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Патент USA US3086665

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April 23, 1963
Filed Aug. 1e. lseo
24 ì
:M-‘Nwer mwzw`wsrmw;
Patented Apr. 23, 1963
either before or after the drainage system is in fully
operative condition, which requires little or no main
Henry J. Compton, Casco, Mich.
(RR. 2, South Haven, Mich.)
Filed Aug. 16, 196€), Ser. No. 49,949
6 Claims. (Cl. 210-153)
tenance during long periods of completely satisfactory
operation, and which is so designed that its construction
can be easily adapted to various sizes and shapes of
drainage pipes.
Other objects and purposes of this invention will be
come apparent to persons familiar with this type of de
This invention relates in general to a guard for the
entrance to a passageway through a pipe and, more par
vice upon reading the following descriptive material and
ticularly, to a type of guard which is adapted for remov lO examining the accompanying drawings, in which:
able insertion into the exposed, open end of an outlet
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a guard structure
pipe for a system of drainage tiles, and which is arranged
to prevent the entry of large objects into the passageway
while permitting the discharge of such objects from the
embodying the invention.
FIGURE 2 is au end 'elevational View of a length of
drainage pipe with the guard structure of FIGURE 1
disposed therein.
It is essential in many regions, and particularly in those
which experience the presence of large amounts of water,
tems are often used to remove excess water from iields
FIGURE 3 is a sectional View taken along the line
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken along the line
FIGURE 5 is a perspective view of said guard struc
upon which agricultural crops are raised, and they are
also used in drainage ditches which are provided for
ture showing a position occupied by the parts thereof
when they are being assembled.
to provide underground drainage systems for removing
the excess amounts of water.
For example, such sys
ñood control. Obviously it is important that the outlet
pipes from the drainage system remain unobstructed if
FIGURE 6 is a perspective view of a modified guard
structure embodying the invention.
they are to be of any benefit.
For convenience in description, the terms “upper,”
Heretofore, users and maintainers of such drainage
“lower,” “front” and “rear” and derivatives thereof will
ditches have encountered two principal sources of dith
have reference to the guard structure of the invention
substantially as appearing in FIGURES 1, 2, and 6. The
terms “innen” “outer” and words of similar import will
have reference to the geometric center of the guard struc
culty in preventing obstructions in such drainage systems
and their outlet pipes. The first problem arises from the
fact that small animals, such as rodents, will crawl into
the drainage system through the unguarded outlet pipe
ture and the drainage pipe associated therewith.
The objects and purposes of this invention, including
and will either ñll the tiles with foreign materials which
obstruct the free flow of water through the system or
the animals themselves will become lodged in the drain
age system and create an obstruction. The other prin
cipal ditliculty arises from the use of certain types of
those set forth above, have been met by providing an
improved guard structure preferably for the entry to the
passageway through the outlet pipe of a drainage sys
tem. The improved guard, which is removably insert
existing guard structures in the outlet pipes.
It is well known that even the most effective guard
structures can not prevent the entry of all small animals
able into the outlet pipe, is comprised of a base member
into the drain pipes without also obstructing the discharge 40 and a grill which is pivotally mounted upon the base
of liquid from the system. Moreover, and more im
portantly, loose roots, branches and the like often get
into the drainage system at some point upstream of the
member for movement into and out of a position trans
verse of said passageway. The base member and the
grill are constructed so that the grill can be easily mounted
upon and slidably removed from the base member when,
outlet opening. Unless some provision is made for per
mitting the discharge of such objects, they will pile up
45 but only when, the grill and the base member are sub
against the conventional guard structures and thereafter
effectively block the passageway through the outlet pipe
of the system. Thus, there has been a very pressing need
Vfor an inexpensive, effective guard structure which can _
be easily placed within a drainage pipe and which is so
constructed and arranged that it will eñectively block the
entry of undesirable objects and animals into the drain
age pipe but, at the same time, will permit the discharge
or escape of such articles and animals from the pipe
when they are accidentally trapped on the upstream side
Accordingly, the primary object of this invention has
been the provision of an improved guard structure for
the passageway through a drainage pipe whereby un
stantially completely outside of the drainage pipe in
which said guard is to be used.
