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Патент USA US3087395

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April 30, 1963
O~ SUTER
3,087,385
TIME DELAY ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 12, 1960
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BY
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April 3o, 1963
3,087,385
TIME DELAY ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. l2, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
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April 30, 1963
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3,087,385
TIME DELAY ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. l2, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENTOR.
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BY
April 30, 1963
o. sUTER
3,087,385
TIME DELAY ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. l2. 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Patented Apr. 30, i963
2
3,087,385
TilME DELAY ACTUATlNG MECHANISM
ûswaid Suter, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to Technical
Gil Tool Corporation, Los Angeles, Calif., a corpora
years and must nevertheless lbe fully effective and as ac
curate and uniform in operation at the end of such period
as at the beginning.
Bearing in mind the foregoing, a major object of the
present invention is to provide an automatic time delay
mechanism having a high factor of reliability and which
Filed Aug. 12, 1960, Ser. No. 69,534
may be used to maintain accurately controllable time de
9 Claims. (Cl. 89-1)
lay between two successive operations of a sequencing
My invention relates generally to time delay mecha
mechanism.
nisms and more particularly to such mechanisms incor 10
Another object of the invention is to provide a reliable
porated in automatic sequencing devices to introduce a
all-mechanical actuating mechanism of the class described
predetermined time interval between two successive auto
which includes a member movable from a cocked to a
matic operations of the overall mechanism.
terminal position, the travel time of said member being
The use of combustible fuses and the like -for introduc
accurately controllable and which member is adapted to
tion of California
ing time delay is, of course, a very old expedient, finding 15 deliver a uniformly strong actuating force or firing impact
its application principally in armament such as hand
upon reaching said terminal position.
grenades, aerial bombs and the like. Such combustible
It is another major object of the present invention to
fuses have also been used to introduce delay where de
provide an automatic time delay mechanism which is com
sired in certain mechanical devices.
pact in size, light weight, simple in construction, reliable,
Combustible fuses as a time delay have one inherent 20 and which has a controlled high impact means adapted to
disadvantage, however, particularly when an accurate
initiate an explosive charge.
‘
control of the time interval is desired. This disadvan
It is a further object of the invention to provide an
tage is that the burning7 rate for most explosives changes
actuating means of the class described having a long shelf
under varying ambient temperature and pressure condi
life and being adapted to rest normally in a stressed or
tions.
unstressed condition.
One particular application in which reliable and accu
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a
rately controllable time delay mechanisms are necessary
mechanism of the class described in which a single cock
is in the field of pilot ejection from aircraft during high
ing operation performs two functions, to wit, the cooking
speed ilight. The advent of supersonic flight has necessi
of an impact or actuating means and the setting of a tim
tated fully automatic bailout procedures wherein the se 30 ing mechanism.
quence of operations -by which the pilot in his seat is
A still further object of the invention is to provide a
ejected from the pilot compartment and thereafter re
combination timing and actuating mechanism of the class
leased from his seat and parachuted to the earth, all take
described in which the movable actuating member may
place automatically without the exercise of judgment or
be quickly moved to a cocked position in one direction
control by the pilot.
35 and which thereafter moves at a retarded or controlled
.The usual method of pilot bailout from high speed
rate in the other direction.
aircraft is to catapult the pilot seat from the aircraft, the
Still a further object of the invention is to provide a
pilot being held in the seat by the usual seatbelt. In this
time delay actuator mechanism which is extremely rugged
operation the pilot sets into operation a sequencing mech
and durable in construction and will withstand wide vari
anism which first blows oif the canopy of the aircraft, 40 ations in ambient temperature and pressure.
thereafter sequentially ejects the seat, and still later re
The foregoing `and additional objects and advantages of
leases the pilot from the seat and opens the pilot’s para
«the present invention will become apparent from the fol
chute. The just-mentioned sequence of operations all
lowing detailed description thereof, consideration being
take place in a relatively short time so that the time inter
.given also to the attached drawings in which:
val between successive events is too short to be estimated
by the pilot himself.
-It is also to be borne in mind that at a time when the
pilot must, through emergency bail out of the aircraft,
he may often be incapacitated or lose consciousness,
which is a further reason for a fully automatic operation 50
of the sequencing mechanism.
