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Патент USA US3088248

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May 7, 1963
A CAHEN ETAL
3,088,238
APPARATUS FOR A15PLYING DECORATIVE FOIL TO THE
EDGE OF SHEET MATERIAL
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed July 15, 1960
'E'Hllllllll'
STAINVENTORS
A rraen/sys
May 7, 1963 APPARATUS
A. CAHEN r-:1'AL
3,088,238
FOR APPLYING DECORATIVE FOIL To THE
EDGE OF SHEET MATERIAL
Filed July 15, 1960
7
‘
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
' I JNVENTORS
ALFRED
"QAHEN
HEEM’AN ‘s. CAI-I!”
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“1 _____ __J ‘&
BY
777W,
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?mzyw
A TTOPN£YI
May 7, 1963
A. CAHEN ETAL
3,088,238
APPARATUS FOR APPLYING DECORATIVE FOIL TO THE
EDGE OF SHEET MATERIAL
Filed July 15, 1960
Z/Al
4 SheetsiSheet 3
May 7, 1963
A. CAHEN ETAL
3,088,238
APPARATUS FOR APPLYING DECORATIVE FOIL TO THE
EDGE OF SHEET‘ MATERIAL
Filed July 15, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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INVENTORS
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All F250 (‘/1 HEN
BY
HeeMA/v .s. CAHEN
777% MM,
1Q?“ 5%.;
A TTO/BIVEYS
United States Patent 0 ice
1
3 088,238
amazes
Fatented May 7, 1963
2
cepts thereof and which are illustrated in the accompany
ing drawings wherein;
TO THE EDGE 9F SIEET MATERIAL
FIG. 1 is a plan view shown somewhat diagrammatically
of apparatus embodying the present invention;
Alfred Cahen, Cleveiand Heights, and Herman §. tlahen,
University Heights, Uhio, assignors to The Worid l’llll
lishing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of
anism incorporated in the apparatus of FIG. 1, and look
ing approximately in the direction of the line 2—2;
APPARATUS FOR AEi‘LYlNG DECORATEVE FGEL
Ohio
Filed Juiy 15, 196i), Ser. No. 43,101
12 Ciaims. (or. 41-37)
This invention relates to a novel and improved method
and to apparatus for practicing the said method for edge
decorating or edge-gilding the sheet edges of books, cards
and the like.
The instant apparatus has particular utility for use in
FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of sanding mech
FIG. 3 is an end elevational view of another sanding
mechanism of said apparatus and looking approximately
10 in the direction of the line 3-3 shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is an end elevational view of still another sand
ing mechanism of the apparatus of the present invention,
and looking in the direction indicated by the line 4-4
in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4a is a view similar to FIG. 4 but with external
parts removed to more clearly show underlying parts;
practicing the method of edge gilding with metallic foil,
FIG. 5 is a front elevational view, of the sanding mech
such as for example gold leaf and the like, the sheet edges
anism of FIG. 4 and looking approximately in the direc
of a plurality of books which are contained as a 'compact
tion indicated by the line 5—5 in FIG. 1;
group.
FIG. 6 is an end ‘view of another embodiment of sand
A primary object of the present invention is to provide 20
ing mechanism adapted for use in place of the mechanism
a novel and improved method for edge decorating or edge
of F IG. 4;
gilding the sheet edges of books and the like, and which
FIG. 7 is an end view of a press mechanism incorporated
in the apparatus of the present invention, and looking in
the sheet edges to which the ecorative material is to be
applied so that the same are substantially smooth and 25 the direction indicated by the line 7—7 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 8 is an end view of a second press assembly of
free of substances and/or materials foreign thereto, and
the apparatus of the present invention, and looking in
to thereafter provide for the application of said decora—
the direction as indicated by the line 8—8 in FIG. 1; and,
tive material to said sheet edges.
method includes the concepts of preliminarily preparing
Another object of the present invention is the provision
of novel and improved ‘apparatus especially designed for
use in edge decorating or edge-gilding the sheet edges
of books, cards and the like, and wherein said apparatus
includes means for preliminarily preparing the sheet edges
to which the decorative material is to be applied so that
the same are substantially smooth, and means for securing
said decorative material to said sheet edges.
Still another object of the present invention is to pro
FIG. 9 is an end view of a third press mechanism in
corporated in the apparatus of the present invention,
looking in the ‘direction of the line 9—9 in FIG. 1.
