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Патент USA US3086706

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April 23, 1963
Filed Jan. 26, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet l
April 23, 1963
Filed Jan. 26, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Apr. 23, 1963
in efficiency. As another, even less desirable result, each
Robert Heine-Seldom, Upper Montclair, N.J., assignor
to Engelhard Hanovia, Inc., Newark, N.J., a corpora
tion of New Jersey
Filed .l’an. 26, 1961, Ser. No. 85,013
2 (Ilaims. (Cl. 230-42)
turbulence around a ba?le produces noise. This fact is of
great importance in conjunction with, for example, win
dow fans.
It has been found that a ‘fan rotor of the type de
scribed above, when combined with only one ba?le ar
ranged closely adjacent the rotor to separate the outlet
area from the inlet area, with all other guide surfaces
considerably spaced away from the rotor, exhibits an effi
This invention relates to ventilators or fans for convey
ing fluids, generally air or other gases, from one zone into 10 ciency which at least equals that of conventional fans with
more than one ba?le mounted adjacent the rotor. More
another zone. Ventilators may be used in industrial plants,
over, as compared to such conventional fans or venti
or for providing aeration of large or small rooms, such as
lators, the noise produced under otherwise equal condi
apartments. More particularly, this invention is con
tions is considerably reduced. As a further advantage,
cerned with ventilators of the type termed “line ?ow
fans,” and has for its main object the improvement of
such devices by increasing the ef?ciency thereof and
eliminating most of the noise produced by them under
the baffles used to form the guide surfaces may be ad
justable so that only one of them is maintained in a close
spatial relationship with respect to the rotor, while the
remainder is positioned away from the rotor. By shift
ing the location at which a single ba?le is in close rela
reversing the direction of rotation of the driving mecha 20 tionship with the rotor circumference, the direction of
operating conditions. The invention also includes ar
rangements for reversing the direction of ?ow without
nism, as is the case with conventional screw-type window
?ow can be controlled. With a shift of about 180", the
'Line flow fans are ventilators in which the element driv
flow direction is reversed, which is accomplished by ad
justing the ba?cles and the guide surfaces formed by them.
ing the ?uid, generally air, is an assembly of parallel,
At this point it should be noted that the surfaces de
limiting the conduit through which air is conveyed neces
sarily include side walls which extend perpendicularly
with respect to the rotor axis and generally in a close
elongated, arcuate blades in a cylindrical arrangement
and secured to a pair of circular end plates to form a
rotor of cylindrical shape. Such rotors are conventional
in the prior art and have generally the shape of an elon
spatial relationship with respect to the circular end plates
forming part of the rotor. Such side walls, although they
gated cylinder, the ratio between the lentgh of the axis
and the diameter of the end plates being immaterial in 30 assist in de?ning the air conduit, are not considered guide
surfaces or ba?les in the meaning of these terms, as used
Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a de
ance with speci?c requirements. By way of example, in
vice of the type which includes a cylindrical line ?ow
conjunction with window fans for household purposes,
the rotor is mounted in a casing dimensioned to ?t into 35 fan rotor for conveying a ?uid, in combination with only
one baffle positioned closely adjacent the rotor cylinder
the frame of a window in a horizontal direction, with
over an axially extending narrow area of the cylinder.
the rotor being slightly shorter to accommodate the side
The remaining, practically entire rotor cylinder surface
portions of the housing, a driving motor and other com
remains exposed to a ‘signi?cant continuous volume
ponents forming part of the complete device.
40 within the conduit through which air is conveyed. As a
A line ?ow fan includes, furthermore, guide surfaces
result, the efliciency is increased because practically all
which de?ne the shape of the conduit through which the
of the rotor blades contribute to the desired effect, while
air is conveyed. Although the rotor assembly is gen
the production of noise is reduced to a minimum occur
erally the same, guide surfaces formed by elements termed
baffles or vanes of various shapes have been suggested in 45 ring in the area of only one ba?le mounted adjacent the
rotor, instead of at least two ba?les used in prior art
prior art devices.