Detailed Construction
The guard It) (FIGURES 1 and 5), which has been
selected to illustrate one preferred embodiment of the
invention, is comprised of a base member 4‘11 upon which
the grill 12 is mounted and pivotally supported prior to
insertion of the guard into a drainage pipe, such as the
pipe 13 shown in FIGURES 2, 3 and 4. The base mem
ber 11 and the grill 12 are preferably fabricated from
metal rod, but may be fabricated from other material,
such as plastics, which are either tubular or solid. More
over, said base member ì11 and grill 12 may be formed
desirable objects are effectively prevented from moving 60 from such materials by molding procedures.
The guard (FIGURES 2, 3 and 4) has been particu
through such passageway in the upstream direction but
larly designed for use in a substantially cylindrical pipe
which permits the downstream movement of such objects
past the guard structure with a minimum of resistance
l13: which may be of a conventional type fabricated from
sheet metal and defining a lengthwise passageway 16. In
A further object of this invention has been the provision 65 this particular embodiment, the pipe 13 has a plurality
of uniformly arranged spiral corrugations 114 which pro
of a guard structure, as aforesaid, which is extremely
sturdy in construction, which exhibits a minimum of ob
duce intermittent ridges 17 and valleys 18 along any
struction to the free ñow of liquids and the free move
lengthwise or diametrical cross section thereof, as shown
ments of small objects, such as dirt and leaves, through
in FIGURES 3 and 4. It will become apparent, however,
the passageway with said liquids, which contains a mini 70 that the guard 10 will operate, with only minor modi
mum of operating parts, which can -be easily installed
iication of its support member ill, in drainage pipes of
other cross-sectional shapes and configurations, includ
ing circular.
The base or »support member 11 includes la U-shaped
member 19 having a pair of legs 22 and 23 which are
integral with and extend in substantially the same direc
tion from Ia cross bar 24.
The crossbar 24 is preferably
substantially straight and the legs 22 and 23 are prefer
ably curved so that they follow generally the shape of
the interior of the pipe 13» adjacent to which they are
the central rods 34 and 35 (FIGURE 1) are turned up
ward slightly and the lower ends of the outer rods 33 and
36 are turned inward slightly. The rod-s 33 through 36,
inclusive, are of such length, as shown in FIGURE 3,
they will rest upon the lower portion of the wall delining
the passageway 16 through the pipe 13 when the base
member 11 »is tightly disposed within the pipe 13 and
said rods are at an angle of approximately 45° to the
lengthwise extent of said pipe. Moreover, when the base
closely disposed while lying substantially within .a plane 10 member 11 is within a pipe, at least one portion of the
perpendicular to the lengthwise extent of the pipe.
` A pair of substantially parallel, preferably similar, grip
ping ele-ments 27 and 28 are rigidly secured, between the
ends of each, to the legs 22 and 23, respectively, prefer
U-shaped member 19, prefer-'ably adjacent an end of the
crossbar 24, is snugly against the adjacent part the pipe
13. Under normal circumstances two spaced portions of
said member 19 vat opposite ends of the crossbar 24 will
ably near or fat the free ends thereof, so that they extend 15 bear against said pipe 13.
in a direction approximately »perpendicular to the said
plane «defined «by the U-shaped member 19. The outer
The guard 10 is constructed in two separable parts, i.e.
ends 29 land 38 of the «gripping elements 27 and 28, re
the base member 11 and grill 12, which are easily and
spectively, are bent outwardly from the geometric center
of the U-shaped member 19 so that they project side 20 quickly assembled -before the guard 10 is inserted into the
passageway 16 deñned by the pipe 13. A protective coatl
wardly from the »gripping elements a distance about equal
ing, such as plaint or plating is preferably and advantage-~
to the depth of the valleys 18, into which they are slidably
ously »applied to the base member 11 and grill 12 when
received. The grippingwelements 27 and 28 are parallel
they are separated. This prevents a defective coating or
with the lengthwise axis of the pipe 13» when the plane
defined by said U-shaped member 19 is substantially per 25 a binding action in the region of the hinge between these
parts. Moreover, the base members 11 and grills 1_2
pendicular to »said lengthwise axis.
can, yafter manu'ñacture, be »stacked separately -for economi»
In this particular embodiment, as shown in FIGURE 4,
cal packaging and shipment.
