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Патент USA US3086715

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Àpriï 23, w53
R. G. ALLEN, JR
3,986,765
TRAJECTORY GUIDE
Filed May 19, .1961
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United States Patent Ü M'EC@
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3,086,705
TRÀJECTORY GUÍDE
Ralph G. Allen, Er., 310 Rillar Vista Drive,
San Antonio, Tex.
Filed May 19, 1961, Ser. No. 111,384
2 Claims. (Ci. 23S-61.5)
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Patented Apr. 23, 1963
2
point for the line-of-sight member is located at approxi
mately that point on the base member marking the begin
ning of the trajectory curve, i.e., representing the muzzle
of the ñrearm.
The objects and advantages of the invention will be
better understood from the following description taken
in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
This invention relates to a shooting aid, and, more
FIG. 1 is a plan view of one form of the trajectory
particularly, to a device for the rapid and graphic de
guide of the invention, showing the movable line-of-sight
termination oí the relation of the trajectory of a pro 10 member rotated to intersect a projectile curve ata sight-in
jectile or projectiles from a lirearm with respect to a
range or" 350 yards;
line of sight from the ñrearm. The line of sight may
FIG. 2 is an end view of FIG. l;
v
be that established with telescopic sights, iron sights, or
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, detailed View illustrating the
the bore of the firearm. The device is particularly use
manner in which the movable member may be pivotally
ful as an aid to hunters and Sportsmen in facilitating ac
15 connected to the base «member so a-s to provide an adjust
curacy of tire at ranges other than the “sight-in” range.
ment for different types of sights; and
The principle used in the design and construction of the
FIG. 4 is the end view of a modilication of the de
invention can be applied to any type and caliber of fire
vice of FIG. l, illustrating a plastic coating for the base
arm-piston, rifle or shotgun-tiring any type of pro
member.
jectile for which the trajectory can be determined, either 20
Referring now to the drawings, there is shown in FIG.
experimentally or through calculations.
1 a base member l0, having a rectangular outline, on
in recent years the necessity for understandingY and ap
which indicia are printed or otherwise displayed repre
plying basic ballistic principles has increased due to the
sentative of a series of parallel drop scales 12 oriented
large number of new rilies and small arms available to
with respect to a line of departure 14 so as to present the
the hunter and sporting enthusiast. This need has been 25 drop in inches a projectile will encounter after being
recognized by leading sports magazines and gun digests,
fired from a rifle having a muzzle position i5. The line
which have attempted to enlighten the shooting enthusiast
of departure 14 indicates the direction the projectile
by publishing articles discussing and evaluating ballistic
would take if there were no gravity or Wind resistance
data presented in the vform of graphs and tables. Al
to alter its path. A pair of trajectory curves 16 and 18
though these graphs and tables, when available, will pro- "` displayed on the base member 10 show the paths of pro
vide an over-all basis for selecting a particular type of
jectiles being fired from the muzzle of a rifle located at
shell or caliber of firearm, they do not provide a handy
the origin 15 of the line of departure. The trajectory
and simple means for solving specific ballistic range prob
curves 16 and 1S are representative of the paths taken
lems encountered by the hunter in the lield. Such prob
by bullets of different types of cartridges tired from the
lems are readily handled by the device of the present in 35 same caliber gun. It will be understood that one or a
vention.
plurality oftrajectory curves may be displayed on a
A primary object of the invention is to provide a de
single device.
vice which will enable the `shooter to determine how to
A transparent movable member 20, which provides
aim his lirearm in order to place the bullet on target at
indicia 2l representative of the line of sight, is pivotally
some given range.
Another object of the invention is to provide a small,
compact device which will enable the user to determine
40 connected to thebase member 10 to rotate about an axis
22 offset from the point 1S by a distance equivalent to
the height of the gun sight above the bore of the gun.
the most optimum sight-in range for a firearm.
Reasonably good accuracy can be obtained, however,
lt is also an object of the invention to provide a simple
when the pivot point 22 and departure point l5 approxi
calculating device which will permit a hunter on the spot 45 mately coincide. The indicia line 21, in the device illus
to determine how high or low he should aim with re
trated, is provided on a clear plastic background 20.
spect to a selected target when shooting at ranges differ
Alternatively, a straight line having a pivotal’ axis at point
ent from his established sight-in distance.
22 may be provided by use of a wire or metal strip.