The release of the pilot from the seat cannot occur
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal, medial section of a pres
ently preferred embodiment of the invention, showing also
a portion of a typical gas discharge cartridge in phantom
outline and showing the actuating mechanism embodying
the present invention in its stored or inactive position;
‘FIGURE 2 is a view similar to FIGURE 1, but show
ing the actuating mechanism in cocked position, the in
active position being shown in phantom line;
instantaneously upon the ejection of the seat from the plane
yFIGUR-E 3 is an elevational View taken on a line 3_3
for the reason that the pilot might then be struck by the
of FIGURE 1;
fuselage or tail assembly of the plane. On the other 55 FIGURE 4 is an enlarged portion of FIGURE 3, par
hand, to allow for low altitude bailouts, there is also a
tially sectioned to show underlying parts;
critical time limit beyond which it is dangerous for the
FIGURE 5 is a side elevational View of th-e device
pilot to remain held in the seat.
Thus, it is seen that a fully automatic reliable, accu
shown in FIGURE -l with a cover plate removed to
show a portion of the time delay mechanism;
rate, and relatively short time delay must be provided for, 60 FIGURE 6 is a side elevational view of the device
between the time of ejection of the pilot from the airplane
inverted to show the mechanism on the side opposite
that shown in FIGURE 5;
and the time of release of the pilot from the seat itself.
FIGURE 7 is a top plan View of the device in FIGURE
As above mentioned, `fuse type time delays are un
l showing the relationship of the parts illustrated in
satisfactory due to variations in burning rate with pres
FIGURES 5 and 6;
sure and temperature. Another ydisadvantage of such
FIGURE 8 is a view similar to IFIGURES 1 and 2
time delay means is that they tend to change and de
showing the actuating mechanism in its terminal or tiring
teriorate with the passage of time. This is a particularly
position;
severe disadvantage in the field of use under discussion,
FIGUR-E 9 is a longitudinal medial section of a modi
since pilot release mechanisms must have an almost in 70
tied form of the invention showing the actuating mecha
deûnite shelf life, that is, they must be able to remain
nism in stored or inactive position;
inactive `for long periods of time, perhaps as long as several
FIGURE yl() is a view similar to FIGURE 9 showing
3,087,385
3
the actuating mechanism in cocked position, the phantom
line depicting the firing mechanism at the end of the
time controlled portion of its travel, i.e., the beginning of
its unretarded travel;
ward end of the cooking bolt 25 is eiïected by means
of three balls 29 which are received in lateral bores 3€?
in the hammer 13 and rest in a peripheral ball race or
groove 31 formed in the forward end of the cooking bolt
25. As can be seen in FIGURE 3, the diameter of the
‘balls 29 is such that due to impingement against the sur
11-11 in FIGURE 9;
face of the bore 12, they may not escape from the groove
'FIGURE 12 is a longitudinal medial section of an
31 and, thus, the bolt 25 is locked to the hammer 13.
other modiiied form of the invention showing the actuat
In order to prevent accidental movement of the bolt
ing mechanism in activated position;
FIGURE .13 is a fragmentary view similar to FIGURE 10 25 during installation or, for example, when the aircraft
is on the ground, the enlarged head of the bolt is formed
12 showing the actuating mechanism in its terminal or
with a peripheral groove 26a which is tangentially inter
tiring position;
sected by a transverse bore 22a in the cap 22 in which a
FIGURE 14 is an elevational cross section taken along
safety Ypin or Cotter key 22b may be placed to lock the
the line 14-14 of FIGURE 12;
FIGURE 15 is an elevational cross section taken along 15 bolt 25 positively against movement.
As Vis `illustrated ineFIGURE 2, the balls 29 may move
the line 15-15 of FIGURE `13; and
c'
outwardly into an annular undercut recess 32 in the
FIGURE 16 is -a perspective view of the actuating
bore 12 when the hammer 13 reaches its fully cocked
mechanism and latch of the modification shown in FIG
position. The outward movement of the balls 29l into
URES 12-15.
'
The specific application of my invention, shown here 20 the recess 32 releases them from the groove 31 and, thus,
disconnects the bolt 25- from the hammer 13 permitting
in for illustrative purposes, is the time delay mechanism
the spring 21V to drive the same in a forward direction
for releasing a pilot’s seatbelt a predetermined time after
to ultimately tire the cartridge 17, as will be described.
the seat and pilot are ejected from the aircraft according
As has been previously stated, it is desired, after the
to known practice. The actual release of the seat belt
is effected by gas pressure generated by an exploding 25 hammer is released as is shown in FIGURE 2, that there
be an appreciable, predetermined, accurate time delay
cartridge and Ithe cartridge itself is detonated in the pres
before the hammer drives forward to impinge the firing
ent instance by the ‘impact` of -a yhammer-tiring pin mem
pin 14 against the percussion cap 19.
'
ber.