Such guide surfaces are a necessary requirement be
In practice, a fan according to the invention includes
cause a line ?ow fan rotor, when driven to rotate within
ba?les one edge of which, preferably of a thickness not
an open space of air, produces only turbulence without
sofar as the performance of the device is concerned.
Short or long cylindrical rotors may be used, in accord
conveying air from one predetermined zone into an 50 exceeding the distance between each pair of adjacent
rotor blades, is mounted closely adjacent the rotor cyl
other. In the case of a window fan, the ?rst mentioned
inder surface over an axially extending area. This edge
zone is the outer atmosphere and the second the air in the
separates the inlet from the outlet area at a location
where air returns from the outlet into the inlet area.
Heretofore, it was believed that at least two ba?les
are required which, usually arranged to encompass the
rotor at substantially opposite locations with respect to
the rotor axis, separate an inlet zone from an outlet zone.
At the generally opposite side of the rotor axis, a by—
pass zone outside the rotor and leading from the inlet
to the outlet zone remains open. While a gradient of
air velocity decreasing from the rotor toward the guide
Generally, it was also considered necessary that at least
surface is established in this by-pass area, it has been
one of the baffles extend over a considerable peripheral
area of the rotor, and this ba?ie was mounted along the 60 found that no losses of energy occur as a result of this
arrangement. On the other hand, the ‘absence of any
circumference of the cylindrical rotor where the blades
re-enter the inlet zone from the outlet zone. As a result,
second edge or ba?le positioned closely adjacent the
the blades facing the baffle extending over a signi?cant
area of the periphery at any given instant during opera
tion, do not constitute a part of either the inlet section 65
or the outlet section. They do not contribute to the‘
desired effect but merely operate to return air from the
outlet to the inlet zone, which result constitutes a loss.
Bellies forming guide surfaces are a necessary require
ment, as discussed above. However, each ba?le arranged 70
rotor was found to avoid any additional source of tur
closely adjacent the rotor causes turbulence which, in
turn, leads to loss of energy and, therefore, to a decrease
bulence and noise, so that the fan of this invention
operates signi?cantly quieter than devices suggested
The fact that a fan according to this invention operates
with only one baf?e, such as an edge of a vsuitable guide
surface assembly which is mounted closely adjacent the
cylindrical rotor surface, results in another important
feature. Adjustable baf?e arrangements may be provided
for shifting the ba?le edge from one predetermined loca
tion to another, in order to modify or to reverse the
is the strip 14, while the ba?le 16 is maintained signi?i
cantly spaced from the rotor periphery.
air ?ow direction, Thereby the use of expensive re
versible'éléotric motors, employed heretofore in conjunc
When comparing FIGURE 1 with FIGURE 2 it can
tion with conventional screw-type ventilators, is avoided.
be seen that the spatial relationship is reversed inas
In other words,-the invention includes the provision of
adjustable ba?ies, for regulating the flow of air through 5 much as in FIGURE 2,. ba?ie 16 has a position, with
respect to the rotor, corresponding to that of ba?ie 14
the fan by controlling the relationship between. ?ow
in FIGURE 1. With the rotor turning in the same di-‘
rection, as indicated by the arrow 18, air is now con
conditions along one side of the rotor with respect to
flow conditions at another. side of the rotor.
veyed from the right-hand to the left-hand side of FIG
‘ In practice, the arrangement for achieving such con
trol may include at least two ba?le members and ap
propriate elements, such as a lever system, for selective
URE 2.
ly adjusting either of the ba?les to- a position closely
adjacent an axially extending area of the cylindrical
rotor, with the other ba?le member being maintained
spaced from the rotor.
' While it is possible to provide a mechanism for shift
It will be seen that the novel concept of using only
one baffle mounted closely adjacent the rotor results in
a comparatively simple means for reversing the direction.
of flow by shifting the location in which the ba?le is
positioned closely adjacent the rotor from one prede:
termined position to another. When shifting is effected
ing the rotor axis by a parallel movement to a posi
to a position which is 180° from the initial position, re
tion closely adjacent either of stationary guide surfaces,
versing of the ?ow occurs. In practice, and if desired,
the angle of shift may be smaller or greater than 180°,
to result in a corresponding change of direction of ?ow.