Brie?y, the method and the apparatus for practicing
the said method of the present invention is intended to
provide for the edge decorating or edge-gilding of the
sheet edges of a plurality of books and the like, which
are preferably disposed in a press or container in side
by side relation as a compact group and in such manner
that the sheet edges to be decorated de?ne the longitudinal
vide a novel and improved method for edge decorating
or edge-gilding the sheet edges of books, cards and the 40 surfaces of said group identi?ed hereinafter by the refer
ence characters a, b and c. Said sheet edges are pre
like, and which method includes the steps of abrasively
liminarily prepared so as to be substantially smooth, said
preparing the sheet edges to which the decorative material
preparation being accomplished by sanding or otherwise
is to be applied, and to subsequently secure, through
abrasively treating said edges, after which the decorative
application of pressure and heat, the decorative material
material, such as gold leaf foil or the like, is applied to
to said sheet edges.
the same through the application of heat and pressure to
Another object of the present invention is the provision
thus form a bright and lustrous gilded surface.
of novel and improved apparatus especially designed for
With reference directed now to FIG. 1 of the draw
use in edge ‘decorating or edge-gilding the sheet edges of
ings,
one embodiment of apparatus is herein shown de
books, cards and the like, and wherein said apparatus
signed to practice the edge-gilding method of the present
includes means for sequentially abrasively preparing the
invention, and is seen to include a conveyor 3 de?ning a
sheet edges to which the decorative material is to be
conveyance path along which a press or clamping frame
applied so that the same are substantially smooth, and
5, carrying a plurality of books B or the like, in side by
means for securing, through the application of heat ‘and
side relation, is adapted to be conveyed, said press being
pressure, the decorative material to said sheet edges.
carried on a dolly 6.
Still another object of the present invention, is the 55 preferably
A sanding mechanism 7 is disposed along the aforesaid
provision of novel and improved apparatus especially de
conveyor 3 at a fabricating station #1 and is operable
signed for use in edge decorating or edge-gilding the
while said group is conveyed therealong to sand smooth
sheet edges of a plurality of books, cards and the like
the sheet edges of said plurality of books de?ning the
contained in a compact group, and wherein said apparatus
aforesaid surface a of said group.
includes means for sequentially abrasively preparing the 60
Subsequent to sanding the surface a of the group of
sheet edges to which the decorative material is to be ap
books, the same is thus conveyed along said path to a
plied so that the same are substantially smooth, and
second sanding mechanism at fabricating station #2 as
means for sequentially securing, through the application
is identi?ed in its entirety by the reference numeral 9,
of heat and pressure, the decorative material to said
and which is operable to simultaneously sand smooth the
65
sheet edges.
opposed surfaces b and c of said group disposed on either
Additional objects md advantages of the method and
side of the previously sanded surface a, said opposed sur
apparatus for practicing the said method of the present
face edges being preferably located in spaced vertical
invention for use in edge decorating or edge-gliding the
planes during this interval.
Subsequent to the latter sanding operation, the group
sheet edges of books, cards and the like, will be apparent
of books B is rotatably adjusted within the aforesaid
to one skilled in the art to which it pertains, and upon
press 5 so as to present one longitudinal corner of said
reference to the following disclosure of the inventive con
3,088,238
4
group as is de?ned at the intersection of two adjacent
sanded surfaces, for example surfaces a and b, which
corner is then presented to sanding mechanism 11 dis
posed along the conveyor 3 in tandem relation to the
mechanisms 7 and 9, being located at station #3 in the
instant apparatus whereby the same is abrasively made
smooth.
supported upon said dolly, said books being arranged
in side by side relation being resiliently retained in said
press as a compact group by means of end clamp ele
ments 5d. Said end clamps are preferably adjustable
within the container 5 toward each other and include end
plates 5e mounted on adjusting screws 5]‘ which are
adapted to lie against the opposed outside end surfaces
of the group of books B, said end clamps being thus ad
Thereafter, sarid group is again rotatably adjusted
within its supporting press 5 to locate the opposite longi
justable so as to exert preferably approximately 10 to 20
10 thousand pounds of force against the ends of said group
of books to thus retain the same in a compacted condi
tudinal edge as is de?ned by the surfaces a and c where
after said group is again presented to said corner sand
ing mechanism 11 to thus abrasively sand smooth said
tion. Suitable releaseably operable clamping means 35
corner.
as best seen in FIG. 3, may be provided on said dolly
In this manner all of the sheet edges of the group of
or carriage 6 to thus enable the‘same to be releasably
books B that are to be subsequently gild edged are pre 15 attached to the drive run of the endless chain 34a so as
liminarily abrasively prepared and made smooth prepara
to be movable with the latter and thus carried along
tory to the application of the metallic sheet foil to said
said rail members and conveyance path P. Said clamp
edges.
