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Патент USA US3087462

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April 30, 1963
F. B. s. GRIMSTON
HYDROFOILS
Filed Feb. 7, 1961
3,087,452
9,3 g@
3,687,452
Patented Apr. 39, W63
2
3,637,452
HYEROFOILS
Francis Brian Sylvester Grimston, % Royal Thames
Yacht Utah, 60 Knightsbridge, London SW. ll, England
Filed Feb. '7, 1961, Ser. No. 87,602
Claims priority, application Great Britain Feb. 25, 1960
3 fliaims. (Cl. 114-665)
In one form of construction, the supporting hydrofoil
comprises the lower portion of a substantially elliptical
sectioned tubular element arranged with its major axis
horizontal, extending transversely of the boat, and the
sensing hydrofoil comprises the upper portion thereof.
The stabiliser is mounted for limited angular motion
about a pivot within the tubular member, and extending
transversely of its longitudinal axis.
The leading edge of the upper portion of the tubular
bers for boats, aircraft and like vehicles, and has for its 10 element lies forwardly of the leading edge of the lower
object to provide an improved hydrofoil system or
portion. The ‘sensing hydrofoil portion is thus in advance
stabiliser, for attachment to boats ‘and the like, which
of the supporting hydrofoil. The supporting hydrofoil is
will improve the riding performance of a boat or other
provided by substantially the whole lower half of the
vehicle moving in rough or undulating water.
This invention relates to hydrofoils, or planing mem
tubular element, and a somewhat di-hedral effect is ob
Another object of the invention is to provide a stabiliser 15 tained,
since on the boat rolling, the larger lifting effect
which will lift a boat rapidly to its hydrofoiling position
is thereby provided on the vdipping side of the hydrofoil,
on the boat getting under way.
and a corresponding smaller lifting effect on the other
A further object of the invention is to provide a
side, tending to produce a righting moment on the boat.
stabiliser which is capable not only of reducing the sur
The tubular element can be of any suitable shape
face area of the boat in contact with the water when 20 other than elliptical cross-section. For example, it can
under way, and thus improving the speed and perform
be circular, diamond-shaped, square or triangular, with
ance of the boat, but also will automatically prevent a
the sloping sides meeting at the top or ‘at the bot-tom
hydrofoil from having a negative lift on the boat en
of the stabiliser, according to the individual requirements
countering a wave, thus reducing porpoising and pitching
of the boat to which it is to be affixed.
in a boat equipped with the system.
25
The material from which the tubular element can be
A still further object of the invention is to provide
constructed may be of uniform cross-section throughout,
an improved hydrofoil system which will eliminate or
or it may be of aerofoil-section or have its leading edges
substantially reduce shock when the bow of the boat or
curved upwardly, or thickened and rounded in section.
the hydrofoil encounters a wave or re-enters the water
If desired, a ?otsam de?ector may be incorporated
after jumping out.
30
with the stabiliser. Such a de?ector may take the form
The stabiliser according to the invention normally op
erates at a relatively ?xed inclination to the direction of
motion of the boat, for example, the usual l1/2°, but
automatically adjusts its inclination in accordance with
relative vertical movement of the part of the boat to
which it is attached, or on any change in upward load
ing on the stabiliser.
On the stabiliser becoming loaded, as for example, on
of a vertical ?n, protruding forwardly of the stabiliser
from within the tubular element. It may for example be
a forwardly extending part of the vertical web portion of
the stabiliser, or it may be attached to the said web, and
have an upwardly inclined lower front portion, so that on
striking ?otsam, the supporting hydrofoil becomes in
clined at a greater angle than normal, and the boat tendsv
to ride up and over the ?otsam.
the boat getting under way, or being further loaded,
The invention is illustrated ‘by way of example in the‘
through being submerged, or further submerged in the 40 accompanying
drawings, in which,
water, as might happen on encountering a wave forma
‘FIG. 1 shows in perspective a preferred form of con
tion, or through the adjacent part of the ‘boat dipping
struction of the stabiliser, and
in the water, through pitching, porpoising, rolling or
FIG. 2 shows in side elevation a slightly modi?ed
other uncontrolled movement, its inclination is auto
form of the stabiliser.
