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Патент USA US3087561

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April 30, 1963
J. K. KERVER
3,087,551
INJECTION OF FLUIDS INTO EARTH FORMATIONS
‘ Filed Nov. _9, 1959
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United States Patent 0 "
3,687,551
Patented Apr. so, less '
1
2
3,087,551
outer wall of the housing 22 adjacent its upper end is a
sealing member 31. Sealing member 31 is suitably an
INJECTION OF FLUIDS INTO EARTH
FORMATIONS
John K. Kerver, Houston, Tex., assignor, by rnesne assign
ments, to Jersey Production Research Company, Tulsa,
01th., a corporation of Delaware
Filed Nov. 9, 1959, Ser. No. 851,833
7 Claims. (Cl. 166-224)
inverted cup-type sealing member which prevents by
pass of ?uid around the housing 22 as it passes down
wardly in the tubing 16 as will be described. It will be
clear that the sealing member 31 has a greater sealing
area than the O-ring 30a.
Another embodiment of the present invention is illus
trated in FIG. 2, and may similarly be retrievably posi
The present invention is directed to the injection vof 10 tioned in the housing 18. Referring to FIG. 2, a housing
35 is provided with a recess 36 in which an O-ring sealing
?uids into a subsurface earth formation. More partic
member 37 is arranged. The housing 35 has an upper
sealing member 35a which is similar to and ‘functions
like sealing member 31 of FIG. 1. A port 38 in the upper
retrievable tool for injecting ?uids into subsurface earth 15 end of the housing 35 is norm-ally closed by a rupture disc
ularly, the invention is concerned with a device for in
jecting ?uids into a subsurface earth formation. In its
more speci?c aspects, the invention is concerned with a
formations pierced by a well ‘bore.
‘
39 which may be formed of a thin metal or of rubber or
other material which may be ruptured by pressure. Be
The present invention may be brie?y described as a
low the rupture disc 39 and adjacent the port 38 is a pivot
device for injecting ?uid into a subsurface earth forma
ed spring loaded check valve 40 arranged to normally
tion. The device or tool comprises an open bore tubular
member adapted to be attached to and form the lower 20 close the port 38 against upward ?ow.
The apparatus of the present invention may be em
end of a tubing string in a cased well. The tubular mem
ployed in the following manner in which a ?uid is
ber is formed to provide an interior seating surface adja
designed to be introduced into the stratum 14. To deter
cent the lower end of the bore and the interior seating
mine exactly when the ?uid enters the stratum 14, the re
surface is adapted to receive a tubular housing which is
retriev-ably positioned on the seating surface in the tubular 25 quired amount of ?uid is introduced by wellhead, not
member. The housing carries means for sealing between
the outer wall of the housing and the inner wall of the
tubular member. The housing is provided with an open
able member such as a spring biased valve which is adapt 30
shown, into the tubing string 16 and the housing 22 is
then introduced into the tubing string 16 and pumped
ward ?ow of ?uid through the tubular member and hous
suitably indicated at the wellhead vby pressure gauge on
ed to be opened at a predetermined pressure for down
downwardly. When the housing 22 reaches the seat 20, ‘a
seal is formed with the sealing member 300 and with the
seal 31, which causes a buildup of pressure which may be
the injection pumps. When it is desired to inject addition
ing, the open-able member being closeable against upward
al quantities of ?uid, a rise in pressure will serve to‘ ‘open
?ow of ?uid through the tubular housing and tubular
the
valve member 26, moving the closure member 28 off
member such that the tubular housing is retrievable ‘from 35
of the seat 27. When it is desired to retrieve the housing
the tubular member by upward ?ow therethrough.