The great number of conceivable mechanisms for shift:
it has been found more economical to provide adjustable.
bathe or guide surface assemblies, with the rotor axis re-'
m'aining stationary.
‘ The invention will be further illustrated by reference
ing the Iba?Ie from one location to another may include
to the following more detailed description of one em
various arrangements. In some instances, shifting the
entire rotor by a parallel movement from the. position
bodiment of the invention and the accompanying drawing,
25 shown in FIGURE 1 to that of FIGURE 2 may be accom
plished. However, since fan rotors are generally driven
by electric motors, and for other practical reasons, it has
FIGURES 1 and 2 are schematic sectional views
through a line ?ow fan, illustrating one of the underly
ing principles of the invention;
been found more suitable to provide an arrangement for
shifting the ba?les from one position to the other, with
FIGURES 3 and 4 are sectional views, similar to those
of FIGURES 1 and 2, showing the principle of one em 30 the rotor remaining stationary. By way of example, both
baf?es 14 and 16 may be mechanically coupled to each
hodiment of a ba?ie arrangement;
other and to an adjusting mechanism, permitting them to
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary cross-section through a
assume the position of either FIGURE 1 or FIGURE 2
line ?ow fan illustrating a portion of the mechanism
by a vertical movement toward or away from the rotor
for shifting the battles of FIGURES 3 and 4 from one
into the other position of FIGURES 3 and 4, respec 35 axis, respectively. The step of shifting the closely fac
ing battle edge from one position to the othermay be
" FIGURE 6 is a longitudinal sectional view’ through
the ran. along the line 6—-6 of FIGURE 5 illustrating
a lever system‘ for shifting the baffles from the con
?g'uratio‘n of FIGURE 3 to that of FIGURE 4; and
accomplished by any other suitable means, such as ro
tating both ba?ies ‘about an axis which is eccentric vw‘th
respect to the rotor axis.
Referring now to FIGURES 3 and 4, the novel concept
1 FIGURE 7 . is a fragmentary perspective view of one’
is illustrated in a similar schematic fashion. The embodi
ment schematically illustrated therein is an adjustable
end of a line ?ow fan illustrating details of FIGURES
5 and 6, with the rotor and the cover of the casing
baf?le arrangement which has been found suitable for
Window fans or similar installations. In both of FIG
Referring now to FIGURES 1 and 2, these ?gures 45 URES 3 and 4, the rotors are designated by reference
numeral 10 and the arrows indicating identical sense of
illustrate‘, in a purely schematic manner, one of the im
portant underlying principles of this invention. Ref
rotation of the rotor are designated 18. In most instances
where fans are used for conveying air from one zone
erence numeral 10 designates 1a conventional line t?ow
fan rotor-which comprises a plurality of elongated arcuate
into another, the rotor is transversely mounted in a
parallel blades 12 vmounted in a cylindrical arrangement 50 housing or casing which delimits a conduit through which
air must be conveyed. When mounted within the casing,
between, a pair of circular end walls (not shown in
FIGURES I and 2). In accordance with the invention,
the rotor separates an inlet zone and an outlet zone in
under operating conditions and at any given moment,
the casing and, upon reversal of the direction of the ?ow,
the. complete assembly includes only one ba?ie which
the inlet zone becomes the outlet zone. The same is
is positioned closely adjacent the periphery of the rotor. 55 true for the inlet and outlet areas of rotor periphery
The baf?e is mountedv close- to, but must not be in con
tact with any part of the rotor, as is conventional with
which are the portions of the rotor facing either one or
the other zone. Furthermore, the ba?ies forming guide
surfaces controlling the ?ow of air through the conduit
‘battles forming guide surfaces and mounted in the vicinity
in the vicinity of the rotor may form part of the housing
ofthe rotor to de?ne the conduit through which air is
conveyed. In FIGURES 1 and 2, each of the ?gures 60 or they can be arranged Within the housing as distinct
illustrates a pair of ba?ies of the most simple shape
Similarly as in FIGURES l and 2, FIGURES 3 and 4
which isthat of strips 14 and 16 adjacent therotor 10.
schematically illustrate a ba?le arrangement, regardless of
whether or not the ba?ies pertainto the housing.