the ridges 17 and valleys 18 of the pipe 13 are so arranged
In assembly, the grill 12 is placed in a position with
that it is necessary to offset the gripping elements 27 and
28 with respect to each other lengthwise of the pipe 13L 30 respect to the base member 11 so that the grill 12 and
U-shaped member 19 are substantially coplanar. One of
so that the ends 29 and 30 will simultaneously be received
the extensions 43 and 44, here the extension 43- (FIG
into said valleys 18, for the purpose of positively pre
URE 5), is placed against the »crossbar 24 near one end
venting accidental lengthwise movement of the support
thereof, after which the hook 38 is then caused to em
member 11 with respect to the pipe 13 in which it is dis-v
posed. Thus, in this instance, the precise location of 35 brace said lcrossbar 24 near one end thereof. The grill
12 is then moved lengthwise of the crossbar 24 until the
the bent ends 29 and 30 with respect to each other and
hook 39 passes the leg 23y and can be moved slightly up4
the member 19 will depend directly upon the configuration
wardly into engagement with the crossbar 24. Further,
of the internal surface of the pipe 13 and the location of
leftward movement of the grill, as appearing in FIGURE
the element-s 27 and 28. Where a smooth bore pipe is
involved, the shape and location of the ends 29 and 40 5, will cause the extension 44 to overlap the crossbar
24. With the hooks 3‘8 and 39 and the extensions 43» and
30 becomes of less importance, but can notbe ignored.
44 in these positions, the extensions 43 and 44 being ad
More speciñcally, it may be unnecessary to bend the ends
jacent to and between the legs 22 tand 23, the grill 12
of the elements, ‘and the ends do not have to be located
in particular relative positions. However, it is clearly
is pivoted »around the crossbar 24 away from its FIGURE
preferable, if not e-ssential, that at least one of the ele 45 5 position so that it cannot lbe removed Afrom the cross
bar 12 by either radial or axial movement with respect to
ments 27 and 28 lbe secured to the member 19 so that it
said crossbar. That is, the disengagement of the `grill
extends substantially beyond both sides of the plane de
12 from the crossbar 24 can only be accompli-shed by re
lined by the member 19. Moreover, the elements should
turning it to its FIGURE 5 position and then moving
be located on the legs 22 `and 23 so that they will be
on the opposite side of »a diameter of the pipe parallel 50 it with respect to the support member `11 in 1a direction
substantially parallel with the crossbar 24.
with the crossbar 24 when the base member 11 is in the
With the grill 12 in the position of FIGURE 1 Withre
pipe. Both of these requirements are needed to prevent
spect to the support member 11, the rearward ends of
undesirable movement of the guard in the pipe.
the `gripping element-s 27 and 28 `are inserted into one
The grill 12 (FIGURES l, 2. and 5) is comprised of a
plurality, here four, of substantially parallel rods 33, 34, 55 end of the passageway 16 `defined by the pipe 13. When
a portion of the U-shaped member 19' engages the wlall
35 and 36 are connected together by 'a cross rod 37 f so
of the pipe 13, the entire guard 10 is rotated around the
that they are substantially uniformly spaced and lie sub
axis of the passageway 16. Because the ends 29 and 30
stantially within »a single plane. The upper ends of the
of the gripping elements 27 land 28 and portions of the
two central rods 34 and 35 are curved to lform hooks
38 and 39 which are loosely engageable with the cross 60 member 19 are disposed within the valleys 18 produced
bar 24 on the base member 11. The outer rods 33- and
by the spiral corrugations 1.4, rotation of the guard 10
36 have upward extensions 43 and 44 which project be
causes it to move along the passageway 16 until it is
completely disposed therein.
neath the crossbar 24 when said hooks 38 and 39 extend
When the guard 10 has reached the desired location
>around the upper side thereof. The hooks 38 and 39 and
extensions 43 and 44 are so far-ranged that, when the grill 65 within the passageway 16, it is immediately ready for use.