'
The time delay is effected by means of a retarding scar
The embodiments of my entire time delay-tiring mecha
nism shown in ‘FIGURES 1-11 are mounted on the pilot’s 30 33 secured to a transverse rock shaft 34 journaled in
Vthe body 11. The body 11 is slotted as shown at 35 to
seat itself and are cocked or armed by the relative move
>receive the sear 33, the nose of the latter projecting down
ment of the seat as it is ejected from` the aircraft, the
wardly into the bore 12 to engage a transverse groove or
cooking movement being effected by a lanyard connected
pocket 36 in the hammer 13.
between the firing mechanism and the yaircraft itself. The
The hammer .13 is prevented from rotating in the bore
modification shown in FIGURES 12-16 is also mounted 35
12 by means of a threaded pin 37 which projects into a
on the pilot’s seat but is pre-cocked and as the seat is
FIGURE 1l is an elevational section taken on the line
ejected from the aircraft, a latch is released freeing the
pre-cocked firing mechanism.
»For a more detailed description of the invention, refer
enceshould now be had »to FIGURE 1, wherein the refer
ence character llûdesignates the tiring mechanism as a
longitudinal keyway 38` in the hammer 13. Thus it will
be seen that the transverse groove 36 is always properly
positioned torengage the sear 33 when the hammer is
40 moved longitudinally in 4the bore 12.
. The nose of the sear 33 in the transverse groove 36
whole, thesame including a mainbody 11 formed with
effects an interengagement between the sear 33 and the
a central main bore 12 in which is carried a slidable
hammer 13 somewhat akin to the engagement between
a single tooth gear and `a moving rack. Thus, longi
tudinal movement of the hammer 13 is accompanied by
hammer 13 having an integral iiring pin 1'4 formed on the
forward end thereof.
The forward end of the body 11 has an externally
threaded Iboss 1S thereon adapted to engage theinternal
rotation of the sear on its shaft 34.
The scar 33 is rotationally ysecured to the shaft 34,
threads of a chamber member 16 to retain a conventional
Vsince vthe latter is lsquare at the point where it passes
gas generating cartridge 17 therein. An aperture -18 at
through the sear. There is, therefore a driving connec
tion between the'hammer 13 and the shaft 34, over a
portion of its path so that the hammer 13 may not move
the forward end of the bore 12 permits the tiring pin 14
todrive forwardly and impinge against the percussion
cap 19 of the cartridge -17 exploding the same.
After cooking as will be described, the hammer 13 is
longitudinally without corresponding rotation of the
shaft 34.
As can be seen best in FIGURES 2 and 8, the upper
at its rearward end against a threaded cap 22 secured to 55 side of the hammer 13 is flattened, as indicated at 40,
thus permitting the sear 33 :to swing out of the groove
the rearward end of the body 11 and anchored at its
‘36 an-d `disengage the hammer 13 when the latter reaches
forward end in a coaxial counterbore 23 in the hammer
driven forwardly by a compression spring 21 anchored
a predetermined point in its forward travel, this point
'
being approximately that illustrated in FIGURE 1. Af
FPhe free length of the compression spring 21 is such
that with the hammer in the position illustrated in FIG 60 ter the sear 33 is released from the groove 36, the ham
mer 13 may thereafter move forward without restraint
URE l, the spring is substantially unstressed, that is,
`delivering its full impact against the percussion cap 19'.
the hammer 13 is acted on by the spring 21 «during most
During that portion of the travel between the cocked posi
of its longitudinal travel but moves over the forward
tion illustrated in FIGURE 2 and the Sear-release posi
terminal portion of its tiring path by inertia.
tion illustrated in FIGURE 1, however, the hammer
During the condition of rest illustrated in FIGURE 1,
13.
25 coaxially positioned in the bore 12, connected at its for
13 may move only at the rate which is permitted by the
retarding sear 33t.
ward end to the hammer 13, and anchored at its rearward
end by an enlarged head 26 seating against a shoulder 27
ment is effected by an escapement connected through a
the hammer 13 is immobilized by means of a cooking bolt
Retardation of scar rotation and thus of hammer move
_formed in the cap 22. The cap 22 is apertured to permit 70 gear train to the «shaft 34, as can be seen best in FIG
URES'S, 6, and 7. The shaft 34 has keyed to one end
the head 26 of the cooking bolt 25 to project rearwardly
thereof a sector gear 42 which is meshed with an idler
from the mechanism 10, the head 26 being flattened with
gea-r 43, the latter, in turn, being meshed with a pinion
a hole 28 therein for the attachment of the firing lanyard
(not shown).
