 21 is open so that the grounds adhering
closure 22 having previously been moved to the open
or occluding to the screen in the upper closure 22 are
condition and the funnel 24 vertically oriented as shown
effectively ‘flushed away and through the now opened
in .broken line in FIG. l. The actuation of the brew
. trap door` 18 into -a removable receiver 18a (see FIIG. l).
motor 49 causes the hopper 11 to dispense a predetermined
amount of fresh coffee particles into the brew chamber 55 In this connection, it will be appreciated that some
residual liquid will remain in the conduit 41 at the close
20, after which the funnel 24 is pivoted to the solid line
of the brewing cycle and the compressed air from the
condition of FIG. l ‘and the top closure 22 closed. As
Acompressor 38 is therefore eifective to first vforce this
stated above, the brew motor will >stop after it has rotated
current to the brew motor and causing it to stop.
Meanwhile the> closure of the contact 54C with contact
180°.
’
residual liquid through the brew chamber 20. Thus, the
When the brew motor cam 49a has rotated substantially 60 storage chamber 31 is adapted to dispense each vending
cycle an amount of water slightly in excess of a cup, the
180° from its FIGURE 3 position, the cam-operated
switch 56 will change position, engaging contact 55611
which energizes the compressor 38 and opens the valve
40 so that the- compressed air from the compressor 38
flows through the branch conduits 37 and 36 into'the
water storage chamber 31. Since thevalve 40 is now
open, the pressure within the chamber 31 forces heated
water -upwardly through the branch conduit 32 through
the valve 4t) and the branch conduit 39 into the brewing
chamber ‘20. As stated before, the three-way valve 42
ordinary cup comprising labout 160 cc. Depending upon
the length and orientation of the conduit 41, there may be
provided each vending cycle an amount of water of the
order of 180 cc. issuing from the storage chamber 31.
The sequential purging by liquid and air provides a
felicitous combination in materially removing occluded
spent particles of coffee from the screen inthe upper
closure 22. Here it will be appreciated that the Iliquid
initially forced downwardly through the brew chamber
20 during this purging cycle is essentially waste liquid,
has operated to communicate branch conduits 41 and 44
so that the water entering the enclosure 10` through the
'since it represents the last water passing through the
» con'duit`39 can exit therefrom through the conduit 41
already-extracted coffee particles and which is therefore
substantially ineifective to extract any of the Coffe
past valve 42 and ultimately with the extracted coiîee be
discharged into the cup 46.
75
llavor.
,
,
‘
3,086,446
7
-Once the purging step has been completed, the con
duit system is at atmospheric pressure. This facilitates
the refilling of the storage chamber 31. The conduit to
atmosphere from the chamber 31 includes the conduits
36, 36a and 41, along with the valve 42 shifted to its
alternate position from the condition thereof shown in
FIG. 2 and chamber 10 which is vented to atmosphere.
As pointed out previously, the valve 34 is opened by
virtue of the contact 53b reverting to its normally closed
condition, and this permits the introduction of heated
water into the storage chamber 31 under the influence of
pressure exerted by the elevated reservoir 27. Mean
while, the brew motor 49 is completing its second 180°
rotation and through the linkage system 60 (see FIG. l)
closes the trap door 13.
The linkage system 60 includes members 61 and 62
Vbetween the top opening 1-2 and the chamber 20. Thus,
ground Icoffee being delivered through the funnel 13 is
confined within the spout 24 in its downward path into
the chamber 20 and any tendency of the ground coffee
to spread out or spray is inhibited.
Here, it is to be
appreciated that the conservation of the ground coffee
being `delivered by the hopper to the `brewing chamber
is important, inasmuch as only about one-quarter ounce
of coffee is delivered at a time-_that quantity being all
10 that is necessary for the brewing of a single cup quan
tity of liquid coffee.