As shown in FIGURE 2, the grill 12 effectively blocks the
12 is substantially in the position of FIGURE 5, it can
movement of objects past the guard 10 through the pas
be slid sidewardly with respect to the base member 11
sageway 1‘6 in an upstream direction. However, the grill
vand olf of the crossbar 24. However, when the grill is in
12 can pivot upwardly to «a raised position, indicated at
any position spaced substantially from its FIGURES posi
12a in FIGURE 3, to permit the 'downstream movement
tion with respect to the base member 11, such sideward
of objects through the pipe 13, whereby -said objects can
sliding is obstructed by either the extensions 43 and 44
be discharged from the pipe so that they Will not lodge
or the hooks 38 and 39, thereby positively preventing iac
against the guard 10 »and obstruct the -free passage of
cidental disengagement between said base member and
fluids through the pipe. The guard 10 is preferably dis
grill, particularly when they are in their FIGURE l, nor
mal operating positions within a pipe. The lower ends of 75 posed within the pipe 13, after the insertion is completed,
so that the grill 12 does not project lwhen it is in its posi
tion 12a of FIGURE 3. Thus, the guard 10 is completely
`a corrugated pipe of substantially circular cross section,
protected by the pipe 13 during shipment and use.
Because of the hinged connection between the base
wall means defining the passageway in the pipe, said
wall means having a plurality of adjacent similar
and substantially annular recesses communicating
member 11 and grill 12, the guard 16 fwill continue to
permit the downstream movement of undesirable objects,
even though the pipe may become partially ñl'led with
dirt and similar trash. Further, the guard will also con
tinue to block upstream movement of animals and the
like under these conditions. In existing guards for this
purpose a small accumulation of trash or the like on the
upstream side of the guard will result in an accelerated
build-up of objects which will soon block the pipe sub
stantially completely.
FIGURE 6 illustrates a guard 50 having a modiñed 15
construction adapted for use in a pipe, such as the pipe
13 of FÍGURE 2, which is of somewhat larger diameter
than the pipe in which >the guard 10 is used. The base
member 51 differs from the base member 11 primarily in
size. The grill 52 differs from the grill 12 by having two
additional, centrally disposed rods '53 and 54. The rods
34a and 35a may be substantially the same as the rods
with said passageway;
a substantially U-shaped member having a pair of legs
and a horizontal connecting bar substantially de
fining a ñrst plane;
a pair of elongated elements secured to said legs at
points thereon spaced substantially from the con
necting bar and extending transversely therefrom, at
least one of said elements extending through said
plane, said elements and said U-shaped member hav
ing portions simultaneously receivable into said re
cesses for firmly holding said U-shaped member
»within said pipe in an inverted position 'with the
connecting bar Iat the top thereof when said plane is,
substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extentof the passageway;
»a grill having a plurality of elongated, spaced elements
and means rigidly holding said elements together and
substantially within a second plane;
means pivotally supporting said grill upon the connect
ing bar of said U-shaped member between the legs
34 and 35, rwpectively, in .the grill 12. The outer rods
`56 and 57 are bowed slightly outwardly to provide addi
tional blocking, but in all other respects are substantially 25
identical to the rods 33 and 36, respectively, of the grill 12.
-thereof lfor movement around >one axis Alying sub
The crossbar 37a is supplemented by a further crossbar
stantially within said first and second planes, whereby
5S for additional st-rength. Assembly of the grill 52 upon
said grill is movable into and out of a position block
the base member 51, or disassembly, may be accomplished
ing said passageway when said U-shaped member is
substantially as set forth above with respect to the grill 30
firmly held therein.
11 and ybase member «12 of the guard 10.
2. The structure of claim 1 wherein said legs are adja
It will be seen that by similar, minor modiñcations in
cent said pipe;
the size of the base member 11 and/or the number of
wherein said elongated elements are substantially par
rods in .the grill 12, the guard 10 or the modiíied guard
allel and the ends thereof 'are bent away from the
59 can be adapted for use in pipes having a wide variety 35
geometric center of the lU-shaped member to form
of sizes and shapes. Moreover, the size of objects ob
said portions receivable into said recesses, the bent
structed by the guard 10 can be increased or decreased
portions on at least one of said elements being un
simply by changing the number of rods in the grill and,
at the same time, changing their spacing.
It will be recognized that the guard 10, or the modified 4
guard 5u, can be used in a straight bore pipe, not shown,
of a substantially conventional type.
In such case, the
mere frictional engagement between the wall defining the
passageway through the pipe and the portions of the sup
port member engaged therewith will provide the holding 45
of the guard within the pipe. Such gripping in -a smooth
bore pipe can be augmented by having the legs of the
support member such as the legs 22 and 23 of member 19
(FIGURE 2), sprung slightly outwardly so that they 'will
be held under compression when they are disposed Within 50
the pipe. Under such circumstances, it may be unneces
sary to have the ends of the gripping elements 27 and 23
bent outwardly. It will be noted, particularly in FIG
URE 4, that the gripping elements 27 and 28 `are en
equally spaced from said first plane.
