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Патент USA US3086558

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April 23, 1963
3,086,549
M. K. FIND
VENT FOR FUEL STORAGE TANKS
Filed Aug. 15. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
3. INVENTOR:
‘
BY
MARIE
‘ K.
F INO
,
A TTORNE Y
April 23, 1963
M. K. FINO
3,086,549
VENT FOR FUEL STORAGE TANKS
Filed Aug. 15, 1960
FIG.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
9
‘FIG. 4
[-16.6
INVENTOR:
MARIE K. FINO
FIG. 5
-
BY
‘
A TTORNE Y
United States Patent 0 ’
3,086,549
Patented Apr. 23, 1963
2
is.
vide a new and novel venting device for tanks, particularly
3,086,549
those containing highly in?ammable volatile liquids, which
Marie K. Fina, 51 Hillside Drive, R.D., Warren, Pa.
Filed Aug. 15, 196i), Ser. No. 49,465
2 Claims. (Cl. 137-493)
may be mounted to discharge the vapors in a horizon
tal plane over the tank roof whereby the vapors are car
ried away from the tank roof and do not impinge on the
steel thereof so that the hereinbefore described dangers
VENT FOR FUEL STORAGE TANKS
which might result from ignition of the dis-charged vapor
This invention relates generally to venting devices and
is directed particularly to improvements in storage tank
are‘ completely avoided.
The foregoing and many other desirable objects are
vents.
Storage tanks or storage vessels of the type designed 10 obtained by the provision of a casing which is divided into
two chambers by means of a taut resilient or elastic dia
for volatile ?uid are required to have connected there
phragm. The casing has connected with it and opening
with a suitable venting means whereby to relieve air or
through a wall thereof a tubular member which is adapted
vapors from within when the product to be stored is
to be secured to the tank or storage vessel in communi
pumped into the vessel and also to permit the entry of
air when‘ the stored product is withdrawn from the vessel. 15 cation with the interior thereof and such tubular member
opens into one of the chambers of the casing.
Conventional venting devices as at present in use have
The other chamber of the casing has an apertured
certain drawbacks, among which are that they are costly
closure wall or weather cap‘ and between this apertured
to manufacture, inetfective for positive sealing, and in
closure wall or weather cap and the diaphragm there are
cold climates tend to freeze up with the result that tank
positioned two overlapping but spaced apart weather de
failure frequently occurs. In many instances companies
?ectors. The normally taut diaphragm dividing the two
remove portions of the conventional structures which pro
chambers of the casing is provided with a multiplicity of
vide desired sealing action to prevent freezing danger and
normally closed slits or punctures which upon the devel
as a result large losses of the stored volatile liquid occurs.
opment of a predetermined pressure increase or pressure
In the light of the foregoing it is a particular object of
the present invention to provide a new, novel and simply 25 reduction on one side of the diaphragm, or, in other
words, upon the development of a suitable pressure dif
constructed venting device for storage tanks or storage
ferential in the two chambers which will cause the dia
vessels which will function efficiently to relieve interior
phragm to bulge in one direction, become opened so as to
pressure when such develops as, for example, when the
relieve pressure from within the tank or storage vessel
tank or vessel is being ?lled and also to permit the en
trance of air into the tank or vessel when the contained 30 or to permit air to enter the vessel to compensate for a
?uid is being withdrawn.
.
reduced pressure therein.
’
Another object of the invention is to provide a new
Such diaphragm is designed as to weight and resiliency
and novel venting device as above described which is so
designed that freeze up: cannot occur and therefore the
so as to withstand a predetermined amount of pressure
storage of gasoline or other volatile ?uids are required
to be of a construction or design to permit slight pres
the escape of any moisture which may develop in the
chamber from condensation or which may succeed in
sure within the tank or vessel, such as pressure from one 40
entering the chamber through the perforated weather cap
or two ounce-s for large vessels, to prevent rapid breath
ing losses due to temperature expansion and to avoid
and past the weather de?ectors.
Other objects and many attendant advantages of the
windage loss such as will occur as a result of air currents
present invention will become more apparent when con
without bulging and causing the slits or punctures to
necessity for opening the vent or opening the tank to per 35 open and the casing is also provided on the weather side
of the diaphragm or in a wall of the chamber on the
mit vapor losses during freezing weather is removed.
Venting devices for tanks or.vessels designed for the
weather side, with suitable drainage means for permitting
moving or blowing over the vent opening.