Pivoting of the spout 24 from the solid line position to
the dotted line position in FIG. l is effected by the move
ment ‘of the top closure 22 from the solid line position
to the dotted line position, and specifically through the
action of an extension member 79 which is interconnected
to the spout 24 and the enclosure 10 by means of a
which are pivotally interconnected with the member 62
being pivotally interconnected to a lug 63 upstanding
spring 80 and 81, respectively. The foregoing apparatus
from the trap door 18. A coiled spring 64 is intercon
has been described in some detail to acquaint those prac
nected between the enclosure 10l and the pivotal inter 20 titioners in the art with the mode of operation of the
connection 65 between member `62 and lug 63 which
overall apparatus disclosed herein. Further details of
tends to maintain the door 1S in a closed condition. The
the construction and operation of the various elements
linkage member 61 is pivotally mounted as at 61a on the
within the enclosure 10 may be derived from a considera
enclosure 10 and affords a portion 66 thereof to act as a
cam follower bearing against a cam 68 attached to the
shaft 67 of the brew motor 49. The cam roller 68a of
tion of my previous Patent No. 2,931,288, issued April 5,
the cam 68 is operative to engage the upper end of the
linkage member 61 to open the door 18 in order to dis
finds advantageous application here, is the provision in
ing and closing the top and bottom closures 22 and 21,
liquid and air impinging thereon also cleanse the lower
closure 21.
The apparatus herein described makes for yan advan
1960.
Also described in the above-mentioned patent and which
the lower closure 21 of a baflie element 82 which is sub
charge spent coffee grounds from the brew chamber 20.
stantially coextensive with the screen 21b within the
Again dotted and full line representations of the linkage 30 closure 21 and serves tto divert hot water flowing into
element 61 designate the different conditions thereof in
the chamber 20 and thus prevent channeling. Addition
the course of operation of the brewing apparatus.
ally, the baffle 82 cooperates with the screen 21b during
The means provided in the illustration given for open
the purging operation to serve as a splash plate -so that
respectively, includes a cam 69 affixed to the motor
shaft 67. rIhus, Ias the shaft 67 is rotated, the cam 69‘
is also rotated. As can be seen in FIG. l, the bottom
tageous operation in the brewing of single cup quantities
closure 21 is mounted on an arm 70 which is pivotally
of coffee. The problems of non-uniformity of quality
mounted in the enclosure 10 as at 71. The bottom closure
from cup to cup and considerable elapse of time between
21 is carried at one end of the arm 70, while the other 40 subsequent cups have been solved. Additionally, a com
end of the arm 70 is pivotally connected to a spring 72
pact and advantageous hot water storage unit is provided.
as at 73.
«It will be appreciated that because of the very small
An arm similar to arm 70 is provided for the top
closure and is designated by .the numeral 74. The upper
quantity of water to be dispensed each cycle, that even a
small variation in the amount is intolerable. For ex
end of spring 72 is connected to one end of the arm 74 45 ample, the allowable variation in volume is about i5 cc.
as at 7S. The arm 74 is pivotally mounted within the
With the arrangement of the storage chamber 31 within
enclosure as at 76.
Each arm 70 and 74 carries a cam
follower roller (77 in the case of arm 70 `and 78 in the
caseV of arm 74) which bears against the cam 69 and
the tank 25, cup quantities within this tolerable variation
can be achieved.
However, discharging water from a
larger tank directly into the brewing chamber would not
operates to position the top and bottom closures 22 and 50 permit operation within these small limits, since the en
21 in an open or closed position, depending upon the
t-r-ained or occluded air would permit excessive com
position of the cam contacted by the roller. For example,
in FIG. 1, the cam follower roller 77 associated with the
lower closure larm 70 is in contact with a depressed por
pressibility of the water. Further, the “breathing” of
the larger tank because of temperature differentials would
more than exceed the allowable variation. These effects
tion of the cam 69 so that the bottom `closure 21 is open, 55 can be more fully appreciated when .the ordinary tank 25
and this is shown by the solid line condition of the lower
is understood to have a volume of the order of six gallons,
closure 21.