A further object of the invention is to provide a dur
In the device illustrated, the line-of-sight member 20
able, pocket-size calculating device of the type described, 50 is pivotally connected to the base member 10 by a metal
having only one movable member which will facilitate
eyelet 23 which extends through a corresponding bore in
easy handling and quick use.
member 20 and through a slot 24 (FIG. 3) in base mem
The device, in its broad aspects, comprises a base mem
ber 1t). The pivotal connection may be slid from one end
ber or card of convenient size having indicia displayed
of the slot to the other, toward the respective arrows dis
thereon providing a graphic representation of a tra 55 played on base member 10, depending on whether the
jectory curve in combination with a cooperating movable
line of sight is to represent that .through telescopic or
member, providing a simulated line of sight, pivotally
iron (sights. A small plastic washer 2'5 is provided on the
engaged with the base member and so oriented with re
opposite side of base member 10 from pivotal member 20.
spect to the indicia on the base member that the simu
The pivotal conection may be suiliciently tight as to main
- lated line of sight may be rotated about the pivotal axis 60 tain the pivot point at a selected position by friction and
to intersect the trajectory curve at a point representative
yet permit it to be moved when desired. The origin of
of a selected sight-in range; and when so positioned, the
the telescopic line of sight at the firearm is taken to be,
distance between the trajectory curve and line of sight
on the average, 11/2 inches above the bore-sight line. The
at all other ranges will represent the rise or drop of the
origin of the line of sight for iron sights is taken to be on
projectile with respect to the line of sight. The pivot 65 the average 3A inch above the bore-sight line. Although
3,086,705
it is preferred to provide `a sliding pivotal connection so
that the trajectory guide may be readily adaptable for
each type of sights, a trajectory guide for each type of
sight may be constructed by using a tixed pivot. More
over, by selecting a point intermediate the two extremi
ties of slot 24 as a fixed pivot, a trajectory guide may be
made for all types of sights, sacrificing some accuracy.
The display of scales and trajectory curves are oriented
at an angle of approximately 45° with respect to the base
of the background board. This permits the entire curve
for practical range of the firearm to be displayed on a
small pocket-size card, i.e., the card space is utilized to
maximum advantage. A set of instructions is located in
the upper right-hand corner of lthe base member to allow
the user to quickly familiarize himself with the simple
operating procedures to facilitate rapid manipulation.
4
(2) Swing the line-of-sight member 20 until line of
sight 21 intersects the trajectory curve for the cartridge
involved at 350 yards (curve i8 in this instance is inter
sected at point 30).
(3) The distance between the line of sight 21 and the
trajectory curve, measured along the grid lines 12 to the
right of point 30 gives the bullet drop at ranges above 350
yards and to the left of the point 3() gives the bullet rise
for ranges below 350 yards.
At a distance of 500 yards (sight-in at 350 yards), the
bullet (80 gr. Win. Se Rem.) will be approximately 25
inches below the telescope line of sight. At a distance
of 175 yards from the muzzle (1/2 the sight-in distance in
this case) the bullet will be approximately 7 inches above
the telescope line of sight. Thus, in shooting at an object
500 yards away, the hunter should aim about 25 inches
above lthe point he wishes the bullet to hit. ln shooting
As is evident from the foregoing description, the tra
jectory guide may be constructed from any type of mate
at an object 175 yards away, the hunter should aim 7
rial such as paper, cardboard, wood, composition board,
inches below the point he wishes the bullet to hit.
plastic or composition material, metal or photographic 20
EXAMPLE 2
materials, upon which can be drawn, inscribed or printed
the necessary scales, graphs, curves, tables, data and in
Determining the Best Sight-In Range
formation. FIGURE 4 illustrates an embodiment in
Select the maximum height above the line of sight that
which a cardboard base is coated «with a transparent plas
you wiil tolerate. This selection will be more or less
tic film or envelope 26, providing a waterproof durable
arbitrary and depends upon the size of the object, or the
device.
'
size of the area on the object in which you desire hits.
