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Патент USA US3087476

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April 30, 1963
D. R. TOBIAS'
.
PNEUMATIC STAPLER
Filed Oct. 9. 1956
WW m6
Bk
3,087,466
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
am:
QN
Darrell R. Tobias
INVENTOR.
H gMm‘
only”? 3%,."
‘
April 30, 1963
3,087,466
D. R. TOBIAS
PNEUMATIC STAPLER
Filed Oct. 9, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Darrell R. Tobias
IN VEN TOR.
Mm“.
BY gym”;
15mm
United States atent O ”
1
3,087,466
PNEUMATIC STAPLER
Darrell R. Tobias, Sierra Madre, Cali?, assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Bostitch Industrial Stapling Ma
chine Co., East Greenwich, EL, a corporation of Rhode
Island
Filed Oct. 9, 1956, Ser. No‘. 614,877
19 Claims. (Cl. 121--21)
This invention relates to a power tool and more par
3,087,466
Patented Apr. 30, 1963
2
These together with other objects and advantages
which will become subsequently apparent reside in the
(details of construction and operation as more fully here
inafter described and claimed, reference being had to the
accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein
like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in
which:
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a pneu
matic stapler which is constructed in accordance with
ticularly to a ?uid-operated stapler.
10 the invention, the stapler being in such position that it
is prepared to be actuated for driving a staple presented
An object of the invention is to provide a novel stapler
to the foot by the staple magazine;
which is portable, lightweight, both rapid and dependable
in operation, the stapler being preferably pneumatically
operated and having an extremely simpli?ed operating
mechanism requiring no springs nor mechanically oper
ated valves, other than the trigger. All tools that are
now on the market of which I am aware require springs
to neturn the staple applying blade, usually actuated by
a piston, to the ?ring position. Otherwise, the presently
available tools require complicated valving mechanisms
to serve this purpose.
Accordingly, it is a further object of the present inven
tion to provide a simpli?ed pneumatic stapler wherein sim
plicity of maintenance and original manufacture is
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary sectional view of the
stapler of FIGURE 1 showing in full line position the
piston and staple driving blade partially moved to an end
of its stroke and showing in dotted line position the pis
ton at the extremity of its stroke;
FIGURE 3 is a transverse, sectional view taken on the
line 3—-3 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is an exploded perspective view of the
staple driving blade and its adjustable means to attach
it to the piston;
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the
line 5——5 of FIGURE 1 and showing the ?uted arrange‘
stressed in that there is an exceedingly small number of 25 merit of the valve stem; and
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of a modi
moving parts when considering the terri?c driving power
developed by the pneumatic stapler Moreover, it is a fur
ther object of the invention to provide a stapler of this type
which is capable of accomplishing delicate and sensitive
jobs, for example, fastening of paper without tearing, and
also the heaviest of jobs upon which stapers are ordinarily
expected to perform, for example, driving staples into
hard wood. A typical stapler constructed in accordance
with the principles of the invention is capable of opera
?cation of the invention.
In the accompanying drawings there is a stapler 10
which is constructed in accordance with the invention.
This stapler comprises a body 152 made of lightweight,
but strong material, and it is preferred that the body be
shaped in the form of a gun. Therefore it has a handle
14 of the pistol grip type, this handle having a pressure
tion at rates in the order of driving 400 staples per min
cavity 16. Trigger guard 118 extends from the main body
part to the pistol grip type handle and provides protec
ute into a test body.
tion for the trigger 20‘ which is swung on a pivot 22, the
A further object of the invention is to provide in a
stapler of the type disclosed, or any other type, pneumatic
means which retain the staple driving blade and its piston
latter being carried by body 12. Air passage 24 is lo
cated in the body behind trigger 2.0‘ and opens into valve
in the poised position, these pneumatic means being pref
erably mere surface areas of dissimilar dimension on the
piston so that there is a resultant force generated upon
application of pressure from a common source to these
areas, this resultant force being in a direction to push
chamber 25, the latter accommodating a valve stem as~
40 sembly 28 that is constructed in accordance with Patent
No. 2,659,385. Accordingly, it has a ?uted stem 30 with
a head at one end 3-2 adapted to be actuated by trigger
20 and a valve element 34 at the opposite end which
opens and closes on valve seat 36. The valve is opened
the piston in (the previously mentioned poised position
by actuation of trigger 20 and closed by pneumatic pres
until moved by a larger force applied in another direc
tion.