while a cup quantity of coffee 4runs about five and one
Correspondingly, the upper arm cam fol
lower roller 78 is shown bearing against the portion of
third ounces (approximately 30 cc. per ounce). Thus,
the permissible variation is plus or minus one-sixth ounce,
sealing relationship with the casing 23 of the brewing 60 and this would be readily exceeded except for the inter
chamber 20. As the cam 69 rotates (the rotation being
position of the storage chamber 3.1. In the illustration
clockwise, as seen in FIG. 1), it is to be appreciated that
given, the storage chamber 31 may be a stainless steel,
ñrst the bottom closure is opened and thereafter the top
closed-ended cylindrical tube having an outside diameter
closure is opened, but that at certain positions of the cam
of 2.1/2" with a 5" length, a convenient wall thickness
69, both closures are in a closed position. During the 65 being 0.062”.
While in the foregoing specification I have set forth a
closing of the bottomY closure, the top closure is being
opened due to the peripheral contour of the cam shown,
detailed description of an embodiment of the invention
and it is this condition which exists at the time a coin is
for the purpose of illustration thereof, many variations
inserted into the coin mechanism of the vending machine
in the details herein given may be made lby those skilled
(not shown). However, the configuration of elements 70 in the art without `departing from the spirit and scope of
the invention.
seen in FIG. 1 corresponds to that immediately following
I claim:
the brewing cycle when the lower closure 21 is opened
for the purging step.
1. In coffee brewing apparatus adapted to brew sin
Also pivotally mounted within the enclosure 10 is the
gle cup quantities, a frame, a brew chamber mounted
spout or yfunnel 24. The spout 24 can be vertically aligned
on said frame and equipped with an inlet and outlet, a
the cam that urges the top closure 22 into a closed and
3,086,446
water storage chamber on said framegmeans on said
frame »for maintaining lwater in said storage chamber
-at an elevated temperature, conduit means coupling the
ybottom of said storage chamber with said brew cham
10
closures, a coffee hopper on said Iframe above said cham
Aber adapted to discharge fresh coífee particles into said
chamber through said top closure when the same is open,
a spent particle receiver on said `frame below said cham
therefrom through said conduit means into said brew
f chamber, and 'additional means for introducing said pres
ber adapted to receive spent particles from said cham
ber, means on said Aframe for selectively positioning said
closures, a water storage chamber on said frame hav
ing a volume of slightly in excess of a cup quantity,
surized gas into said brew chamber outlet.
means on said frame for introducing water into said
ber inlet, means on said `frame lfor introducing a pres
surized gas into said storage chamber to force water
2. lIn coiîee brewing apparatus adapted to brew sin v10 storage chamber and maintaining the same at a tem
perature just below boiling, valve equipped conduit means
gle cup quantities, a frame, a brew chamber mounted
coupling the lower interior of said storage chamber with
on said frame and equipped with an inlet and outlet, a
the passage providing means of said bottom closure,
water storage chamber on said Iframe, means on said
means on said frame for internally pressurizing said stor
iframe for maintaining water in said storage chamber
age chamber to force water through said conduit means
`at an' elevated temperature, conduit means coupling said
into said brew chamber, valve equipped conduit means
storage chamber with said brew chamber inlet, means
`coupling said pressurizing means with the passage pro
-o'n'said frame for introducing a pressurized gas into said
viding means of said top closure, and means for closing
storage chamber to force water therefrom through said
conduit means into said brew chamber, additional means
-the valve of the first-mentioned conduit means and open
for periodically introducing said pressurized gas into said 20 ling said botom closure while said top closure is closed
and said pressurizing means is operative whereby said
vbrew chamber via said outlet, and means for controlling
’pressurizing means ñrst impels extracting water through
.said introducing means.