22, circulation of ?uid down the annulus 32 between the
The openable member is suitably a spring-biased valve
tubing string 16 and the casing 12 holds the valve closure
or may ‘be a rupture disc which will rupture under a pre
member
28 on the seat 27 and causes the tubular housing
determined pressure. When a rupture disc is employed,
the tubular housing may suitably comprise or have ar 40 22 to be forced upwardly in the tubing string 16 to the
wellhead, not shown.
ranged therein a check valve which is normally open but
The device of FIG. 2 is used in a similar fashion ex
which is closeable on upward ?ow of ?uid therethrough.
ceptin g that a su?i-cient pressure will be employed to rup
The present invention will be further illustrated by
ture the disc 39.
reference to the drawing in which:
In injecting ?uids in oil ?eld operations the injected
FIG. 1 is a view in section of a preferred embodiment, 4-5
?uid is ordinarily pumped down the tubing and displaced
and
therefrom with an inexpensive ?uid such as Water, mud ‘or
FIG. 2 is a modi?cation of the embodiment ‘of FIG. 1.
lease crude. It is necessary to keep the injected and dis
Referring now to the drawing and particularly to FIG.
placing ?uids from mixing and in the usual case the tur
1, numeral 11 designates a well bore having a casing string
12 cemented therein with primary cement 13. The casing 50 bulent ?ow in the pipe at high pumping rates is depend
ed upon to limit mixing to a narrow Zone. When ?uid
12 and cement 13 are perforated in -a formation or stratum
viscosity is high or drastically different, this is often
14 to provide perforations 15 for communication be
di?icult to achieve. Moreover, in injecting ?uids into sub
surface earth strata, it is often important to inject into the
stratum 14. Arranged in the casing 12 is a tubing string
16 having attached thereto by suitable attaching means 55 formation or stratum the entire amount of the injected
?uid without over?ushing or admixing with the displacing
(such as a threaded connection) 17 a tubular member 18
tween the interior of the casing 12 and the formation or
?uid. Ordinarily this is accomplished by calculating the
volumes of the tubing, casing, pumping tanks, and the
‘several ?uids. However, calculation is sometimes of in
tinuous passageway with tubing string 16, the Wall of
member 18 being free of any openings therein. The 60 ;su?’icient accuracy or reliability and the problem arises
when sand~consolidating solutions are injected into sub
tubular member 18 is formed to provide an interior seat
which has an open bore 19. As seen from the drawing,
the member 18 is open on its lower end and forms a con
surface earth formations or strata, in fracturing operations
ing surface 20 adjacent the open lower end 21. Retriev
to prevent over?ushing, and in chemical treatment of
ably arranged within the tubular member 18 is a tubular
tubing or formations. The problem is solved in accord
housing 22 having a port 23 in its upper end and having
an open lower end 24. Arranged in a suitable spider 25 65 ance with the present invention where use is made of the
device shown in the two ?gures of the drawing. Thus, in
is a valve member 26 which is urged against a seating sur
operation, the tool is placed in the tubing at the surface
face 27 formed in the housing 22 by a spring member 26a,
separating the injected and displaced ?uids and pumping
the lower end of which seats against the spider 25 and the
is commenced. The device keeps the ?uids separate as
upper end of which seats against the closure member 28
of the valve 26. Carried in a recess 29‘ in the seating 70 they ?ow down the tubing; and when the device reaches
bottom of the tubing, it is caught by the seat therein and
surface 30 of the tubular housing 22 is an O-ring 30a
an excess pressure of a predetermined amount is required
which seals with the seating surface 20. Carried on the
3,087,551
‘
3
4
to open the valve and permit ?uid to ?ow through the tool.
adjacent the lower end of the vbore of the tubular mem
Thus, the pump pressure is recorded at the earth’s surface
and a pressure surge indicates the precise instant the dis
ber, a tubular housing su?ficiently smaller in diameter
than said tubular member and having an outer seating
surface such that said tubular housing is adapted to be
retrievably positioned on said interior seating surface in
said tubular member by downward movement through
said tubing string and said tubular member, ?rst means
carried by said housing adjacent its upper end for seal
ing between the outer wall of said housing and the
placing ?uid reaches the bottom of the tubing. When
this occurs, the tool or device may be returned to the
surface by reverse circulation, as has been described.
The device of the present invention is, therefore, quite
important, useful, and is of great advantage.