44, Iall of the last named parts being located on the side
The connectionbetween the hammer<13 and the for 75 of the mechanism illustrated in FIGURE 5. The pinion
5
3,037,385
44 is keyed to a shaft 4S -which extends completely
It will be noted that the last described outward move
ment of theV balls 29 into the groove 68 not only releases
on its opposite end a gear d6.
the bolt 25, but effects an interengagement of the hammer
The gear 46 is rotatably carried on a shoulder screw
core 65 and the hammer sleeve 66, due to the fact that the
47 threaded into the end of the shaft 45 and the gear
balls project from the groove 63 into the lateral bores 70
is rotatively coupled to the shaft 45 by means of a fric
of the hammer core 65. It will be noted that the bores
tion spring overrunning clutch 48 having a helical portion
79 are angled rearwardly whereby the forward thrust of
48a frictionally wrapped around the end of the shaft ¿l5
the spring 21 on the core 65 tends to retain the balls 29 in
and a radially terminal portion 48h extending along 'the
the groove 68 due to the inclined rearward surface of each
adjacent face of the gear 46 with a bent end received in 10 bore 7() engaging the ball 29 therein.
a bore 49 in the gear 46.
fWhen the core 65 and the sleeve 66 are interengaged
Thus it will be seen that the gear 46 is coupled to
as just described, they act in effect as a single hammer
the shaft 45 by an overrunning clutch arrangement per
member, the motion of which is retarded by the engage
mitting free rotation of the gear with respect to the shaft
ment of the sear 33 in the groove 67. When the sear ro
in one direction, but drivingly coupling the two members
tates in a clockwise direction with the forward motion of
for rotation in the other direction.
the two-piece hammer 65-66, it ultimately rotates out of
As is shown best in FIGURE 6, the gear 46 meshes
the groove 67, as indicated by the phantom line in FIG
through the body 12 being journaled therein and carries
with a pinion Si) on a common shaft with a gear 51
URE l0, whereupon the composite hammer 65-66 there
which, in turn, meshes with a pinion 52. formed as an
after drives for-ward under the pressure of the spring 21
to detonate the cartridge in the manner previously de
`a similar pinion and gear idler 5f2-55 with a pinion 56
scribed.
rotatably secured on a common idler shaft with a scape
It will be realized that in the form shown in FIGURES
wheel 57.
9 through l1 the time delay mechanism is originally set
The scape wheel 57 is formed with star-shaped teeth
with the scar 33 in its starting or cocked position. Thus,
which engage a pair of pallet pins 58 mounted on an 25 there is no necessity for the clutch member, previously de
oscillating pawl member or balance wheel 59. The ef
scribed, since the sear 33 does not rotate during the cock
fect of the oscillating pawl 59, the pins 58 of which are
ing of the second described embodiment, the sleeve por
alternately engaged with the scape wheel 57, is to control
tion 66 of the hammer remaining stationary during the
the rate of rotation of the latter, which controlled rota
rearward or cooking movement of the core 65 and the
tion is transmitted through the previously described gea-r 30 bolt 25.
train to the Sear 33 and, hence, controls the rate of longi
Having described the contruction of two embodiments
tudinal movement of the hammer 13 as long as the sear
of my invention, the operation thereof may now be de
33 is engaged in lthe groove 36.
scribed briefly.
The drive direction of the overrunning clutch 48 is such
In tirst describing the FIGURE 1 embodiment i-t will
that the sear 33 is time-controlled in its clockwise rotation,
be assumed that the cartridge 17 has been loaded into
as viewed in FIGURE l, but is free to rotate at an un
the chamber 16 and secured in place by means of the
controlled rate during cooking, i.e., when the sear is ro
threaded boss l5, previously described. It will also be
ta-ted in a counterclockwise direction, In order that the
assumed that the safety key 22h has been removed, free-ing
time delay mechanism comprising the gear train and
the bolt 25.
escapement, illustrated in FIGURE 6, may be adjusted to 40
Upon the occurrence of an emergency requiring a bail
effect different time delays, the center-to-center distances
out, the pilot first blows off the canopy of the plane in
between the mounting shafts 69, 61, 62, 63, and 64 are all
the usual manner and in some cases thereafter presses an
equal. Thus, one or more lgear-pinion pairs may be re
appropriate release button to operate the ejecting mecha
moved from the train illustrated in FIGURE 6 and the
nism catapulting the seat and himself out of the plane.
escapement members moved up to the next shaft, thus 45 As the seat -moves away from the aircraft, the lanyard
changing the total gear reduction between the escapement
connected to the bolt 25 pulls the same from the housing
and the sear 33.