For large
sidered in connection with the speci?cation and accom
?eld storage tanks or vessels such vents vary in size of 45
panying drawings, wherein:
from four to twelve inches in diameter and must be
FIG. 1 illustrates a conventional storage tank or recep~
tacle in section on a vertical diametrical plane and show
ing mounted upon the roof thereof a venting device con
structed in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a view in front elevation of one embodiment
of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a vertical section taken substantially on the
capable of' emitting large volumes of vapor or air, other-.
wise the tank or vessel may fail due to excessive internal
pressure or pressure reduction.
Another object of the present invention is accordingly
to provide a new and novel type of venting device which
is designed to permit or withstand a predetermined amount
of vacuum imposed thereon or of pressure f-rom’within
the vessel whereby breathing losses are reduced to a mini
mum and which device is also capable of emitting large
volumes of vapor or air when required whereby failure
of the tank or storage vessel will not occur.
line 3-3‘ of FIG. 2 and showing in broken lines within
the casing the bowed positions to which the diaphragm
‘may be de?ected as a result of pressure diiferentia'ls de
Veloped in the casing chambers.
FIG. 4 is a front elevational view on an enlarged scale
'Another feature associated with conventional vents
of the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, with a
portion of the weather cap broken away and with a por
such as are at present in use, which is not desirable, re
sides in the fact that the arrangement of such conven— 60 tion of one internal weather de?ector broken away and
tional vents requires that the vent be mounted absolutely
showing beyond the same the ?exible or elastic dia
phragm.
horizontally. In such position the vents are equipped
with a weather hood which de?ects discharged vapors
FIG. 5 illustrates on an enlarged scale a portion of
onto the tank roof. As a consequence of this, should the
a diaphragm showing one form of perforation or man
65
vented vapor be of an in?ammatory nature and become
ner of cutting the diaphragm to provide relief openings
ignited, the burning vapor will act :as a blow torch on
when the diaphragm is stretching.
the metal roof of the tank which will result in the burn
ing of the roof plates and therefore produce a major con‘
FIG. 6 is a sectional detail on a greatly enlarged scale,
taken substantially on the line 7—7 of FIG. 5 and illus
trating the closed condition of the slit or puncture when
?agration with complete loss of the tank and the product
therein.
It is a further object, in View of the foregoing, to pro
70 the diaphragm is relaxed.
FIG. 7 is a sectional view corresponding to FIG. 6
3,086, 549
if}
3
and illustrating the manner in which a slit or puncture
opens under pressure or when the diaphragm is stretched.
FIG. 8 illustrates a portion of a diaphragm showing
another manner of forming punctures therein which punc
tures are normally tightly closed in an unstretched or
relaxed condition of the diaphragm.
which pass through the ?anges to secure the casing sec
tions together.
This diaphragm or membrane 39 may be of a suitable
material and of the necessary or suitable weight to func
tion in the desired manner. Preferably such diaphragm
or membrane may consist of synthetic rubber such as
“Buna-N” of approximately 0.040” thickness reinforced
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, nu
by nylon or other suitable synthetic material. However,
meral 10 generally designates a tank structure which, it
a thicker elastic material without internal reinforcement
will be understood, is merely a conventional illustration
for facilitating the showing and describing of the man— 10 might be used if found practicable and the same breath
ing action obtained.
ner in which the vent device is connected therewith and
The membrane or diaphragm is provided with a mul
without attempting to show any details of the tank con
tiplicity of normally closed perforations one form of
struction other than the side wall 12, bottom 14 and top
which is illustrated in FIG. 5 where such perforations
or roof 16.
The reference character F generally designates the ?uid 15 are designated 41 and are formed each by two conver
gent slits resembling one of the members of a tricuspid
in the tank, the open area above which ?uid would be
valve. These slits are normally tightly closed as illus
normally ?lled with volatile vapors of the ?uid.
trated in FIG. 6 in the relaxed condition of the dia
The numeral 18 generally designates a venting device
phragm but upon stretching of the diaphragm the edges
constructed in accordance with either of the two herein
after described embodiments of the invention and which 20 of the slit will be pulled apart thereby forming a relief
opening 42 for the passage of vapors through the dia
venting device is coupled for use with an upstanding or
phragm as shown in FIG. 7.
an upwardly directed nipple 20 carried by an opening
It will be understood that the form of perforation in
through the roof 16 of the tank to the interior thereof
the diaphragm may vary as, for example, FIG. 8 illus
and through the medium of which nipple vapors may
trates a portion of the diaphragm 39 wherein the per
pass into the venting device when required or air may
forations are in the form of punctures 43 and while these
?ow through the venting device into the tank under the
punctures are shown as holes, it is to be understood that
conditions hereinbefore described.
this would be the way in which they would appear when
The venting device as illustrated in FIGS. 2, 3, and 4
the diaphragm is stretched but in the normal or relaxed
comprises a casing generally designated C, which is here
condition of the diaphragm they would be closed so that
shown as being in the form of a cylinder divided in the
no vapor could pass through the diaphragm.
two sections 22 and 24.