A still further object of the invention and which is
complementary to the previously mentioned object is to
provide a bypass channel for air under pressure, the by
sure on the face of valve element 34.
Coupling 38 of a standard type is connected in inlet
39 or 39a in body '12 and both inlets are in registry with
cavity 16. The coupling is adapted to connect to a
source of pneumatic pressure of any value deemed ad
pass channel being under the control of the operator, so
that when opened at the will of the operator or in re~
sponse to a mechanical stimulus, air under pressure is
visable for the particular job that is to be done by the
stapler. It is suggested that a standard pressure gauge
be used in conjunction with the source of pneumatic
applied to the piston and more particularly is applied to
a point near the driving end thereof and is permitted to
pressure so that exact operating pressures may be main
tained at all times.
The forward end of body 12 has nose 40*, which is a
standard part, connected thereto. In use of the stapler,
the forward end of body 12 will be the lowermost or
leak past a small part of the piston and to enter a low
pressure cavity wherein the ?uid pressure is increased un
til it is suf?cient to overcome the previously mentioned
resultant force holding the piston in the poised position, 60 down end, inasmuch as stapling will ordinarily be from
when the piston commences to move axially in its cylin
above, although it is to be clearly understood that the
der. As the piston so moves, it has its driving end regis
stapler is capable of actuation at any angle with similar
tered with the bypass channel so that the full force of
results. The forward end ‘401 includes a channel 42 that
the pneumatic pressure is appled to the driving end of
is welded or otherwise attached to nose cap 44-, the latter
the piston, whereby it is moved to the downward end of 65 being bolted, as at 46, to the lower end of the body 12.
its stroke.
A stop collar 48 is in the lower end of cylinder 50‘ formed
Another object of the invention is to provide a cavity
in body 12 and is abutted by the ?ange 44. An ordinary
that is under line pressure at all times, as is the piston
magazine 52, capable of storing a su?icient supply of
return means, the cavity under line pressure being pref
staples, is connected to the channel 42 and has means,
erably formed in the handle of the stapler and being 70 usually spring biased, for elevating and presenting staples
opened to the channel that conducts the air under pres
into the passage 54 of channel 52- so that they may be
sure to the driving end of the piston.
ejected by the staple driving blade 56.
3,087,466
A
is there line pressure ‘applied to conductor 98, but also
the pressure of cavity 16 passes through the conductor 98.
As the piston progresses forwardly in the manner de
scribed, it reaches a point where the ori?ce 96 conducts
air under pressure to the back part of the piston 64, at
3
Blade 56 is of such dimension and shape as to ?-t in
the passage 54 and has its extremity located therein. The
opposite end of the blade 56 is secured to a threaded
plug 60, as by being ?tted in slot 61 therein and held in
place by means of transverse dowel 62. Threaded plug
which time the piston moves exceedingly fast in a forward
60 is mounted adjustably in the end of piston 64,
direction, since substantially the full line pressure is ap
this piston being of special shape. It has a smaller di
plied in such manner as to cause piston motion in the for
ameter end 66 and a larger diameter end 68, each being
ward direction. During this motion blade 56 drives a
provided with a circumferential groove and supporting
an O-ring. The rings 70 and 71 respectively slide on the 10 staple from the foot 40. For countersinking or other op
eration which require driving the staples beyond the sur
inner surfaces of the cylinder 50 and more particularly
face of the material being worked with, the length of the
on the smaller diameter part 72 and the larger diameter
blade 56 is altered by merely adjusting the plug 60 in the
part 74 thereof. The smaller diameter part 72 of the
piston 64.