3. The structure of claim v1 wherein said grill has a
crossbar and at least four rods rigidly secured to said
crossbar in spaced relationship; and
wherein said means supporting said grill on said con
necting bar includes a pair of spaced hooks secured
to said grill, said hooks extending around one side of
said connecting bar and partially around the other
side of said bight, and means extending from said
grill across said connecting bar on said other side
thereof, whereby said grill is positively held against
radial disengagement from said connecting bar.
4. The structure of claim 1 wherein each of said re
cesses is part of a spiral groove in the wall of the pipe
deñning the passageway; and
wherein -the portions of the elements and the U-shaped
member receivable into said recesses lie substantially
lalong the periphery of a cylinder having substan
gaged by the legs 22 and 23 at points on said gripping
elements unequally spaced from their respective ends.
tially the same diameter as one of said annular re
This provides for .the proper location of the bent ends 29
and 36 for simultaneous reception into the ridges 17 in
5. A guard structure for the lengthwise passageway in
the valleys 18 of the spiral corrugations 14. Where a
a pipe of substantially circular cross section, comprising:
smooth bore pipe is utilized, this special arrangement can 60
wall means defining the passageway in the pipe;
be omitted. Where -a pipe having circular corrugations
ya substantially U-shaped member having a pair of legs
is used, then it may be advantageous to have the bent end
and a horizon-tal connecting bar lying substantially
portions 29 and 36 »located diametrically across from each
within a lìrst plane;
a pair of elongated elements secured to said legs near
From the above description, it will be apparent that 65
the free ends thereof and extending in a direction
other modifications may be made in the guard 10, or the
substantially perpendicular to said plane, at least
modified guard Sti, while still retaining the fundamental
of said elements extending through said plane,
elements of the invention. Accordingly, although particu
lar preferred embodiments of the invention have been
disclosed in detail above for illustrative purposes, it will 70
be understood that variations or modiiications of such dis
closures, Which lie within the scope of the »appended
claims are fully contemplated.
What is claimed is:
1. A guard structure for the vlengthwise passageway in 75
said elongated elements having end portions and said
U-shaped member having edge portions, said end and
edge portions being simultaneously engageable with
said wall means, whereby said U-shaped member is
firmly held in said pipe with the connecting bar at the
top thereof when said plane is substantially perpen
dicular to the lengthwise extent of the passageway;
ya grill having a plurality of elongated, spaced rod ele
ments land means rigidly holding said rod elements
with respect to each other and substantially within a
second plane, said rod elements being substantially
parallel and a ñrst pair of rod elements having in
one `of said elements being unequally spaced from the
frirst plane; wherein said rods in said grill are substantially
parallel »and the outermost rods have integral extensions
projecting transversely across one side of said bar; and
'wherein >two of said rods between said outermost rods
have integral hooks curving around the other side of said
bar, said hooks and said extensions comprising the sup
porting means on said grill and being arranged whereby
elements respectively adjacent said ñrst pai-r of rod
said grill can be lremoved from said U-shaped member
elements -and having integral hooks curving around
the other side yof said connecting bar, said grill being 10 only in a ydirection parallel with said bar when, `and only
when, said grill is substantially Within said ñrst plane and
pivotally supported by said hooks »and said extensions
extending `from said bar in the Opposite direction from
upon said connecting bar, whereby said grill can be
removed from said-U-shaped member only in a direc
said legs.
tion substantially parallel With said bar when, and
References Cited in the ûle of this patent
only when, said grill is substantially within said ñrst 15
plane and 0n the opposite side of said bar from said
tegral extensions projecting transversely yacross one
side of said connecting bar, and a second pair of rod
6. The structure of claim 1 wherein said elongated ele
ments are substantially parallel and the ends thereof are
bent away from the geometric center of the U-shaped 20
member for reception into said recesses, the bent ends on
lIngold ____________ _____ June 14, 1887
Rue et al. ____________ __ Dec. 15, 1908
Walker ______________ __ Nov. 15, 1921
Rafferty ______________ __ Aug. 4, 1953
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