Also, as has been hereinbefore set forth, the weight
The side wall of the section 22 of the casing has an
of the diaphragm and its physical character would be
opening 25 therein in which is ?tted an end of a tubular
selected so as to enable it to resist a certain amount of
neck 26, the opposite end of which is shown ?anged as
at 27 to facilitate its attachment to the nipple 20 which 00 U' pressure before it would be bowed or stretched to the
latter element is shown with a surrounding top end ?ange
28 against which the ?ange 27 is ?tted and the ?anges
degree necessary to open the perforations.
The conditions under which the diaphragm would
are secured together by bolts 29 or in any other suitable
yield to pressure to open the perforations may also be
controlled or regulated by the structural arrangement
While the top end of the neck portion 26 is here 40 illustrated in FIG. 9'. In this ?gure it will be seen that
the casing is of the same form as that illustrated in the
shown as ?tted in the opening 25 this is merely to illus
preceding ?gures but that there is positioned over one
trate one suitable connection which may be employed and
side of the diaphragm a plate 43, the periphery of which
is not intended to limit the construction in any sense.
is secured with the peripheral portion of the diaphragm
The casing section 22 has a back imperforate wall 30
between the ?anges 32 and 34. This plate is provided
and the side or surrounding wall 31 the free edge of which
with a central opening 44 which is of a diameter mate
is de?ned by the encircling ?ange 32.
rially less than the inside diameter of the casing. As a
The section 24 of the casing is likewise de?ned by an
result it will be seen that when the plate is located on the
encircling wall 33 corresponding in diameter with the
side of the diaphragm adjacent to the casing section 24
wall 31 and having an end edge de?ned by a surrounding
?ange 34 adapted to co-act with the ?ange 32 for coupling 50 the pressure from within the tank will have to be con
manner.
the casing sections together.
The casing section 24 forms What may be de?ned as
a weather cap and the forward end of the wall carries the
outwardly bowed apertured wall 35, the apertures in which
siderably higher to blow the diaphragm to the extent nec
essary to open the apertures therein, than Would be the
pressure imposed on the diaphragm ‘from the atmosphere.
In FIG. 3 the diaphragm is illustrated as bowed both
55 inwardly and outwardly, the inward bowing being shown
are designated 36.
in broken lines designated 45 and the outward bowing
Within the forward section 24 of the casing or within
being in broken lines designated 46. These illustrated
the weather cap there are provided the two overlapping
but spaced apart Weather de?ector plates 37 and 38.
One of these plates, here shown as the plate 37, is se
cured to the top portion of the wall 35 to depend there
from through approximately two-thirds the height of the
bowings of the diaphragm represent the manner in which
it would be affected respectively by a reduction of pres
60 sure within the tank or by an increase of pressure therein.
Likewise in FIG. 9 the smaller outward bowing of the
diaphragm shown in broken lines designated 47 would be
casing. The other de?ector 38 is secured to the lower
created by relatively high pressure from Within the tank,
most part of the wall 33 and extends upwardly through
imposed on the diaphragm from within the chamber pro
approximately two-thirds the height of the casing in over
lapping relation with but spaced from the plate 37 as il 65 vided by the section 22 while the greater bowing of the
diaphragm represented by the broken lines '48 represents
lustrated so that there is provided a free passageway for
the effect thereon by a reduced pressure in the tank, such
air or vapors to ?ow into or out of the casing through
bowing being a result of the tank pressure dropping below
the apertures 36.
atmospheric pressure. Thus it will be seen that the
As shown the two sections 2.2 and 24 of the casing are 70 diaphragm will be alfected under changes in the relative
secured together and the casing is divided by a relatively
pressures in the two chamber portions in the casing, the
heavy ?exible and resilient membrane or diaphragm gen
inner chamber portion being generally designated 49 and
erally designated 39, the periphery of which diaphragm
the outer chamber portion being designated 50.
is secured between the supporting ?anges ‘32 and 34 where
From the foregoing it will be readily apparent that the
it is held by the bolts or other coupling elements 40‘ 75 numerous perforations in the diaphragm will remain sealed
3,086,549
5
6
when the diaphragm is in its relaxed condition.