cylinder 50 is at the forward end of the body 12, while
At the full forward position of the piston, jacket 78 is
the larger diameter end is at the opposite end of the 15
still
in registry with channel 90, and if the trigger 20 is
body. In view of the dissimilarity of diameters of these
released, permitting line pressure to return the trigger
parts of the piston, there is a piston chamber 78 formed
operated valve assembly to the closed position, the air be
therebetween, this piston chamber having end walls 79
hind the piston is able to be discharged or exhausted by
and 80 respectively which are of dissimilar areas, the
wall 79 having a larger area than the wall 80 and thereby 20 passing through the jacket 95 and then the conductor 98,
then the valve chamber 26, passage 24 through the ?utes
providing a greater surface upon which pneumatic pres
188 in the assembly, and to the atmosphere. But, when
sure may be applied. Accordingly, if the pressure is from
the trigger 20 is moved to such position to open the valve
a single source, the force on the piston 64 will be in two
element 34, close machining of the head 32 or of the
directions, but there will be a resultant force tending to
of the valve assembly and passage 24, the head 32
push the piston in the direction of the larger area, that 25 shank
closes the passage so that no air in any appreciable quan
is, the wall 79. Piston chamber 78 and the dissimilar
tity may escape while valve element 34 is open.
area Walls 79 and 80 coacting with pneumatic pressure
Not only may the air behind the piston 64 be exhausted,
from a single source constitute means to retain the piston
but also the piston chamber 78 never becomes disasso
64 in the poised position, that is, at one end of body 12
30 ciated or out of registry with channel 90. Hence, with
and prepared to undergo a single cycle ‘of operation.
the removal of the air under pressure from behind the pis
Cap 84 is bolted or otherwise attached to the upper
ton, the pneumatic automatic means to return the piston
end of body 12 and has a plug 85 which passes into the
to the poised position become effectual and move the pis
large diameter part 74 of the cylinder 58. Gasket 86 seals
ton to the position shown in FIGURE 1. As an alternate
the end of the body and all of the air conductors therein.
construction (FIGURE 6), the cap 128 has a plug 122
Low pressure chamber 88 is formed in that end of the 35
body and is de?ned by the inner surface of plug 85 and
the walls of the recess or cup 89 in the adjacent end of
piston 64. This low pressure chamber may be varied
in accordance with design requirements by enlarging the
plug 85 or slightly altering the depth of cup 89 and,
correspondingly, making larger or shortening the plug 85.
Air under pressure entering ?tting 38 ?lls cavity 16
and maintains this cavity under line pressure. A channel
90, formed in the body 12 and extending from ?tting
38 to annular groove 92 in cylinder 58, constitutes an
air conductor and is maintained under line pressure.
This means that piston chamber 78 is also under line
pressure at all times inasmuch as the piston chamber is
in registry with groove 92 and the
communication with channel 90.
is retained in the poised position
pressure is applied from the source.
An annular jacket 95 is formed
?tting in the larger diameter part 74 of cylinder 50. Pas
sageways 124 controlled by normally closed exhaust check
valve 126 connect chamber 88 with jacket 95. This
places the exhaust check valve operatively in the system.
In so returning the piston, however, the speed thereof
must be arrested, and this is accomplished by utilization
of the pressure in the cavity 16 as the piston moves up
wardly in body 12. Although the cycle of operation has
been described in such manner as to possibly suggest that
the steps are accomplished slowly, this is not the case.
Upon the ?rst opening of the valve 34 by operation of
trigger 20 and the described low pressure leak past the
part 100 of piston 64 and into chamber 88, all of the cavi
ties, chambers and the like along the line become equal to
groove 92 is in direct
the main supply pressure, thereby giving a controlled
Therefore, piston 64 50 power drive of the piston. But this is done practically in
at all times that the
stantaneously. The split second of time interval for
chamber 88 to become ?lled under low pressure provides
in the body 12 and is
the time element necessary to accomplish the build-up of
concentric with the larger end of cylinder 50. Generally
equalized, predetermined high pressure in the jacket 95,
annular ori?ce 96 is in registry with the jacket 95 and the
cavity 16, and other air conducting means in the body
larger diameter part of cylinder 50. An annular groove
being affected at this time.