`coffee particles in one direction of -ilow and thereafter
3'. In coiïee brewing apparatus adapted to brew sin
"purges said brew chamber by‘pressure Ifluid flow in the
v gle cup ~quantities,.a frame, a brew chamber mounted
>on said lframe and equipped with an inlet and outlet, a 25
`opposite ì direction.
water storage chamber on said frame, means on said
7. In apparatus for sequentially brewing single cup
Áframe «for maintaining water in said storage chamber
Yat an elevated temperature, conduit means coupling the
bottom of said storage chamber with said brew cham
quantities of coiiee, a frame, a brewing chamber mounted
on said -frame and equipped with openable top and bot
means, and valve-equipped conduit means coupling said
introducing means4 with -the said brew chamber outlet`
4. In coffee brewing apparatus adapted to brew sin
"closures, a» water storage chamber on said frame hav
'tom closures, passage providing means in each of said
ber inlet, means on said frame -for introducing a pres 30 closures, a coffee hopper on said frame above said cham.
ber adapted to discharge -fresh coiiee particles into said
surized gas into said storagechamber to force water
-chamber through said top closure when the same is open,
therefrom through said conduit means into said brew
_a spent particle’recei'ver on said -frame below said cham
chamber, means in said storage chamber responsive to
‘ber- adapted to receive spent particles from said cham
the water level therein for controlling said introducing
ber, Vmeans on said frame for selectively positioning said
.ing >a volume of slightly in excess of a cup quantity,
~means. on‘sa-id frame for‘introducing water into said
gle cup quantities, a frame, a brew chamber mounted
on said -framenand equipped with an inlet and outlet, a 40 storage chamber and maintaining the same at a tem
perature 4just below boiling, valve equipped conduit means
`water- storage chamberr on said frame, means on said
frame for maintainingy water in -said storage chamber
at an elevated temperature, conduit means coupling the
bottom of said storage chamber with said brew cham
ber inlet, means on said »frame -for introducing a pres
surized gas into said storage chamber to force water 45
therefrom through said conduit means into said brewA
chamber, an insulated water tank about said storage
chamber, means >for introducing water into said tank and
mean-s lfor heating said water to elevated temperature
whereby said tank and heating means provide said main 50
taining means, valve-equipped conduit means coupling
said tank and chamber, and additional valve-equipped
:coupling the lower interior of said storage chamber with
`the passage >providing means of said bottom closure,
means on said `frame for internally pressurizing said stor
age chamber to force water through said conduit means
into said brew chamber, valve equipped conduit means
coupling said pressurizing means with the passage pro
viding means of said top closure, and electro-mechanical
means for controlling said valves, pressurizing means and
positioning means to iirst liow water `from said storage
chamber upwardly through said brew chamber and there
after tlow pressure fluid downwardly through said brew
chamber.
8. The structure of claim 7 in which said storage cham
conduit means coupling said gas introducing means with
ber is supported within an insulated tank, means in said
said brew chamber outlet.
55 tank for heating water contained therein, valve equipped
5. In coffee brewing apparatus, a frame, a brew cham
conduit means communicating the interiors of said tank
ber on said frame and equipped with a liquid -inlet in
and storage chamber, said electro-mechanical means being
the lower portion thereof and a liquid outlet in the up
operative to open the valve in the last-mentioned con
per portion thereof, means in said frame -for introduc
ing sequentially single cup quantities of solid coffee into 60 duit means to achieve water flow from said tank to said
storage chamber ‘after downward ñow of said pressure
said chamber, a water storage chamber on said frame
ñuid.
having -a capacity slightly in excess of a -single cup, valve
9. The structure of claim 8 in which said storage
e'quipped conduit means coupling the lower portion of
chamber is equipped with vertically spaced apart liquid
said storage chamber with said liquid inlet, means for
internally pressurizing said storage chamber to direct 65 level sensing elements operatively connected to said elec
tro-mechanical means, the lower of said sensing elements
water through said conduit means, means for maintain
being operative to signal said electro-mechanical means
ing water in said storage chamber at an elevated tem
perature, valve equipped conduit means coupling said in
ternally pressurizing means with said liquid outlet, and
for changing the condition of the valves in each of said
conduit means.
10. The structure of claim 9 in which the upper of
means for oppositely controlling the valves of said con 70
said sensing elements is operative to signal said electro
duit means.