matically increased to raise the boat, and as the boat rises 45
Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the stabiliser
to its normal riding position, the inclination of the sta
consists
of’ an elliptical tubular element, 11, disposed with
biliser becomes decreased toward its normal operating
its major transverse axis extending horizontally, and trans
angle.
versely of the boat. The tubular element is formed of
Stops are preferably provided to limit the ‘amount of
a sheet of marine aluminum, or magnesium alloy; curved
50
angular movement of the stabiliser, and these stops may
to elliptical tubular form with the end portions bent in
be resilient to reduce the shock on rapid or severe changes
wardly as shown, to form ?anges 21 and 22, by which it
in the inclination of the stabiliser during rough passages
is pivoted at 13 to a lug 14 depending from two out
of the boat.
wardly flared ?ange plates 5 and 6, by which it may be
The hydrofoil and stabilising device, the subject of the
secured on the underside of a boat hull.
invention has a main supporting hydrofoil, or planing 55
Two stops 7 and 8 on the lug 14 limit the pivotal
member secured to a boat at a relatively ?xed inclina
tion to the direction of forward motion, and adapted to
raise the boat when moving forwardly in Water. It has
movement of the element to about 20° and rubber buffers
24% and 25 respectively on the stops 7 and 8 serve to
cushion the element on reaching the extreme positions
substantially rigidly associated therewith, or integral
of its movement, and prevent jarring.
therewith, and above and in advance thereof, a sensing 60
A vertically disposed web 32 extends from between
or probe hydrofoil, which is normally submerged when
the
?anges 21 and 22 to the front part of the bottom
the boat is stationary, and is above the surface of the
portion of the tubular element to ‘reinforce this latter
water when the boat is lifted normally during forward
and prevent ?exing of the front of its bottom portion.
motion of the supporting hydrofoil. This sensing hydro
This web may also serve as a ?otsam guard which will
65
foil is adapted on encountering the water surface, either
rotate the stabiliser to raise the boat in the water on the
from above or below, to increase or decrease respectively,
guard striking ?otsam.
the inclination of the supporting hydrofoil relatively to the
A second web 33 may be provided at the rear end of
boat. The inclination of the stabiliser is thus adjusted
the
stabiiiser, depending from the ?anges 21 and 22 at
automatically in relation to the nature of the water sur—
face encountered by the sensing hydrofoil and the passage 70 the rear, and terminating just short of the bottom portion 11 of the element to limit upward ?exing of its
of the boat is thereby smoothed out somewhat in rough
rear portion.
or undulating water.
in the arrangement of the stabiliser shown in FIG. 2,
dosages
to
4
the rubber buffers 26 and 27 for limiting the pivotal move
ment of the stabiliser extend between its downturned
?anges and abut in the extreme positions of the stabiliser
against portions 28 and 29 respectively of the lug 14. In
this arrangement, an alternative form of ?otsam guard
is shown in chain dotted lines, 32'.
20°, between the normal hydrofoiling position of the
supporting hydrofoil and its maximum lifting position, in
which device, the supporting hydrofoil constitutes the
{.9
The lower portion 31 of the tubular element 11 con
lower portion of a short tubular element rockably mount
ed about a transverse axis within the element, and the
sensing hydrofoil constitutes the upper portion of said
element, the leading edge of said upper portion lying
forwardly of the leading edge of the lower portion.
stitutes the main supporting hydrofoil of the stabiliser,
2. A hydrofoil and stabilising device for a boat, hav
and the upper portion 17 constitutes the sensing hydro
10 ing a lower supporting hydrofoil and an upper sensing
foil.
hydrofoil rigidly connected thereto and in advance there
The leading edge 30 of the tubular element is curved as
of, ‘a pivot secured on the underside of the boat hull and
shown in side elevation in FIG. 2, with its upper por
extending transversely between said hydrofoils, about
tion 17 lying forwardly of its lower portion 31.