97 is in the larger part 68 of piston 64, and when the pis
Although the description has had principal reference
ton is in the poised position (FIGURE 1), the annular
to a stapler, it is to be understood that the invention is
groove 97 registers with the annular ori?ce 96. A bypass
equally as operable in driving nails or other fasteners.
conductor 98 has one end in registry with jacket 95 and 60 Accordingly, it is not intended that the appended claims
the other end in registry with valve chamber 26. Accord
be limited to a machine which is exclusively useful with
ingly, when the valve is opened, air under line pressure
staples.
enters conductor 98, annular jacket 95, ori?ce 96, and
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the
groove 97.
,
principles of the invention. Further, since numerous
It would appear that the piston would not move under 65 modi?cations and changes will readily occur to those
these conditions. However, low pressure air is bled past
skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention
the inner part 100 of the piston 64 and enters the chamber
to the exact construction and operation shown and de
88. If found necessary or desirable, an ori?ce may be
scribed, and accordingly all suitable modi?cations and
provided in the part 100 of the piston 64. However, at
the present time, successful operation is achieved without 70 equivalents may be resorted ‘to, falling within the scope
of the invention as claimed.
resorting to this expedient. As the low pressure increases
What is claimed as new is as follows:
in chamber 88, the resultant force obtained by algebrai
cally adding the pressures on areas of walls 80 and 79 is
1. In a pneumatic fastener driver that has a body pro
vided with a handle having a cavity, and a cylinder having
overcome, thereby sliding the piston 64 forward in its cyl
inder. Note that when the valve 34 is opened, not only 75 a larger and a smaller diameter part, a piston having a
mi)
3,087,466
smaller and a larger diameter part disposed in said smaller
and larger parts of said cylinder and a piston chamber
separating said parts from each other, a fastener driving
‘blade, means connecting said blade to said piston, an
air conductor extending from said handle cavity to said
cylinder, said parts of said piston having walls at the
ends of said piston chamber that are constantly reacted
on by the air under pressure to thereby retain said piston
in a rest position, and means in said body to conduct air
6
propel said piston forwardly in said cylinder and when
said piston passes said ori?ce full pneumatic pressure
passing through said ori?ce from the jacket is applied to
the piston in a direction to move the piston forwardly
within cylinder.
7. In a pneumatic fastener driver, a body having a
cylinder with a larger diameter part and a smaller diam
eter part, a piston in said cylinder with a larger diameter
end and a smaller diameter end slidable respectively in
under pressure from said handle cavity into said cylin 10 said larger and smaller diameter parts of said cylinder,
der at one end of said piston to drive said piston in said
said ends of said piston having a piston chamber there
cylinder.
between,
means for applying pneumatic pressure in said
2. A pneumatic fastener driver comprising a body hav
piston chamber so that the resultant force reacting on the
ing therein a cavity and a cylinder, said cylinder having
piston moves the piston to one end of said cylinder, and
portions of different diameters, a piston slidable freely 15 delayed means for overcoming said force and driving
in said cylinder and having portions of different diameters
disposed in the corresponding diametered portions of
said cylinder, a piston chamber separating said piston
portions from each other, a fastener driving member,
means connecting said member to said piston, an air 20
pneumatically said piston in said cylinder.
8. The combination of claim 7 including means for
maintaining a continuous and constant pneumatic pressure
in said piston chamber.
9. The combination of claim 8 wherein the last men
tioned means has continuous communication with said
source of compressed air.