ing means preferably includes a hook element 35a piv
If desired, the conveyance of the sanded group of
otally attached to the front end wall 6b and which is
books B as compactly contained within the press 5 may 20 adapted to be swung downwardly so as to be inserted be
be continued so as to present the sanded surfaces :1, b
tween adjacent links of said chain to thus releasably at
and c of the same to a buffing apparatus 14 located at
tach said dolly to the same.
station #4 in the instant apparatus embodiment whereby
As is previously mentioned, as the group of books B is
the same may be thoroughly cleansed of any material
conveyed along said path it is ?rst presented to the sand
foreign thereto after which a suitable sizing material may 25 ing mechanism 7 whereby the uppermost surface a of
be applied to the sheet edges as thus prepared to enable
said group is abrasively fabricated and thus made smooth.
the metallic foil to be more ?rmly attached thereto as
For this purpose the endless chain 34 is disposed so as
will be understood.
to pass centrally longitudinally through the aforesaid
After the group of books has thus been prepared, the
frame 31, the latter mounting sanding means operable to
same is thereafter presented to pressing apparatus, as is 30 automatically abrasively sand said group surface a. As
identi?ed in its entirety by the reference numeral 118,
may be best seen in FIG. 2, the instant sanding mecha
said apparatus being located at station #5 in the instant
nism 7 is seen to include a plurality of endless belts 38
embodiment, whereby the aforementioned metallic gold
formed of a suitable abrasive material, each of which
foil is applied to one of the surfaces of said group of
is supported upon a pair of rollers 38a, the latter being
books B. As shown in FIG. 1 of the drawings, the 35 rotatably supported within a carriage member, as is identi
pressing apparatus 18 is preferably disposed so as to
?ed in its entirety by the reference numeral 39.
straddle the conveyor, the latter in its present form at
The carriage 3? is adjustably mounted within the afore
said station being identi?ed by the reference numeral 3a.
said framework 31, the latter preferably straddling the
Next, said group of books B is conveyed along the
aforesaid rail members 32 of the conveyor 33 and extend
aforementioned conveyor 3a and successively presented 40 ing
upwardly therefrom so as to locate said carriage pref
to a second and third pressing apparatus 22 and 25 lo
erably vertically thereabove.
cated respectively at stations 6 and '7 whereby the remain
The endless belts 38 are preferably supported upon the
ing surfaces of the aforesaid group of books B and the
aforesaid
rolls 38a so as to extend substantially spaced
intervening corners therebetween are sequentially deco
transversely across said carriage, each of said pair of
rated with said metallic foil.
Thereafter, the group of books B .as disposed in the
aforesaid press 5 is moved along the conveyor 3 and
directed to a discharge table or platform 27 located at
45
station #8 whereat the same are removed from said
rolls being also preferably spaced longitudinally there
along and thus disposed so as to locate the lower or
abrasing run of each of said ‘belts substantially trans
versely of the aforementioned conveyor 3 and conveyance
path P.
press and thus ready for binding or the like.
50
As may also be seen in FIG. 2, suitable drive means
With speci?c reference now directed particularly to
such as electric motors 44 may also be mounted upon
FIGS. 1 and 2, the instant embodiment of apparatus at
the aforementioned carriage 39, the instant embodiment
fabricating station #1 is preferably seen to include a
of apparatus preferably utilizing two of said drive motors,
framework 31 having a pair of rail members ‘32 disposed
in parallel spaced relation to each other to thus de?ne a 55 each of which is drivingly connected to alternate ones of
said endless belts 38 being thus effective to propel said
conveyance path, the latter being identi?ed particularly
belts in such manner that adjacent ones of the same are
in FIG. 1 by the reference character P.
moving in opposite directions to each other, the purpose
Conveying means are provided to carry or move the
for which will be hereinafter more apparent.
clamping frame or press 5 and dolly 6 along said rail
The carriage 39 is preferably vertically adjustably
members 32, and for this purpose, said conveying means 60
mounted
within the aforesaid framework 31, to thus ac
includes a suitable endless chain 34, and which pref
commodate various sizes of books B, and for this purpose
erably has its driving run 34a extending longitudinally
a shaft 46 is rotatably mounted at each end of the carriage
along and slightly above the rail members 32, being
39 and is seen to mount a pinion 47 at each of its ends.
driven from a suitable conventional sprocket drive (not
shown) from left to right as viewed in FIG. 2, to thus 65 A rack 48 is mounted adjacent each of the four corners of
the framework 31 extending substantially in a vertical
provide for moving the aforesaid dolly 6 and supported
plane and located so as to mesh With one of said pinions
press 5 along said rail members.