which they are mounted for rotational movement, and
In operation, the boat moves forwardly and gathers
speed with the stabiliser submerged, and pressure on the 15 stops on the device limiting such movement to about
20°, ‘between the normal hydrofoiling position of the
sensing hydrofoil 17 tilts the stabiliser to a sharper angle
supporting hydrofoil and its maximum lifting position, in
of attack, causing it to rise steeply, and thus lift the prow
which device, the supporting hydrofoil constitutes the low
of the boat out of the water. When the sensing hydro
er portion of an elliptical shaped tubular member having
foil 17 clears the water surface, the centre of pressure
moves rearwardly to behind the pivot pin 13, so that the 20 its major axis horizontal, and the sensing hydrofoil con
stitutes the upper portion of said member, the leading
inclination of the supporting hydrofoil 31 decreases un
edge of said member being ‘obliquely curved upwardly
til it resumes its normal position, ‘about 5° to the hori
and forwardly so that the sensing hydrofoil is in advance
zontal, with the heel portion against the stop 7 (FIG.
of the main hydrofoil.
1), or with the stop 26 against the rear portion 20 of the
3. A hydrofoil and stabilising device for a boat, having
lug 14, (FIG. 2). In this position the supporting hydro 25
a lower supporting hydrofoil and an upper sensing hydro
foil 31 planes on the water surface with the sensing hy
foil rigidly connected thereto and in advance thereof, a
drofoil 17 clear of the water surface, until a wave forma
tion is encountered. On entering a wave, the pressure of
the water on the sensing hydrofoil 17 tilts the stabiliser
pivot secured on ‘the underside of the boat hull and ex
the surface of the wave.
lar element formed of sheet material curved to sub
tending transversely between said hydrofoils, about which
to increase the inclination of the supporting hydrofoil 30 they are mounted for rotational movement, and stops on
the device limiting such movement to about 20°, between
31. This causes the bow of the boat to be lifted until
the normal hydrofoiling position of the supporting hydro
the sensing hydrofoil -17 is again clear of the water sur
foil and its maximum lifting position, comprising a tubu
face, when the supporting hydrofoil 31 will plane up
If the stabiliser encounters ?otsam, the sensing hydro 35 stantially elliptical shape with the upper ends of the sheet
bent radially inwardly to form flanges through which the
foil 17 is again lifted and the supporting hydrofoil 31
actuated to lift the bow of the boat over the ?otsam.
The stabiliser operates as a hydrofoil at speeds suited
pivot passes, and the leading edge being curved obliquely
to hydrofoils, and as a skid or planing surface at the
the supporting hydrofoil and the upper portion forming
forwardly, the lower portion of said element forming
higher speeds, at which hydrofoils normally tend to 40 the sensing hydrofoil and extending forwardly of the
leading edge of the main hydrofoil.
produce cavitation.
The stabiliser may be attached to the rear end of a
boat as well as to the front end. By having at least two
stabilisers at one end of a boat, spaced apart laterally,
and at least one at the other end, on reaching a suffi
ciently high speed, the boat-may be raised entirely out
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
857,951
Meacham ___________ __ June 25, 1907
of the water, and will travel on the stabilisers operating as
skids or planing surfaces.
I claim:
1,976,046
2,387,907
2,603,179
2,972,974
and extending transversely between said hydrofoils, about
582,985
436,203
86,945
Great Britain __________ __ Dec. 4, 1946
Italy ________________ __ June 14, 1948
Norway ____________ __ Feb. 20, 1956
1,179,702
France _______________ __ Dec. 22, 1958
1. A hydrofoil and stabilising device for a boat, hav~ 50
ing a lower supporting hydrofoil and an upper sensing
hydrofoil rigidly connected thereto and in advance there
of, a pivot secured on the underside of the boat hull
which they are mounted for rotational movement, and 55
stops on the device limiting such movement to about
Tietjens ______________ __ Oct. 9,
Hook ______________ __ Oct. 30,
Gardiner ____________ _._ July 15,
Follett _____________ __ Feb. 28,
1934
1945
1952
1961
FOREIGN PATENTS
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