Y
mechanical means for changing the condition of the valve
6. In apparatus for sequentially brewing single cup
in said l-ast-mentioned conduit means.
quantities of coffee, a frame, a brewing chamber mounted
l1. The structure of claim 10 in which said frame is
on said frame and equipped with openable top and bot
tom closures, passage providing means in each of said 75 equipped with coin insertion actuated switch means oper
3,086,446
11
ative to change the condition of the valves in the conduit
means coupling said storage and brew chambers and cou
pling said pressurizing means with said brew chamber.
12. In apparatus for sequentially brewing single cup
quantities of coffee, a iframe, a brewing chamber mounted
on said frame and equipped with openable top and bottom
closures, a ilow port in each closure, a iìrst conduit
coupled with the top closure ñow port and adapted to
dispense liquid coffee from said flow port into a cup,
screen means in said top closure in the path of the fluid
passing through the flow port thereof, a coiîee hopper on
said frame above said brew chamber and adapted to
discharge fresh coffee particles into said brew chamber,
means on said frame for positioning said closures in open
and closed positions, a water storage chamber on said
frame, means for maintaining the water in said storage
12
holder means, a source of heated water on said frame,
means for introducing pressurized gas to said source and
said discharge conduit means, inlet conduit means cou
pling the other of said ports with said source, and means
including valve means coupled to said conduit means `for
sequentially causing said pressurized gas to first force
water from said source through said inlet conduit means
«and brew chamber to brew liquid coffee from the said par
ticles and discharge the same into a cup on said holder
means and thereafter to purge said discharge conduit
means and said brew chamber of residual liquid.
15. In apparatus Afor brewing. coffee, a brew chamber,
having inlet and outlet means, means for introducing fresh
coffee particles into said brew chamber, a source of heated
water, a source of pressurized gas, Íirst conduit means
coupling said source of pressurized gas with said source
chamber at an elevated temperature, a second conduit
of heated water and the latter with the inlet means on
communicating the lower interior of said storage chamber
said brew chamber, second conduit means coupling said
source of pressurized gas with the outlet means on said
with the lower closure flow port, a source of compressed
air on said frame, means communicating said source with 20 brew chamber, valve means in each of said conduit means,
and means for operating said valve means in preselected
said storage chamber, a third conduit communicating
sequence ñrst to cause said pressurized gas to force water
said source with the first-mentioned conduit, and electro
through said inlet means and said brew chamber to brew
mechanical means operatively connected to said conduits
and positioning means 4for sequentially ñowing water up
liquid cotîee from said coffee particles and discharge the
wardly through said screen means when said closures are 25 same through said outlet means and thereafter to cause
closed and flowing pressure fluid downwardly through
said pressurized gas to flow through said outlet means
and brew chamber to purge the same of residual liquid
said bottom closure is opened.
and cotïee.
16. The combination as set forth in claim 15, including
13. The structure of claim 12 in wlîich said ñrst con
duit is equipped with a three-way valve, said third con 30 screen means mounted in said brew chamber for confining
the coffee particles therein and preventing the same from
duit being coupled to said valve, said second conduit
said screen means when said top closure is closed and
being equipped withan on-otî valve, said electro-mechani
cal means being operative to position said'three-way valve
for communicating said source and brew chamber after
said on-olî valve is positioned in closed position.
14. In apparatus for sequentially brewing single cup
quantities of colfee, a frame, a brew chamber on said
frame, a pair of closures on said chamber, each equipped
with a flow port, means on said frame for positioning said
closures in open and closed positions, means for intro 40
ducing `fresh colïee particles into said brew chamber,
cup holder means on said frame, discharge conduit means
communicating between one of said ports and said cup
escaping through said outlet means, the positioning of said
screen means being such that the same is adapted to be
purged of residual coffee particles by said pressurized gas
and residual liquid.
References Cited in the tile of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,786,408
2,887,038
2,931,288
Herrera _____________ __ Mar. 26, 1957
Rosander ____________ _... May 19,V 1959
Totten ________________ __ Apr. 5, 1960
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