47. A drive gear 49 is likewise seen to be rotatably
The dolly 6, as best seen in FIG. 2, is preferably of
mounted on said carriage on one of the aforementioned
boxlike con?guration having opposed side walls and end
walls 6a and 6b respectively, said dolly rotatably mount 70 shafts 46, said drive gear, in addition, meshing with a
drive pinion 50, the latter being rigidly mounted upon a
ing wheels 6c .at opposite ends thereof, to thus enable
drive shaft 51. Said drive shaft, in turn, is seen to be
the same to be conveyed along the aforementioned rail
members 32.
The plurality of books B to be gild-edged are disposed
within the aforesaid contained 5 which is adapted to be 75
rotatably journalled Within suitable journal bearings 52
located on one end of the aforementioned framework 31
and preferably mounts a hand crank 53.
With this assembly, it is intended that by proper manipu
3,088,23 s
-
lation of said hand crank, the carriage 39 and hence the
endless abrasive belts 38 carried thereon may be selec
tively disposed in predetermined relation above the afore
6
books B being adjusted therein so as to present the sur
face b and c to the abrasing runs 6% of the aforesaid
belts 60.
With this assemblly, it will therefore be realized that
mentioned rail members 32 and thus disposed so as to ac
as the carriage 6 is moved along the rail members 32 by
the aforementioned conveyor chain 34 the surfaces b
thereby. As will also be apparent, the pressure applied
and c of the group of books B are progressively presented
by the aforementioned abrasive belts to the surface a of
to the abrasing runs 60a of said belts whereby the same
said groups of books as the same is being sanded may
are abrasively sanded and thus made smooth.
likewise be selectively varied by positioning said carriage
After the sanding mechanism 9 has thus sanded the
in predetermined spaced relation above the clamping 10
surfaces b and c, the group of books B is next presented
frame 5.
to the corner sanding device 11 whereby the longitudinal
The dolly 6 supporting the clamping frame 5 is pref
edges of said group as are defined by and between the
erably continuously moved along the rail members 32 by
commodate a predetermined size of book to be fabricated
respective pairs of surfaces (11 and a) and (a and c) are
the aforementioned endless chain 34 and as the same thus
passes through the framework 31 the endless abrasive 15 likewise abrasively sanded and thus rounded to thereby
provide a substantially continuous surface for the sub
belts 38 are carried transversely there-across and are thus
sequent reception of the aforesaid decorative foil.
effective to abrasively sand the surface a thereof so as
With reference now directed particularly to FIGS. 4,
to present a substantially smooth surface for the subse
4a and 5 the corner sanding mechanism 11 is preferably
quent application of metallic sheet foil thereto.
If desired, the aforementioned drive for the endless 20 located in tandem relation along the conveyor 3 with
link chain 34 may be selectively reversibly actuated so as
to move the upper drive run 34a thereof in the opposite
direction to thus carry the dolly and clamping frame rear
wardly through the instant sanding mechanism so as to
present said surface a repeatedly to said abrasive endless
belts 38.
As will be recalled, adjacent endless belts 38 are like
wise moving in a reverse direction relative to each other.
This arrangement is preferred so as to minimize or en
tirely overcome the possibility of any trailings from oc
curring as a result of the endless belts moving transversely
across the surface a of the group of books B.
Subsequent to the dolly or carriage 6 passing through
respect to the sanding mechanisms 7 and 9 and is seen
to include a framework as is indicated in its entirety by
the reference numeral 80. Said framework comprises a
plurality of upright pillars or guide rails 81, each of which
is rigidly secured at its lower end to the supporting ?oor
preferably on the outside of the rail members 32 of the
aforesaid conveyor 3, said guide rails extending vertically
upwardly therefrom, being braced at the upper ends
thereof by means of interconnecting frame members 82.
A carriage 85 is seen to be :adjustably supported within
the aforementioned framework 80 and carries a sanding
mechanism as is indicated in its entirety by the reference
numeral 943, said carriage ‘being preferably movably sup
the framework 31 of the sanding mechanism 7 at fabri
cating station ‘#1, the endless link chain 34 of the con
veyor 3 is operable to move said carriage to the next adja
cent sanding mechanism 9 at station ‘#2 whereby the longi
tudinal surfaces b and c of said group of books B, located
ported by and between the aforementioned guide rails 81
of said framework to thus locate the sanding mechanism
90 in a sanding position above the group of books B.
For this purpose, each of the aforesaid guide rails 81
on opposite sides of the previously sanded surface a are
dinally therealong.
thus disposed in position to be next fabricated.