12 drawing back the hammer 13, this reverse action r0
The modification illustrated in FIGURES 9 through 11
tating the sear 33 in a counterclockwise direction to the
is concerned with the cooking operation and the means
cocked position shown in full line in FIGURE 2. At that
for releasing the cocking bolt 25 from the hammer when
point the balls 29 move radially outward into the groove
the latter is cocked. The construction and organization
32 releasing the bolt Z5 and permitting the hammer 13 to
of the modiñed form of the invention illustrated in FIG
start its forward motion under the urging of the spring 2l.
URE-S 9 through ll is in most respects similar to the pre
The initial part of the forward or -tiring motion of the
viously described embodiment. In the modified form,
hammer ‘i3 is retarded due to the engagement of the Sear
however, the overrunning clutch 4S is eliminated and the
33 and the operation of the escapement mechanism pre
hammer member is divided into two portions, to wit, a
viously described. Upon reaching the position illustrated
integral part of a gear 53, the latter meshing through
core 65, and a coaxial surrounding sleeve 66. rI'he core 65
in FIGURE l, the sear 33 rotates out of the groove 36
is slidable within the sleeve 66 and the latter is slidable
permitting the hammer to drive forwardly iwithout re
in the bore 12.
straint, impinging the tiring pin M against the percussion
The sleeve 66 is provided with a transverse groove 67 60 cap 19 and exploding the cartridge 17.
to receive the retarding sear 33 in the manner previously
As above stated, the gas pressure generated by the eX
described in connection with the ñrst embodiment. The
ploding cartridge releases the pilot seat belt permitting the
storage or inactive position of the FIGURE 9 embodiment
pilot to parachute to the earth in the usual manner. The
is illustrated in FIGURE 9 wherein it will be seen that the
mechanism for opening the pilot’s parachute is conven
sleeve 66 is preset in a rearward or cocked position in the 65 tional and since it forms no part of the present invention
bore 12 seated against a stop ring 69 snapped into a
is not described herein.
complemental undercut groove in the bore i2.
The operation of the modiñed form of the invention
The hammer core 65 is secured to the bolt 25 by balls
illustrated in FIGURES 9 through ll is virtually identi
29 received in lateral bores 7u in the core and seated in
cal to )that above described, except thatV the rearward
the groove 31 as in the previous embodiment. An internal 70 movement of the bolt 2,5 is not accompanied by any rota
tion ofthe sear 3.3, the latter being preset to its starting
annular groove 68 is formed in the sleeve 66 to receive
or cocked position and already in engagement with the
rearward edge of the groove 67 in the hammer sleeve 66.
Upon reaching fully cocked position, the hammer core
when the latter has been pulled back to cocked position. 75 65 is disengaged from the bolt '25 by the balls 29 moving
the balls 29, as described in the previous embodiment,
permitting the balls to move outwardly from the groove 31
thus, disconnecting the bolt `from the hammer core 65
3,087,385
wardly from the position of FIGURES l2 or 14, to the
position of FIGURES 13 or 15', i.e., to a position wherein
outwardly in the same manner described in connection
with the previous embodiment. This outward motion of
the latch outer surface is flush with *the outer surface of
the balls 29 also engages the core 65 with the sleeve 66.
the hammer 213. Ready release of the latch is insured
which two parts drive forwardly as a unit, initially re
tarded by the sear 33 and the escapement mechanism. Ul by provision of the sloping surfaces 240 of the latch.
Thus, as pressure is exerted by the spring 221 upon one
When the sear rotates to the position shown in phantom
or more corners of the groove 230 by the latch 226,
line in FIGURE 1‘0‘, it disengages the groove 67, permit
“hang-up” of the latch 226 in the groove 230 is avoided
ting the composite hammer 65-66 to drive forward ex
because of the sloping surfaces 240. Upon release of the
ploding the cartridge in the manner previously described.
latch 2216 in this manner, the hammer 213 isfree to move
It will be appreciated that the time delay mechanism
forwardly under the influence of the spring 221 until
the firing pin 214 has caused discharge of the gas car
tridge. Gases thus formed are evacuated, in part, through
ports 252 of the hammer 21‘3.
to actuate _or release a catch or other mechanical element
Upon release of the latch 226, the time delay of ham
instead of firing the cartridge.
15
embodying my invention may be incorporated in various
devices other than the cartridge tiring movement shown
herein. For example, the hammer «13 may be arranged
mer 2:13 is effected by means of a retarding sear 250,
Referring now specifically to the modification shown
in FIGURES 1'2-16, the time delay mechanism there
shown is simpler in construction than the prior embodi
which in turn is controlled by the escapement mechanism
and gear train previously described in some detail with
reference to FIGURES l-ll.
it will thus be seen that a relatively simple but ex
ments described but, at the same time, is very compact,
extremely reliable, and contains a time-controlled high
impact hammer adapted to initiate an explosive charge.