The nature ‘and objects of the present invention having
been completely described and illustrated, what I wish
to claim as new and useful and secure by Letters Patent is:
10 inner wall of said member, second means carried by
said housing adjacent its lower end for sealing between
1. A device for injecting ?uid into a subsurface earth
the outer seating surface of said housing and said in
formation which comprises: ‘an open bore tubular mem
terior seating surface, said ?rst sealing means having a
her having its wall free of openings and adapted to be
greater sealing area than the second sealing means, a
attached to the lower end of a tubing string in a well bore 15 frangible member in said housing adapted to be ruptured
and formed to provide an interior seating surface adja
at a predetermined pressure for downward ?ow of ?uid
cent the lower end of the bore of the tubular member, a
through said tubular member and housing, and valve
tubular housing suf?ciently smaller in diameter than said
means closeable to prevent upward ?ow of ?uid through
tubular member ‘and having an outer seating surface such
said tubular housing and member whereby said tubular
that said tubular housing is adapted to be retrievably 20 housing is retrievable from said tubular member by up
positioned on said interior seating surface in said tubular
ward movement through said tubular member and said
member by downward movement through said tubing
tubing string, said tubular member and said tubular hous
string and said tubular member, ?rst means carried by
ing both having open lower ends for discharge of ?uid
said housing adjacent its upper end for sealing between
the outer wall of said housing and the inner wall of said 25
downwardly from said tubing string.
4. A device for injecting ?uid into a subsurface earth
tubular member, second means carried by said housing
formation which comprises: an open bore tubular mem
adjacent its lower end for sealing between the outer seat
ber having its wall free of openings and adapted to be
ing surface ‘of said housing and the interior seating surface
attached to the lower end of a tubing string in a well
of said member, said ?rst sealing means having a greater
bore formed to provide an interior seating surface
sealing area than the second sealing means, an open-able 30 adjacent the lower end of the bore of the tubular mem
check valve member in said housing adapted to be opened
ber, a tubular housing sut?ciently smaller in diameter
at a predetermined pressure for downward ?ow of ?uid
than said tubular member and having an outer seating
surface such that said tubular housing is adapted to be
retrievably positioned on said interior seating surface in
ing ‘and member whereby said tubular housing is retrie - 35 said tubular member by downward movement through
able from said tubular member by upward movement
said tubing string and said tubular member, said tubular
through said tubular member and said tubing string, said
housing having a port in its upper end, ?rst means
tubular member ‘and said tubular housing both having
carried by said housing adjacent its upper end for seal
open lower ends for discharge of ?uid downwardly from
40 ing between the Outer wall of said housing and the
said tubing string.
inner wall of said member, second means carried by
2. A device for injecting ?uid into a subsurface earth
said housing adjacent its lower end for sealing between
formation which comprises: an open bore tubular mem
the outer seating surface of said housing and said in
rber having its wall free of openings and adapted to be
terior seating surface, said ?rst sealing means having a
attached to the lower end of a tubing string in a well
greater sealing area than the second sealing means, a
bore and formed to provide an interior seating surface 45 spring-biased
check valve member in said housing nor
adjacent the lower end of the bore of the tubular mem
mally closing said port and adapted to be opened at a
ber, a ‘tubular housing suf?ciently smaller in diameter
predetermined pressure for downward ?ow of ?uid
than said tubular member and having an outer seating
through said tubular member and housing, upward ?ow
surface such that said tubular housing is adapted to be
retrievably positioned on said interior seating surface in 50 of ?uid through said tubular housing and member re
through said tubular member and housing and closeable
‘to prevent upward ?ow of ?uid through said tubular hous
said tubular member by downward movement through
said tubing string and said tubular member, ?rst means
carried by said housing adjacent its upper end for seal
ing between the outer wall of said housing and the
trieving said tubular housing from said tubular member
by upward movement through said tubular member and
said tubing string, said tubular member and said tubular
housing both having open lower ends for discharge of
?uid through said tubular housing and member whereby
said tubular housing is retrievable from said tubular
seating surface such that said tubular housing is adapted
?uid downwardly from said tubing string.