The trajectory curves and ballistic data are computed
Then adjust the line of sight so that this limiting height
from published values of projectile velocity as 1a function
is not exceeded throughout the trajectory. The greatest
of range (or from experimental measurements of projec
tile velocities), by use of ballistic tables and standard 30 sight-in range possible without exceeding the limit se
lected for rise will be the best sight-in range for the rifle
computational techniques such as Hatcher’s Notebook,
cartridge combination concerned. lf, in addition, a maxi
2nd edition. published by Stackpole Company, 1957.
mum permissible drop below the line of sight is selected,
The movable pivot for the line of sight is incorporated in
the maximum range for Ywhich this particular sight<in
order to account for the position of the line of sight above
the bore of the firearm and is scaled to represent the aver 35 range is acceptable may be established as `that range at
which the drop equals, but does not exceed, the selected
age distance above bore for »telescope or iron sights.
As previously mentioned, brief operating instructions
may be printed on the trajectory guide. A more detailed
set of instructions is given below in order to insure a clear
understanding of its operation:
Select a trajectory guide for the type of firearm con
cerned. (The curves in the device illustrated in the draèw
ing are for a 243 Winchester riile using two commercially
maximum permissible drop.
EXAMPLE 3
Sighting-In for Large Distance Using a Short Range
Suppose only a 10G-yard range is available but you
desire to sight-in your riñe at 250 yards. Using the tra
jectory guide, select proper pivot point for the line of
sight. Set the line of sight to intersect the appropriate
curve which corresponds to the bullet type and weight, and 45 trajectory curye at the desired sight-in range. Read the
cartridge loading concerned. Push line-of-sight pivot to
rise of the bullet above the line of sight at the range
ward point of arrow which identifies the type of sight in
which corresponds to the distance available for sighting
volved. Holding line-of-sight pivot in this position with
iri. Adjust your riñe to ñre high, at the sight-in range
thumb of left hand, swing -line of sight until it intersects
available, a distance in inches equal to the bullet rise in
selected trajectory curve at the sight-in range. (The sight« 50 dicated by the trajectory guide for the available sight-in
available types of cartridges.) Identify the trajectory
in range is that distance for which the ñrearm sights have
distance.
been adjusted to place bullets on target, or the range at
which it is desired that the firearm place bullets on tar
sired longer range.
It is readily apparent from the above examples that
the invention solves many of the shooting enthusiasts’
problems and provides a compact and easily operated
device.
get.)
With the line of sight positioned with the thumb
of the right hand so that it intersects the trajectory curve
at the sight-in range, the bullet rise or drop may be ob
served from me scale distance between the selected tra
jectory curve and the line of sight, measure along the
grid lines. Each small division of the grid lines may be
The riñe should then be on target at the de-
I claim:
1. A device for determining the departure of a ñre
arm projectile from a shooter’s line of sight, comprising
scaled to represent one inch, so that the bullet drop or 60 a flat base member having a series of linear drop scales
rise in inches is given by the number of scale divisions be
tween the trajectory curve and the line of sight-at any
range desired.
The trajectory guide may be used to solve many practi
arranged in parallel thereon, said drop scales being spaced
so as to represent various range distances, a trajectory
curve intersecting said scales at points which indicate
the drop of a projectile from its line of departure at a
cal problems encountered by the shooting enthusiast while 65 certain range, a movable member providing a line of
at home or in the field. Examples of these are as follows:
EXAMPLE l
Suppose the rifle of interest is equipped with a tele
sight pivotally connected to said base member at ap
proximately the origin of said trajectory curve so that an
intersection of said line of sight with the trajectory curve
may be provided at a selected sight-in range of the tire
scope and that this riñe is zeroed in so that it is on-target 70 arm and the distance between said curve and said line
at 350 yards. The question is =where will the bullet hit at
of sight along said drop scales at other ranges is a
a range other than 350 yards. FIG. l has been drawn
measure of the rise or drop of the projectile with respect
to illustrate this example.
to said line of sight, the pivotal connection of said mov~
(l) Push the line-of-sight pivot 22 toward the point
of the arrow marked "telescope.”
able member to Said base member including a pivot slid
75 ably mounted with respect to said base member for
f
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3,086,705
movement between a first position representing the dis~
tance of a telescopic sight above said origin of said
curve and a, second position representing the distance
of an iron sight above the origin of said curve.
6
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,290,343
Posner -------------- --« Jan‘ 7» 1919
120.247
Great Britain ________ __ Oct. 29. 1918
is in the form of an elongated rectangle of pocket size,
the ori-gin of said trajectory curve is located near the
lower lift hand corner of said base member with the line
of departure extending toward an upper mid-portion of
said base member, and the drop-scales are oriented at 10
right angles to the line of departure from said origin.
FOREIGN PATENTS
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