Each of the ba?les includes a pair of elongated strips
20, 22 and 24, 26,v respectively, joining one another at
right-hand sideQthe spatial relationship betweeen the ro
one of the longitudinal edges to provide a V-shaped con
tor and. each of the baffles is that shown in FIGURE
?guration. All of them extend in a longitudinal parallel
1. The rotor is driven to rotate in the directionof the
arrow 18 and as shown in FIGURE 1. The baf?e 14 70 arrangement with the rotor 10, substantially over the
entire length thereof. Strips 205 and 22 iarejoined to
mounted adjacent the rotor separates the inlet zone from
each other at the longitudinal edges of the strips to form
the‘ outletpzone at the location where the blades enter
a hinge 28. Similarly, strips 24 and 26 form a second,
the ?rst mentioned from the last mentioned zone. It
ba?ie assembly with a hinge 30. A suitable mechanism
can be seen from FIGURE 1 that the assembly includes
only one baffle mounted closely adjacent the rotor, which 75 for shifting each of the ba?le assemblies from the position
The ba?les 14 and 16 separate two zones from each
other and, assuming that air is to be conveyed from the
'zone at the left-hand side of the drawing to that at the
or con?guration shown in FIGURE 3 into the position
shown in FIGURE 4 is described below.
In FIGURE 3, the joined edges of strips 20 and 22
forming the hinge 28 perform in a manner analogous with
that of the lower edge of baffle 14 in FIGURE 1. The
surfaces of the strips 20, 22 facing the rotor are guide
and 52 (FIGURES 5 and 6‘) into the high position in
the slot (FIGURE 7), the hinge portion of the ba?le as
sembly formed by strips 2%} and 22 can selectively be
brought to a position closely adjacent the rotor 10, as
surfaces in the conventional meaning of the term. It can
shown in FIGURE 3, or into the spaced position shown
in FIGURE 4.
Each of the casing side walls 42 and 44 also includes
be seen that, in the position shown in FIGURE 3, the
hinge 28 constitutes the only element of the bailie assem
two pairs of shorter slots, of which two slots, designated
by reference numerals 60 and 62, are symmetrically ar
bly positioned closely adjacent the rotor periphery, since
ranged at both sides of slot 43. A pair of corresponding
both strips 24 and 26 forming the lower ba?ie assembly
slots 64 and 66 is provided in an analogous arrangement
in FIGURE 3 are maintained at a signi?cant distance from
with respect to slot 50. Each of the slots slidably ac
the rotor. The hinge 28 clearly separates the outlet area
commodates one peg designated by reference numerals
of the rotor at the right-hand side of FIGURE 3 ‘from
68, 7t}, 72, and 74, respectively. The inner end of each
the inlet area at the left-hand side. The zones communi 15 of the pegs is split in a longitudinal direction and secured,
cate with each other by a by-pass area formed between
for example by welding, to the ba?le, while the outer
the rotor and the ba?le ‘assembly 24-, 253. When pro
end of the peg protrudes into the slot. It will be appar
pelled by the rotor, air ?ow-s through this area around the
ent that the peg-slot combination permits a pivoting
movement combined with a horizontal, reciprocating
Under operating conditions, ‘a gradient of velocity will
movement of the area of each of the strips to which the
be established between the rotor and the lower baffle as
peg is secured. Accordingly, by shifting the four ends
sembly in FIGURE 3, as indicated by the arrows 32 hav
of the pins 56 and 58 which protrude outwardly from the
ing diminishing lengths toward the bottom of the drawing.
side walls 42 and 44 through slots 48, 5d, 52 and 54, each
As pointed out above, this arrangement of a minimum of
of the battle assemblies 20, 22, and 24, 26 will assume
ba?les positioned closely adjacent the rotor results in a 25 a roof-or V-shaped con?guration pointing toward the
minimum noise production as compared to that with de
rotor or away from it corresponding either to that shown
vices of the line ?ow fan type used heretofore.
in FIGURE 3 with the pins 56 and 5% being in the low
In a manner similar to that described in connection
est position, or that of FIGURE 4 with the pins in the
with FIGURES 1 and 2, switching the baffle assemblies
upper position.