The reference character 210` in FIGURE 12 designates
tremely reliable device has been described for elfectuating
the firing mechanism as a whole, the same including a
described in FIGURES l-ll while somewhat more corn
a controlled time delay mechanism.
The embodiments
plex, provide advantages, in those instances, for exam
main body 2151 formed with a central main bore 212 in
Vwhich is carried a slidable hammer 216 having an integral 25 ple, where strong fatigue-free springs are not available.
This oase is a continuation-in-part application of my
firing pin :2‘14 formed on the forward end thereof.
presently pending patent application Serial No. 632,732,
As in the prior embodiment, the forward end of the
filed January 7, 1957, now abandoned, and entitled Time
body 211 has an externally threaded boss 215 thereon
Delay Actuating Mechanism.
adapted to engage the internal threads of a chamber
member 216 to retain a conventional gas generating car
30
tridge therein (not shown). An aperture 1218 at the for
ward end of the bore 212 permits the tiring pin 214 to
driveV forwardly and impinge against a percussion cap
(not shown) of the cartridge exploding the same.
In the embodiment of FIGURES 12-16, rather than 35
I claim:
Y
l. A time delay actuating mechanism which comprises:
a body having a cylindrical bore for-med therein; »a ham
mer unit slidably movable within said bore and adapted
to be retained in »a stored position when not in use; means
for moving said hammer unit rearward relative to said
employing an uncooked firing pin, then cooking just prior
body -to thereby cause said hammer unit to ‘assume a
to actual firing, a precocked firing pin and hammer are
employed, thereby eliminating need for a clutching ar
cocked position; power means within said bore for
propelling said hammer unit in a forwardly direction from
said cocked position; a groove »formed in the outer periph
rangement or the more complex structure of FIGURES
40 ery of said hammer unit having la front and rear face; a
9, l0y and 1l.
sear pivotally mounted for arcuate movement within said
After precocking of the hammer 213, as will be de
scribed, the hammer is driven forwardly by a compres
_ groove and adapted to engage the rear face of said groove
sion spring 221 anchored at its rearward end in a man
when said hammer unit is in said cocked position; a tim
ner similar to that described in FIGURE l, and anchored
ing mechanism, connected through 'a gear train, to said
at its forward end in the coaxial counterbore 2213 in 45 sear to control the rate of »arcuate movement thereof, the
rate of forward linear movement of »said hammer unit
4hammer 213.
The free lengthof the compression spring 221 is such
being controlled by the arcuate movement of said sear,
that, with the hammer 213 in the position illustrated in
the sear being removed from the path of said hammer unit
FIGURE 13, the spring is substantially unstressed. Thus,
at arelease point rearward of the device to be ‘actuated
the hammer 213 is acted on by the spring during most, 50 by being pivoted out of said groove to allow the hammer
if not all, of its longitudinal travel. In the position
to be propelled Ifreely forwardly from said release point,
illustrated in FIGURE 12, the spring is compressed,
at a high velocity, into said device to -be actuated.
thereby cooking the hammer `213, as will now be de
2. A time delay actuating mechanism which comprises:
scribed.
a body having Va cylindrical bore formed therein; an under
The hammer 21-3 is immobilized in precocked position 55 cut »annular recess formed in the walls of said bore; a
Within the main bore 212 by means of a cooking bolt 225
hammer slidably movable within said bore «and adapted
operatively connected at its forward end to the hammer ' Y -to> be retained in a stored position when not yin use; a
213, and anchored at its rearward end in a manner sub
counterbore formed within said hammer having a closed
stantially identical with that described with reference to
forward end and an open rearward end communicating
FIGURE l in column 2 of this specification.
60 with said central bore; 'a plurality of radial passages
The forward end of the cooking bolt 225 supports a
formed within `and extending through the walls of said
latch 226, the latch 226 having a cylindrical leg 227
hammer communicating with said counterbore, the vstored
slidably passing through an aperture 228 in the hammer
position of said hammer being such that said passages are
213, and resting on cooking bolt 225 in the precocked
initially positioned forwardly of said lannular recess; a
position shown in FIGURES l2 and 14. The upper 65 plurality of balls slidably movable in a laterally outward
portion of the latch 226 projects upwardly beyond the
circumference of the main bore ì2112 into a groove 230
of the main body 211 and locks the hammer 213` in ñxed
relation to the main body 211. The latch 226 thus posi
tively prevents any forward movement of the hammer
21‘3 under the influence of the spring 221, or for any
direction provided within each of said passages, an arcuate
>segment of each of said balls extending into said counter
bore; a cooking bolt having an annular 4ball race formed
within the forward ‘and thereof, said forward end extend
ing axially through said main bore and counterbore to
other reason.