10. In a pneumatic fastener driver, a body having a
to air under pressure to thereby retain said piston in a
cylinder with a larger diameter part and a smaller diam~
rest position, means in said body to conduct air under 25 eter part, a piston in said cylinder with a larger diameter
pressure from said cavity into said cylinder at one end
end and a smaller diameter end slidable respectively in
of said piston to drive said piston in said cylinder.
said larger and smaller diameter parts of said cylinder,
3. In a fastener driver which has a body provided with
said ends of said piston having a piston chamber there
a cylinder, a piston reciprocable in said cylinder and
between, means for applying pneumatic pressure in said
means connected to said piston to drive a fastener, the 30 piston chamber so that the resultant force reacting on the
improvement comprising means operatively connected
piston moves the piston to one end of said cylinder, de
with said body and with said piston for retaining the
layed means for overcoming said force and driving pneu
conductor extending from said cavity to said cylinder,
said piston portions having surfaces at the opposite ends
of said piston chamber which are continuously subjected
latter in a poised returned position, said piston retaining
matically said piston in said cylinder, said body having a
means including bores in said cylinder of dissimilar size
cavity therein in which to store air under pressure that
and piston areas of dissimilar size corresponding thereto 35 supplements the source of pneumatic pressure in driving
and respectively slidable therein, an air conductor regis
said piston, said cavity also having air under pressure
tered with said cylinder and with a source of compressed
air to supply compressed air to both said bores and areas
so that the resultant force on said piston tends to move
which functions as a cushion during the return of said
piston.
11. In a fastener driver which has a body, means to
the latter in said cylinder to said poised returned posi 40 attach
a single source of pneumatic pressure thereto, a
tion, and passage means for delivering compressed air
valve
in
said body to control pressure from said source,
from said source to said cylinder and piston for driving
a conductor in said body and exposed to said source of
the latter from said poised returned position upon its
air under pressure at all times and being outside the con
fastener driving stroke, said passage means including
trol of said valve, a cylinder in said body, a piston in said
means for effecting a relatively slow initial travel of said 45 cylinder, said piston having thereon a pair of walls that
piston and means ‘for effecting a relatively rapid ?nal
are spaced from each other and that are of dissimilar area,
travel of said piston during said fastener driving stroke.
said conductor being in registry with both of said walls
4. The combination of claim 3 in which said means
and since said walls are of dissimilar area there is always
for effecting a relatively slow initial travel of said piston
a resultant force applied to said piston tending to return
and said means for elfecting a relatively rapid ?nal travel 50 said piston to an initial position, and means in said body
of said piston each comprise a continuously open passage
under the control of said valve for applying pressure from
free of moving control elements therein.
5. The combination of claim 3 in which said means
for effecting a relatively slow initial travel of said piston
said source to said piston to overcome said resultant force.
12. In a fastener driver which has a body, means to
attach a single source of pneumatic pressure thereto, a
comprises an open passage free of flow obstructing means 55
valve in said body to control pressure from said source,
and having continuous communication with said cylinder
a conductor in said body and exposed to said source of
and piston.
air under pressure at all times and being outside the con
6. In a fastener driver which has a body provided with
trol of said valve, a cylinder in said body, a piston in said
a cylinder, a piston in said cylinder and means connected
cylinder, said piston having thereon a pair of walls that
to said piston to drive a fastener, the improvement com 60
are spaced from each other and that are of dissimilar area,
prising means operatively connected with said body and
said piston for returning said piston and retaining said
piston in a poised, returned position, said piston retain
ing means consisting of piston areas of dissimilar size,
said conductor being in registry with both of said walls
and since said walls are of dissimilar area there is always
a resultant force applied to said piston tending to return
said piston to an initial position, and means in said body
an air conductor to apply air under pressure from a 65 under the control of said valve for applying substantially
source to both of said areas so that the resultant force
the full pressure of said source to the end of said piston
on said piston is applied in a manner to tend to move
thereby overcoming said resultant force and moving said
said piston in said cylinder in one direction, a bypass
piston to the opposite end of said cylinder with said re
in said body, a pneumatc jacket in said body connected
sultant force returning said piston to the initial position
to said bypass, said cylinder having an ori?ce which inter 70 upon closing said valve.
communicates said jacket with the interior thereof to
113. The pneumatic fastener driver of claim 12 wherein
enable a part of the air from said jacket to build up
the last mentioned means includes an air jacket having an
behind said piston by leaking past a part of the wall
ori?ce which opens into said cylinder, an air conductor
thereof and thereby overcome said resultant force and 75 extending from said valve to said air jacket, said piston
3,087,466
I
27
having a piston ring in said cylinder in advance of said
ori?ce so that air from said jacket under pressure cannot
move forwardly in said cylinder but is capable of leaking
past said piston in the opposite direction in order to pro
vide a slow pressure build-up behind said piston which
moves said piston in said cylinder until the end of said
piston passes said ori?ce whence substantially the full
pressure in said jacket is suddenly applied to said piston.