With reference now directed particularly to FIGS. 1
and 3, the sanding mechanism 9 is seen to include pairs
each of its ends, said shafts, in turn, mounting a pinion 94
is seen to be provided with a rack 91 extending longitu
The carriage, in turn, is seen to mount a shaft 93 at
at each of the opposite ends thereof so as to be rotatable
with the same, each of said pinions being disposed so as
to mesh with one of the aforesaid racks v91 on the guide
bodiment preferably using one pair of each of said belts 45 rails 81.
A hand crank ‘96 is seen to be mounted on the end of a
directly opposite each other, and as best seen in FIG. 3
of endless abrasive belts 60 mounted on each side of
the aforementioned conveyor 3, the instant machine em
each of said belts is carried upon vertically spaced rollers
shaft member 97, the latter being suitably journably
61 rotatably supported within frame 62 so as to locate
mounted on the carriage 85, said shaft member carrying
a drive gear 98 which is ‘adapted to be in meshing engage
its abrasing run 60a in substantially a vertical plane and
50 ment with a transfer gear 101 carried on the extremity
facing toward the aforesaid conveyor 3.
Each of the supporting frames 62 is likewise seen to be
of the adjacent shaft 93.
With this assembly, it is intended that by rotating the
rigidly mounted upon a platform 63.
Each of said platforms 63, in turn, is adjustably mounted
crank 96, for example in a counterclockwise direction as
upon a base 64 so as to be adjustable substantially trans
viewed in FIG. 5, the carriage 85 and the supporting
versely of the conveyor 3. For this purpose, a pair of 55 sanding mechanism 90 carried thereon will be lowered
rack elements ‘66 is seen to be attached to the underside
toward the conveyor 3 and the aforesaid group of books
of each platform 63, preferably on opposite transverse
B disposed therebelow. In like manner, with a clockwise
sides thereof, each of which is adapted to mesh with a
rotation being given to said hand crank, the carriage 85
suitable pinion 68, the latter being in turn carried upon
is likewise intended to be raised within the aforesaid
a shaft 69. A hand crank 70 mounted on one end of
framework 80 to thus carry the sanding mechanism 90
said shaft is thus disposed so as to be readily manipulat
upwardly from said group of books B.
able to selectively move the aforesaid platform 63 to “and
As previously mentioned, the instant sanding mechanism
fro of the conveyor 3 to thus position said endless ab
90 is intended to be operable so as to abrasively sand the
rasive belts in abrasive relation to the adjacent surface
edges as are de?ned between the surfaces b and c, and a
65 and c. To accomplish this, the sanding mechanism 90
b or c of the aforesaid of group of books B.
Each of said endless belts 60 is likewise seen to be
drivingly connected to a suitable power source such as
electric motor 72, so as to be automatically advanced by
the same, the belts disposed on the same side of the con
veyor 3 being preferably driven in opposite directions to 70
each other as are the previously ‘described abrasive belts
34 of the sanding mechanism 7, and for identically the
same purpose.
is seen to include a pair of yoke members 103, mounted
at the upper end upon a tie rod 104, the latter being
rigidly secured cenertally to the ‘aforementioned carriage
85 and extending longitudinally of the conveyor 3.
Each of said yoke members, as thus mounted, is seen
to extend substantially vertically downwardly from the
carriage 85, preferably in parallel spaced relation to each
other.
As best seen in FIG. 3, the clamping frame 5 is placed
A pair of cylindrical roll members 106, each being
on its one longitudinal side on said carriage, the group of 75
‘
7
3,088,238
iournalled upon a shaft member 107 is suspended between
oppositely disposed leg parts i103a of said yoke members,
said rolls being thus located in predetermined parallel
spaced relation to each other.
A cylinder 109, as best seen in FIG. 4:: between the
8
In this manner and with the abrasive endless belt 112
being stretched taut over the edge to be sanded as above
described, said abrasive material is reciprocated over the
same whereby it is sanded smooth to thereby result in
a continuous surface between said edge and adjacent sur
faces of said group of books B‘.
apex portions of said pair of yoke members 103, and ‘an
endless belt of suitable abrasive material as is indicated
7 During the interval the sanding‘lmechanism 99, as thus
at 112, is adapted to be passed over said cylinder and the
described, is effective to sand the underlying surface edge
aforementioned roll members 136, said support thus de
of the group of books B, the latter is preferably con
?ning a triangular suspension vfor said abrasive belt. The 10 veyed along the aforementioned conveyor 3, said under
outer surface of the cylinder 109 is preferably covered
lying surface edge being thus slowly advanced along the
with a suitable rubber-like material as indicated at ‘113 of
somewhat tacky composition which is effective to prevent
latter so as to be progressively’ sanded by said mecha
msm.
the endless abrasive belt from slipping over the same.