engage the arcuate segments of said balls; means for mov- ,
When the cooking bolt 225 is released, the support
provided for the latch 226 (by the cooking bolt itself)
is removed, and the latch 226 immediately drops down
ing said cooking bolt rearwardly with respect to said body
thereby causing said annular recess in said body and said
balls to become transversely aligned whereby the balls
3,087,385
10
move outwardly from said counterbore into said recess
thereby disengaging said hammer from said cocking bolt
to permit forward movement of said hammer with respect
to said body; power means within said bore adapted to
propel said hammer forwardly as said disengagement of
the forward movement of :said hammer to thereby control
the rate of lforward movement thereof.
6. A time delay actuating mechanism which comprises:
a body having a cylindrical bore formed therein; Ia ham
mer slidably mounted within said bore; a compression
spring enclosed Within said bore rearwardly of said ham
mer, the rearward end of said spring being fixed with re
spect to said bore; retaining means for holding said ham
mer in a stored position slightly rearwardly of an actuat
said hammer occurs; a transverse groove formed within
the outer periphery of the hammer; a sear «rotatably mount
ed for arcuate movement in a generally forwardly direc
tion within said transverse groove, -said sear adapted to
engage with an edge of said groove; a timing mechanism 10 ing position within said bore whereby said spring is
connected through a gear train to said lSear -to control
the rate of arcuate movement thereof, the movement of
said hammer by said power means being accurately con
maintained in substantially decompressed state when said
-hammer is not in use; a groove formed Within the outer
periphery of said hammer; a sear slot formed within said
body and communicating with said bore; a sear rotatably
linear movement of said sear, said sear being removed 15 mounted within said slot, said Sear being adapted to ex
from the path of said hammer by rotating out of said
tend into said ‘bore just rearwardly of said groove when
transverse groove to allow the hammer to be propelled
said hammer is in stored position; cocking means for
freely, at high velocities, into the device to be actuated.
rapidly moving said hammer rearward relative to said
3. The apparatus of claim 2 characterized in that said
body to thereby cause said spring to become compressed
timing means comprises: a balance wheel adapted to os 20 and said hammer to assume a cocked position, said ham
trolled by, and being substantially equal to, the rate of
cillate at a fixed rate of speed; a scape wheel in engage
ment with said balance wheel to have imparted thereto a
fixed rate of rotation as said balance wheel oscillates; a
gear train, including 'a terminal gear, in engagement with
said scape wheel for reducing the -rate of rotation of said 25
mer carrying said sear rearwardly within said »groove to
a rearward position; means for disengaging said hammer
`from said cocking means as said cocked position is
reached whereby to enable said hammer to move «for
scape wheel, the terminal gear in said gear train adapted
to transmit its rate of rotation to regulate the forward
movement of said hammer during the time of engagement
with said control member therewith.
anism adapted to engage said sear to control the rate
war-diy under the influence of said spring; a timing mech
of >arcuate movement thereof, the Sear, in turn, engaging
the hammer from its cocked position to a released posi
tion substantially forwardly of said cocked position to
4. A time delay actuating mechanism which comprises: 30 thereby control the rate `of forward movement of said
a body -having a cylindrical bore formed therein; a ham
hammer, the sear adapted to be removed from the path
mer slidably mounted within `said bore; retaining means
of said hammer as it reaches its released position by being
for holding said hammer in a stored position when said
pivoted upwardly from within said lgroove to thereby al
actuating mechanism is not in use; power means within
low the hammer to be propelled freely forwardly to a
said bore for propelling said hammer forwardly from a 35 high velocity into the member tot be actuated.