By
“relaxed condition” is meant the condition of the dia
phragm when it is held taut across the casing. In this
condition it will not be stretched but, on the other hand,
it will not sag or be ?abby but will present a straight wall
as it is illustrated, until su?icient pressure is applied to
Without departing from the spirit or essential character
istics thereof, the present embodiment is therefore illus
trative and not restrictive, since the scope of the invention
is de?ned in the appended claims, and all changes that
fall within the metes and bounds of the claims, or that
form their functional as well as conjointly cooperative
one side or the other to cause it to overcome its natural
equivalents, are therefore intended to- be embraced by
tendency to resist stretching and thereby cause the aper
those claims.
tures to be opened.
I claim:
The principle involved in the present invention is 10
1. A relief valve comprising a casing divided into a
such as to require only one valve element, which element
?rst half and a second half, said ?rst half having a back
is represented by the ?exible diaphragm, for relieving pres—
wall and continuous side walls joined thereto, the side
sure or for venting as required either under the effect
walls terminating in an encircling outwardly projecting
of pressure or vacuum, in place of two separately acting
?ange, said second half having a forward wall and con
elements or pallets as are used in conventional venting 15 tinuous side walls joined thereto, the side walls of the
devices. The number of apertures in the diaphragm are
second half terminating in an encircling outwardly pro
of su?icient quantity to permit full discharge equal to
the size of the opening connecting the vassembly with the
jecting ?ange, said ?anges being in opposing relation
ship, a normally ?at diaphragm of relatively thin elastic
material interposed between said ?rst and ‘second halves
Another desirable feature of the Present venting device 20 of the casing and having a peripheral portion tightly
resides in the fact that if a condition should ever develop
secured between said ?anges and dividing the casing into
roof of the tank or with the interior of the tank.
where excessive pressure or vacuum is formed beyond the
a ?rst and a second chamber, the diaphragm having per
forations therethrough which are closed when the dia
phragm is in the said normally ?at and unstretched con
and prevent damaging or failure of the tank. Replace 25 dition, a tubular body joined at one end to a side wall
ment of the diaphragm may be easily, quickly and eco
of said ?rst half and opening into said ?rst chamber, said
nomically effected by simply removing the coupling ele
front wall of said second chamber being perforated, two
ments 40 and inserting a new diaphragm.
relatively closely spaced overlapping plates located in the
The present venting device requires no machining, level
said second half of the casing between the front wall
ling or lubrication. Furthermore, the venting capacity and 30 of said second chamber and said diaphragm, said side
operating pressures can be controlled, regulated or ad
wall of the second half having a drain opening therein,
and said diaphragm perforations being opened to pass
justed by the insert ba?ie 43 shown in FIG. 9. Different
?uid upon ‘stretching and bowing of the diaphragm into
values may be obtained on the pressure and vacuum sides
by using ba?le rings or plates such as the ring or plate
either of said chambers resulting from unequal ?uid pres
43, of different or unequal opening diameters.
35 sures in the two chambers.
2. The invention according to claim 1, with means for
In the event. of moisture accumulating in the bottom
of the outer chamber 50 as a result of moisture condensa
controlling the bowing of the diaphragm in one direction
tion on the outer side of the diaphragm, such moisture
by pressure higher in one chamber than in the other, com
may be readily drained off through a drain aperture 51
prising a plate secured in the casing around its periphery
located between the weather de?ector or plate 38 and 40 between the periphery of the diaphragm and the outwardly
the diaphragm and a similar drainage opening may be
projecting ?ange of one casing half, said plate lying against
provided at 52 to permit the escape of any moisture which
a side of the diaphragm and having an opening de?ning
may accumulate in the lower part of the weather cap
an area smaller than the area of said side of the diaphragm.
venting capacity of the diaphragm the diaphragm may
rupture and thereby provide immediate emergency relief
on the outer side of the de?ector 38.
Thus the pos
sibility of ?uid accumulating in the vent and freezing and 45
thereby causing di?iculty in winter weather will be avoided.
From the foregoing it will be seen that there is pro
vided by the present invention a new and novel venting
device for tanks and receptacles containing volatile ?uids
which is of relatively simple construction so that it may be 50
economically produced and which, at the same time, will
function e?iciently for accomplishing the desired results.
As this invention may be embodied in several forms
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
967,895
1,856,492
2,166,730
2,189,084
2,875,776
2,941,544
Frederick ____________ .._ Aug. 23,
Marshall ______________ .._ May 3,
Schanck _____________ __ July 18,
Schanck ______________ __ Feb. 6,
Skipwith ______________ __ Mar. 3,
Peras ________________ __ June 21,
1910
1932
1939
1940
1959
1960
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