Although the instant corner sanding apparatus merely
With reference directed now particularly to FIG. 4a, 15 shows'a single sanding mechanism 90, it will be apparent
the carriage 85 is intended to be lowered toward the’
group of books B held‘ within the clamping frame 5 as
is aforementioned, so that each of the roll members 106
lies on opposite sides of the edge to be sanded. As
said calriage is thus‘ lowered, the endless abrasive belt
112 lying between said roll members will thus engage
and overlie said edge being thereby stretched somewhat
taut therebetween. As herein shown, the group of books
B is positioned within the aforesaid frame 5 so that the
edge as de?ned between the surfaces (a and b)‘ is pre
sented to and engaged by the abrasive belt 12.
A pressure block 114', being preferably of right angle
con?guration is' seen to be movably supported between
the aforementioned‘ yoke members 103, being biased, in
that‘ several or more of the same may be arranged in
tandem relation one to‘ the other, the tie rods 104 thereof
of each of the same vbeing connected‘ so as to be recipro
cated or rocked about by the movement of the connected
segmental gear and pinion 130 and 131 respectively, said
modi?ed apparatus being also operable so as to abrasively
fabricate substantially greater port-ions of the longitudinal
edge to be sanded.
After the aforementioned surface edge has been prop
erly abrasively fabricated‘, ‘the carriage 85 may be raised
in the manner as above described to thereby lift the sand
ing mechanism 90 upwardly from the group of books
B, the latter being thereafter rotatably adjusted within
its supporting press 5 to thus position the oppositely
addition, in a downward direction toward the underlying 30 located longitudinal edge between, the remaining two sur
group of books B by means of suitable springs such as
faces (b and a) or (a and a) previously sanded whereby
coil spring 116, the undersurface of saidv pressure block
the same may thereafter be similarly abrasively fabricated
114-‘ preferably having a pliable material such as soft
to thus provide a substantially continuous surface between
' rubber as is- indicated at 114b carried thereon. Said
the aforesaid surfaces a, b and c and intervening corners
pressure block is intended to be operable to press the 35 thereof which are intended to have the decorative ma
abrasive belt ?rmly against the edgeto be sanded, said
soft pliable rubber material 114b being likewise opera
ble to closely’conform to the con?guration of said edge
to ‘thereby keep said belt in sanding engagement therewith.
terial secured thereto.
'
A- modi?cation of corner sanding apparatus is herein
shown in FIG. 6 whereby the two intervening longitudinal
edges of the group of books B as is above de?ned, may
The endless abrasive belt 112 as thus supported, is in 40 be simultaneously- sanded to thereby overcome the neces
tended‘ to be reciprocated over the underlying edge of
sity of‘ repeatedly passing said’ group through said ap
said‘ group of books. B, in substantially the same manner
paratus.
as if for example it was manually reciprocated.
With reference now directed to FIG. 6, the modi?ed
For this purpose, a link element 119; as may be best
corner sanding apparatus is seen to include a pair of
seen in, FIG. 4, is journalled at its one end on a pin 120, .45 sanding mechanisms 1351each'being substantially identical 7
the latter, in turn, being. rigidly attached to a disk 121
in construction to the previous embodiment, and prefer
mounted on a rotatable shaft member 122, the latter
being carried within housing 123 mounted on the afore
said carriage 85. The opposite end‘ of the link element
119 is preferably seen to have a plurality of longitudi
nally spaced holes 125 formed therein, one of which
is intended to accommodate a suitable fastener 125a, the
latter likewise ‘being accommodated within one of a plu
rality of spaced apertures 126 formed in longitudinal 55
spaced relation along one end of an arm element 128.
Said arm element 128 is pivotally mounted at 127' to the
ably disposed on opposite sides of the conveyor 3, being
suspended from a suitable frame 136 so as to ‘be inclined
at approximately 45 degrees toward the latter.
The. group of books B is disposed within the press 5 so
as to locate the surface a ‘facing upwardly and each of the
corners ‘as de?ned between, the ‘latter and adjacent surfaces
b and c facing. towards one of the aforesaid sanding
mechanisms 1352 Each‘ of said mechanisms 135 is low
cred‘ at and along said incline so that the endless abrasive
belt 135a» thereof overlies the’ corner to be sanded.
The arm element 13511 of each. mechanism 135 is seen
tobe connected throughv link 1350 to a pin 135d on one
aforesaid‘carriage 85 and preferably carries a fragmental
‘gear element 130 which in turn, is adapted‘t-o mesh with
a pinion 1311 carried on the adjacent end of the afore 60 of a pair of disks1-35e,,the latter being rigidly mounted
said tie rod‘104'.
on a-shaft 135]’ rotatably carried within housing, 135g.