14. In a pneumatic fastener driver having a body and
3%
end of said piston, and means establishing a continuous
but restricted connection between said handle cavity and
said cylinder at said one end of said piston.
18. In a ?uid pressure operated fastener driver, the
combination of a body that has a cylinder, a piston in said
cylinder, said piston having walls of dissimilar area spaced
from each other, means connected with said body for at
taching to a source of ?uid under pressure, an air con
ductor registered with said means and opening into said
a piston movable in said body together with a blade con 10 cylinder between said walls of said piston so that pressure
from said source maintains said piston in a de?nite rest
nected to said piston to drive fasteners delivered succes
position, a passageway in said body, a valve chamber with
sively from a supply thereof, the improvement comprising
which said passageway is registered, a valve to control
a pair of spaced dissimilar area walls associated andmov
able with said piston, pneumatically operative means con
nected with a source of pressure and communicating with
said piston between said walls for returning said piston to
and retaining said piston in an initial position, pneumatic
means connected with said source of pressure for over
coming said piston retaining means whereby said piston
said valve chamber by registering the valve chamber with
said source attaching means and by closing said chamber
from register therewith, said valve controlling the passage
of ?uid through said passageway and leaving said air con
ductor open to source pressure, said cylinder having an
opening which is operatively connected with said passage
may move on a driving stroke, said pneumatic means in 20 way to admit ?uid under pressure into said cylinder and
at one end of said piston to overcome the pressure force
cluding a time delay means therein enabling pressure
tending to hold said piston in the rest position and propel
equalization between said source of pressure and said
said piston in said cylinder.
pneumatic means.
19. The combination of claim 18 wherein there is a
15. The combination of claim 14 wherein said pneu
matic means includes an air jacket surrounding said cyl 25 jacket in said body and at least partially surrounding said
inder and having an inlet port communicating with the
cylinder, said opening in said cylinder being registered
interior of said cylinder intermediate the ends thereof, said
with said jacket, said passageway also registered with said
piston controlling said port, said piston having an oper
jacket to establish a ?ow path from said valve chamber
ated surface de?ning with said cylinder and actuating
to said cylinder.
chamber, said time delay means establishing a continu
ously open but restricted rate of ?ow of air from said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
jacket into said actuating chamber.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
16. The combination of claim 1 wherein said last men
tioned means includes a port opening into said cylinder
and controlled by said piston and uncovered by said pis
ton during‘ its driving stroke whereby upon its return
stroke said piston will close said port and be cushioned by
air trapped and compressed in said cylinder at said one
end of said piston.
17. The combination of claim 1 wherein said last men
tioned means includes a port opening into said cylinder
and controlled by said piston and uncovered by said pis
ton during its driving stroke whereby upon its return
stroke said piston will close said port and be cushioned by
air trapped and compressed in said cylinder at said one
922,530
1,595,939
1,971,048
2,001,190
2,406,747
2,585,940
Shoemaker ___________ __ May 25,
Hukill et al ___________ __. Aug. 10,
Parsons ______________ __ Aug. 21,
Ginter _______________ __ May 14,
Stevens _______________ __ Dec. 7,
Ginter _______________ __ July 16,
Davis ________________ __ Sept. 3,
Juilfs ________________ __ Feb. 19,
2,729,198
Faccow _______________ __ Ian. 3, 1956
2,740,859
2,872,901
Beatty et al _____________ __ Apr. 3, 1956
Goldring et al _________ __ Feb.- 10, 1958
2,101,159
2,404,051
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