cocked position to 'an actuating position; cocking means
7. The apparatus of claim 6 characterized in that said
for retracting said hammer relative to said body from' said
retaining means and said cocking means comprise: an
stored position to said cocked position; means for dis
undercut annular recess -formed in the walls of said bore;
engaging said hammer from said retaining means as said
a counterbore formed within said hammer coaxial with
cocked position is attained whereby Ito enable said hammer
said bore, said counterbore having its rear end communi
to move forwardly; a pivotally mounted sear member in
eating with said bore; a cocking bolt axially mounted
engagement with said hammer during at least a portion of
within said bore; a plurality of radial-ly extending pas
both its relatively rearward and relatively forward travel;
sages formed within said hammer walls communicating
. a timing means engaged with said sear member adapted to
with said counterbore and with said bore, said stored
control the movement thereof; and clutch lmeans for 45 position of said ha-mmer being such that said passages are
automatically disengaging said sear member from said
initially positioned forwardly of said undercut recess; a
plurality of balls, slidably mounted within each of said
5. A time delay actuating mechanism which com
passages, an arcuate segment of each of said balls pro
prises: a body having a cylindrical bore formed therein;
jecting into said counterbore; an annular arcuate ball
race formed on the periphery of said cocking bolt for
a hammer slidably mounted Within said bore; means for
holding said hammer in a stored uncocked position when
ward end engaging the arcuate segments of `said balls
when the hammer lies in stored position, movement of
not in use; cocking means for retracting said hammer
with respect to said body from said stored position to a
said cocking bolt rearwardly with respect to said body
second cocked position upon initaition of the lactuating
causing said `undercut recess in said body and said balls
mechanism, the relative retraction of the hammer im 55 to become transversely -aligned whereby the balls move
parting energy to an energy-storing member to thereby
radially outwardly from said counterbore into said re
cess thereby disengaging said hammer «from said cocking
cock Said hammer; a pivotally movable sear adapted to
engage said hammer during at least `a portion of its rela
bolt to permit forward movement of said hammer with
tively rearward travel -from said stored position to said
respect to said body.
cocked position and during at least a portion of its for 60
8. The apparatus of claim 6 characterized in that said
ward travel from said cocked position to a release posi
tim-ing means comprises: a balance wheel adapted to oscil
tion; means for disengaging said hammer from said
late at a fixed frequency; a scape wheel slidably en
cocking means as said cocked position is attained whereby
gageable with said balance lwheel to thereby rotate at a
to enable said hammer to move forwardly under the in
'fixed rate of rotation; a gear reduction train including
fluence of said energy-storing member; a timing mecha 65 a terminal gear, in engagement with said scape wheel
nism adapted to control the rate of movement of said
for changing the rate of rotation thereof, the terminal
gear of said gear train adapted to be engaged With said
sear to thereby control the rate of movement of said ham
timing means as said sear member is moved rearwardly.
mer during the time of engagement of said sear there
with; and clutch means for disconnecting said timing 70
sear to regulate the movement thereof.
9. A time delay actuating mechanism which comprises:
a body having a cylindrical bore formed therein; a `sleeve
mounted for slidable movement within said bore; an
relatively retracted rapidly .from its initial stored position
undercut recess formed within the inner wall of said
to its cocked position, said clutch means being adapted
sleeve; a pocket formed on the outer periphery of said
to connect said timing mechanism with said scar during 75 sleeve, said pocket having a front shoulder and a rear
mechanism from said sear during rearward movement of
said sear relative to said body whereby said hammer is
any/,aas
12
l1
lower shoulder; a core slidably mounted within said sleeve
and positioned initially in a forwardly stored position and
spring power means for propelling said hammer unit
forwardly up'on the disengagement of said unit from said
fhaving a liring pin formed thereon, a counterbore formed
therein axially aligned with said bore, said counterbore
communicating with `said main bore; a plurality of radially
cocking bolt; a pivotally movable sear, movable in a gen
erally longitudinal direction, and extending into said
pocket to abut an edge thereof while said core is stored
and cocked; timing means engageable with said movable
extending passages formed within and passing thro-ugh
said core walls, said passages being positioned forwardly
-sear to control the rate of forward movement thereof,
of said undercut recess when said hammer is in said
said scar engaged with, and controlling 'at least a portion
stored position; a plurality of balls slidably movable with
of the forward movement of, said »hammer unit, said
in each of sai-d passages and being of `such size in relation 10 timing means comprising a balance wheel adapted to
to said passages as to have an arcuate segment of each
oscillate at a fixed rate 4of movement, a scape wheel in
of the balls extending into said counterbore as said balls
rest on said walls of said bore; a cocking bolt having an
slidable engagement with said balance wheel to be con
trolled thereby at a fixed rate of rotation, a gear tr-ain for
engagement with said scape wheel to reduce the rate of
annularly grooved forward end, extending axially through
said main bore and counterbore, engaging with the arcuate 15
rotation of said scape wheel, the terminal gear in said
segments of said balls; means for rapidly moving said core
gear train adapted to be operatively attached to said sear
rearwardly relative to said body to thereby cause said
to regulate the angularly forward movement thereof.
core to attain a cocked position, the balls in said cocked
position being forced radially outwardly from said
counterbore into said undercut recess as said recess be
20
References Cited in the file of this patent
comes transversely aligned to thus disengage the hammer
from said cocking bolt as wel] as to connect said core and
sleeve as a hammer unit and permit instantaneous forward
movement of said unit with respect to said main body;
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,845,024
Greene ______________ __ July 29, 1958V
2,873,648
Musser et al. _________ _.. Feb. 17, 1959
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