The, aforementioned shaft 122 carried within the hous
A suitable chain and sprocket drive as is indicated‘ at
ing 123 is preferably drivingly connected through a suit
13512 is effective to rotate said shaft.
able belt and pulley drive as indicated at 132 to a suit
Each pin- 135d is likewise seen to be radially spaced on
able source of energy such as electric motor 133 whereby 65 its associated disk 135a from its supporting shaft 135i,
said shaft 122 is rotatably actuated.
and is’ also preferably advanced 180 degrees thereon
With this construction, it will be realized that by ro
with respect to the'other of said pins 135d, the purpose
tating shaft 122, the pin 120 and‘ connected end of link
for ,whichwill be hereinafter apparent.
element 119 are‘ carried through a circular orbit about
With" this construction it will be now realized that
said shaft, said circular movement at the opposite end
upon actuation of said chain and sprocket drive the
of said link element 119- being'transposed into a recipro
abrasive endless‘ belts 1354: of each. sanding’ mechanism
catory type of movement’ which,’ as will be understood,
135 will'be oscillated over its underlying longitudinal edge
is e?ective to rock the segmental gear 130 and meshing
of the group of books ‘B to thus round off the same,
pinion 131 and thus cause the cylinder 199 to be oscile
whereby a continuous smooth surface is provided be
lated about tierrodl 104;,
75 tweenthe' aforementioned: surfaces a,v b and c. With the
3,088,238
9
{link connection between the sanding mechanisms ‘135 and
the disk elements 135e, i.e., with the pins 1350! being ap
proximately 180 degrees apart, the abrasive belts will
be oscillated so that at any instance they will be mov
ing in the same direction thereby preventing the aforesaid
groups from ‘rocking within its supporting frame 5.
As is previously mentioned, subsequent to sanding the
1%
plate 152a. A suitable layer of pliable material such as
soft rubber, as is indicated at 1152b, is preferably placed
over the underside surface of the heat conductive jplate
152a, said soft rubber layer ‘being capable of partaking
of the con?guration of the surface to be gild-edged while
readily permitting the ‘transference of heat from said plate
152a to said decorative foil.
With the ?uid cylinder 1148 connected in ?uid circuit
aforesaid surfaces n, b and _c of the group of books B,
with
a suitable energy source, the same is intended to be
the same are thereafter preferably presented to a bu?ing
so as to drive its movable element 148a and
mechanism as is identi?ed in its entirety by the reference 10 actuated
the platen 150 and heating element 152 carried thereby
numeral 14, whereby said surfaces are buffed to thus
into predetermined pressure engagement with a group of
remove any trailings or the like from the same.
books
B, the latter being carried within the aforementioned
The bul?ng mechanism 14 is preferably identical in
clamping frame 5 and supported on the aforementioned
‘construction to that of the sanding mechanism 7, and
platform 149 so as to present the surface a thereof to said
therefore a further detailed description of the buffing
platen
159 and heating element 152.
mechanism will not be herein given. The same reference
A length of decorative foil such as gold leaf or the
numerals are utilized in the instant apparatus to identify
like, as is identi?ed by the reference character G, is laid
similar parts. It is likewise su?ice to say that in place of
over the surface a, being of sufficient dimension as to
the ‘abrasive endless belts 38, the bu?‘ing mechanism 14
preferably utilizes a plurality vof endless belts as identi?ed 20 completely cover the latter, whereafter the platen 150
and heating element 152 are lowered by said ?uid motor
by the reference numeral 384 which may be formed of
any suitable bufling material.
As is herein shown particularly in FIG. 1, the buffing
148 to bring the pliable layer 152b thereof into pressure
engagement with said foil. It has been determined that
a pressure in the neighborhood of 1100 lbs. per square
inch
is preferable to provide a proper application of the
25
above the conveyor 3 and between the corner sanding
mechanism 14 is preferably located so as to be suspended
mechanism 11 and pressing station 18 whereby said
group surfaces may be properly cleansed of any foreign
material prior to the same having the aforementioned
decorative foil applied thereto. As shown diagramatical
metallic foil to said surface.
Although not herein shown in detail, the metallic
foil G is conventional construction and comprises a layer
inclusive to thus provide for removing the loose trailings
viously applied to the under surface thereof opposite said
backing material which surface is placed directly upon
of metallic material such as gold leaf mounted upon a
ly in FlG. 1, suitable exhaust enclosures as identi?ed at 30 suitable backing material such as a transparent ?lm, said
metallic material, in addition, having an adhesive pre
B may be located at each of the aforesaid stations 1-4
from the associated apparatus.