inner wall of said member, second means carried by 55
5. A device for injecting ?uid into a subsurface earth
said housing adjacent its lower end for sealing between
formation which comprises: a tubing string in a cased
the outer seating surface of said housing and said in
well bore, an open bore tubular member having its wall
terior seating surface, said ?rst sealing means having a
free of openings and attached to the lower end of said
greater sealing area than the second sealing means, a
spring-biased openable check valve member in said hous 60 tubing string and formed to provide an interior seating
surface adjacent the lower end of the bore of the tubu
ing adapted to be opened at a predetermined pressure
lar
member, a tubular housing su?iciently smaller in
for downward ?ow of ?uid through said tubular member
diameter than said tubular member and having an outer
and housing and closeable to prevent upward ?ow of
member by upward movement through said tubular mem
ber and said tubing string, said tubular member and said
tubular housing both having open lower ends for dis
to be retrievably positioned on said interior seating sur
face in said tubular member by downward movement
through said tubing string and said tubular member, ?rst
means carried by said housing adjacent its upper end for
sealing between the outer wall of said housing and the
charge of ?uid downwardly from said tubing string.
inner wall of said member, second means carried by said
70
3. A device for injecting ?uid into a subsurface earth
housing adjacent its lower end for sealing between the
formation which comprises: an open bore tubular mem
outer seating surface of said housing and said interior
ber having its wall free of openings and adapted to be
seating surface, said ?rst sealing means having a greater
attached to the lower end of a tubing string in a well
sealing area than the second sealing means, means in
bore and formed to provide an interior seating surface 75 said housing including an openable member adapted to
5
3,087,551
be opened at a predetermined pressure for downward
?ow of ?uid through said tubular member and housing,
6
surface, said ?rst sealing means having a greater sealing
area than the second sealing means, a rupture disc in
and a closeable member adapted to be closed by upward
said housing adapted to he ruptured at a predetermined
flow of ?uid through said tubular housing and member
pressure for downward ?ow of ?uid through said tubular
for retrieving said tubular housing from said tubular 5 member and housing, and normally closed check valve
member by upward movement through said tubular mem
means openable against downward flow of ?uid through
ber and said tubing string, said tubular member and said
said tubular housing and member whereby said tubular
tubular housing both having open lower ends for dis
housing is retrievable from said tubular member by up
charge of ?uid downwardly from said tubing string.
ward movement through said tubular member and said
6. A device for injecting ?uid into a subsurface earth 10 tubing string, said tubular member and said tubular hous
formation which comprises: an open bore tubular mem
ing both having open lower ends for discharge of fluid
lber having its wall free of openings and adapted to be
downwardly from said tubing string.
attached to the lower end of a tubing string in a well
7. A device in accordance with claim 6 in which the
bore and ‘formed to provide an interior seating surface
?rst means is an upwardly-facing cup packer and the
adjacent the lower end of the bore of the tubular mem 15 second means is an 'O-ring.
her, a tubular housing su-?iciently smaller in diameter
than said tubular member and having an outer seating
surface such that said tubular housing is adapted to be
retrieva'bly positioned on said interior seating surface in
said tubular member by downward movement through 20
said tubing string and said tubular member, ?rst means
carried by said housing adjacent its upper end for seal—
ing between the outer wall of said housing and the inner
wall of said member, second means carried by said hous
ing adjacent its lower end for sealing between the outer 25
seating surface of said housing and said interior seating
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,139,983
2,212,491
2,364,464
2,562,458
2,771,091
2,841,171
2,856,008
Stone ________________ __ Dec. 13,
Appleby _____________ __ Aug. 27,
Moore _______________ __ Dec. 5,
Hartsell ______________ __ July 31,
Baker et a1. __________ __ NOV. 20,
Baker et al. ___________ __ July 1,
Fredd _______________ __ Oct. 14,
1938
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1958
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