20, 22 and 24, 26 from the con?guration shown in FIG
Shifting the pins 56 and 58' and therewith the ba?le as—
URE 3 into that shown in FIGURE 4, results in a re
versed direction of ?ow. An example of a shifting mecha
nism for producing such change of baf?e con?guration
will be described in more detail in conjunction with FIG
URES 5 through 7.
sembly from one to the other con?guration or position
with the roof pointing either toward or away from the
rotor may be accomplished by any suitable arrangement,
and a simpli?ed structure for this purpose is illustrated in
FIGURES 6 and 7. Such structure may include a bar
The edges of battles 14 and 16 (FIGURES l and 2),
76 extending horizontally over a length exceeding that of
as well as the hinges 23 land 30 of the ba?le assemblies
(FIGURES 3 and 4) present a comparatively narrow
area facing and extending over a genetrix of the rotor. As
the housing and continuing into two vertical arms 78‘ and
89, each arm having two bores therethrough, of which
each receives one end of the pins 56 and 58. A handle 82
secured to the bar 76 permits effecting a reciprocating
movement of the bar 76 and of the arms 78 and 80, where
by 'the four ends of the pins 56 and 58‘ slide in the slots
described above, it has been found that prior art baffles
extending over 1a signi?cant segment of the rotor pe
riphery operate to render ineffective the number of blades
faced by them. Furthermore, it is assumed that the air
48, 50, 52 and 54, respectively. Thereby, the baffle as
returning between each pair of adjacent blades from the
semblies assume either one or the other position, as
outlet area to the inlet area is subject to additional tur
discussed above. As a result, adjusting the handle 82
in either the highest or the lowest position will result in
an air ?ow in either of the two directions through the
fan, as described in connection with FIGURES 3 and 4.
Rotation of the rotor is conveniently accomplished
bulence resulting in an increased production of noise.
Tests have shown that ‘a narrow edge positioned closely
adjacent the rotor cylinder improves the ei?ciency of the
device and, in accordance with a preferred embodiment
of the invention, the width of the baffle facing the rotor
must not exceed the distance between adjacent blades.
When this condition is ‘fulfilled, each space between ad
in a conventional manner by means of an electric motor
84 ‘and reversing the air flow is accomplished by activat
ing the handle 8-2. The shaft 86 connecting the driv
jacent blades, when facing the ba?e, simultaneously com
ing motor with the rotor end wall 36 is ‘shown in the
drawing to pass through a longitudinal slot 88‘ in the
outlet zones, regardless of the rotor position.
arm 80 to permit actuating the shifting mechanism with
Referring now to FIGURES 5 through 7, a conven~
out interfering with the driving mechanism for the rotor.
tional line ?ow fan rotor 19, which includes blades 12
In order to maintain the baffle ‘assemblies in either of
and circular end Walls 34 and as, is transversely mounted
the selected positions, the device may include any con
in an outer casing forming the conduit through which air
ventional structure suitable for the purpose, such as ?at
must be conveyed. The casing is formed by a base plate 60 springs 90‘ and 92' mounted between and frictionally en
38, a cover 46 and side walls 42 and 44 Six slots are
gaging the side walls 42 and 44 and the arms 78 and 80,
provided in each of the side walls 42 and 44 in an arrange
respectively. Suitable different arrangements for main
ment best shown in FIGURE 5. Two of the slots, desig
taining the assembly in one or the other of both por
municates at any given instance with both the inlet and
nated 48 and 50, extend in a vertical direction and at
tions may be used.
Such structures, as well as other ar
opposite locations with respect to the rotor axis. These 65 rangements for shifting the hinged edges of the ba?le
slots and matching slots 52 and 54 (FIGURE 6) provided
assemblies are known and need not be described in more
in the other side wall 42 accommodate the end portion
of pins 56 and 58. The pins are those forming part of the
It will be obvious that many more modi?cations may
hinges by which baffle strips 20 and 22., and 24 and
be made within the scope of the present invention without
26 are joined to each other. In accordance with the 70 departing from the spirit thereof, and the invention in
cludes all such modi?cations.
embodiment illustrated, the hinges around the pins are
formed by cylindrically bent projections on each of the
\Vhat is claimed is:
1. In a line ?ow fan, a plurality of parallel arcuate
strips 20, 22, 24 and 26 in a conventional manner. By
a parallel movement of, for example, pin '56 by shifting
blades in a cylindrical arrangement forming a rotor, a
the ends of the pin from a low position in the slots 48 75 pair of elongated ba?le assemblies at generally opposite
ciated with each peg, the peg éslidably protruding into
sides of the rotor to de?ne a conduit through which air
is conveyed, each ba?ie assembly including a pair of
substantially ?at elongated strips movably joined to each
other atoms edge of each strip to form a hinge, linkage,
means interconnecting the hinges for simultaneously
shifting one of the hinges selectively into a ?rst position
the slot associated therewith, whereby four pairs of re
taining members cooperating with the side walls are
formed which permit a pivoting movement of the ba?ie
strips around an axis spaced from the hinge so that each
and the other hinge into a second position one hinge be
two positions corresponding to ?rst and second positions
of the ba?ie assemblies is adapted to assume either of >
ing in a close spatial relationship with the rotor surface
of the pin ends at the end oi the slots, with the ba?e as
when, in the ?rst position, and the other hinge being
spaced away from the rotor when in the second position,
semblies being maintained in a V-shaped con?guration in
and means for maintaining the edges of the strips re
mote from, the hinges in a position spaced away from
the rotor regardless of the hinge position, whereby each
ba?le assembly, when in the ?rst position, forms a V
either of the positions, the V-shaped ba?le assembly
pointing toward the rotor axis with the hinge being main
tained in a close spatial relationship with respect to the
rotor surface in the ?rst position, the hinge and both
strips being spaced away from the rotor in the second
shaped separating ba?ie pointing toward the rotor to 15 position, ?rst means for shifting both ends of one pin
separate an inlet zone from an outlet zone in the conduit,
each ba?le assembly, when in the second position, being
associated with one hinge from one end of the corre
sponding slot to the other end of the slot to produce a
shifting in ba?le con?guration from the ?rstposition to
entirely spaced from the rotor to leave a passageway
the second position, and second means, mechanically
from the inlet into the outlet zone and around the rotor.
2. ,In a line ?ow fan, a plurality of parallel arcuate 20 coupled with the ?rst means, for simultaneouslyshifting
the pin associated with the other ba?le assembly in the
blades in a cylindrical arrangement forming a rotor, a
same direction to produce a change in the ba?ie con
conduit through which air is conveyed encompassing the
?guration from the second to the ?rst position, each shift
rotor, the conduit including a pair of side Walls, each
ing from one into the other position resulting in a change
side wall having a pair of slots therethrough, the slots
extending substantially radially with respect to the rotor 25 of direction of the air ?ow.
axis at opposite sides thereof and facing a matching slot
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
in the other side wall, the conduit also including a pair
of ba?ie assemblies, each assembly comprising a pair of
?at elongated strips hinged to each other along one of the
Pakeman ____________ __ Aug. 12, 1919'
longitudinal'edges of each strip, apair of pins, each pin 30
forming one of the hinges, each end of said pin passing
through one of the slots to permit radial shifting each,
of the pins associated with one baf?e assembly selec
tively toward and'away from the rotor axis, a pair of pegs
secured to each of the strips, a slot in a side wall asso
Couch ______________ __ Aug. 20, 1940
Clearrnan ___________ __>_ Jan. 31, 1961
Switzerland __________ __ May 15, 1959,
Germany ________ __'_____ Dec. 3, 1959
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