The press 5 holding the group of books B is preferably
supported upon its carriage 6 so as to enable all of the 35
the surface a to be so decorated.
With this construction, the metallic foil may be secure
1y attached to the surface a through the application of
heat and pressure, after which the platen may be raised
bu?ring apparatus. ‘If desired, a suitable sizing material
to permit the removal of the backing ?lm from said
may also be applied to said surfaces at this time to thus
metallic
foil.
enable the decorative material to more readily adhere to 40
A ?at plate 153 is preferably interposed between the
the same.
heating element 152 and the supporting platen 150, said
With said group of books B thus preliminarily pre
plate 153 being of such physical characteristics as to have
aforesaid surfaces a, b and c to be presented to the instant
pared, whereby the aforementioned book surfaces a, b
and c and the i_ tervening corners are thus made smooth
and free of foreign material, the same is then presented
a low coe?icient of heat conductivity whereby the heat
generated within said elements is somewhat isolated from
to the fabricating station 5 whereupon the pressing ap 45 the platen 150 and thus retained on the plate 152a at
tached thereto.
paratus 18 is operable to apply the decorative foil to the
Although not herein shown, suitable conventional tim
surface a.
If desired, a suitable stain may also be ap
plied to said surfaces at this point in the instant process.
ing devices may be utilized to automatically time the
interval during which the decorative foil is attached to
With reference now directed particularly to FIGS. 1
the aforesaid surface a. It has been determined that
and 7, the instant embodiment of pressing apparatus 18 50 when
using a pressure of 1100 lbs. per square inch and a
at said station #5 is seen to include a stationary platform
heating element temperature of approximately 300 de
14!} which preferably straddles the conveyor, said con
grees Fahrenheit, a time period of approximately 3 sec
veyor at this portion of the conveyance path P being
onds is required to properly apply the decorative foil to
preferably a roller-type conveyor as commonly referred to
a.
and as it identi?ed in its entirety by the reference nu 55 surface
Subsequent to the application of the decorative foil to
meral
‘34.
the surface a of the group of books B, said books as thus
An upright guide rod 146 is rigidly attached at its one
supported in the press 5 is then moved along the con
end to the upper surface of the platform 140 preferably
veyor 3a to the next adjacent pressing station 6 whereby
adjacent each of the corners thereof, said guide rods
said decorative foil material is intended to be simul
extending substantially vertically upwardly therefrom and 60 the
taneously applied to the surfaces b and c of said group.
supporting a suitable ?uid cylinder 148 on each of the
With reference now directed particularly to FIGS. 1
upper ends thereof.
and 8, a pressing mechanism 22 is provided at station 6
A platen 150 is seen to be slidably accommodated on
and is seen to include a base 166 which is preferably dis
the aforesaid guide rods 146, said platen, in turn, being
posed so as to be slightly below the plane of the con
rigidly connected to the free end of the movable element 65 veyor 3a. A pair of upright guide rails 161 is rigidly
143;: of said ?uid cylinder 148, the latter being actuated
in a manner as will be presently described to raise and/or
lower said platen 158 to and fro of the platform 140.
Qn the underside surface 159:; of the platen 150 a
substantially. ?at heating element 152 is rigidly attached 70
so as to be movable with the same.
The heating element 152 is preferably of composite
assembly comprising a highly heat conductive plate 152a
upon which is carried a suitable conventional heating
secured to said base 160 so as to extend substantially
vertically upwardly therefrom, and to extend longitudinal
ly therealong in parallel spaced relation to each other.
As best seen in FIG. 8, the press 5 mounting the group
of books B is supported on the conveyor 3a on one of
its longitudinal sides with said group adjusted therein as
to present the aforesaid surfaces b and C facing toward
opposite sides of said conveyor. The aforementioned
element which is, capable of transmitting heat to said 75 guide rails 161 are spaced apart a distance so as to readily
11
3,088,238
12
accommodate the press 5 therebetween. In this manner,
said press and supported group of books B are centrally
positioned within the press mechanism so that the decora
tive material will be simultaneously applied to the afore
the same taut over said surfaces to thus prevent the same
from becoming wrinkled.
The hydraulic cylinders 163 are then simultaneously
actuated so as to move the respective platens 16-9 towards
said book surfaces b and c.
The instant embodiment of press mechanism also in
and into pressure engagement with the surfaces to be gild
edged. As ‘before ‘mentioned, the group of books B is
preferably positioned so as to substantially centrally dis
.posed relative to said platens so that the latter engage
cludes a pair of hydraulic cylinders as identi?ed by the
reference numeral 163, each of which is carried on one
of a pair of mounting plates 167, the latter being of sub
the surfaces b and c at substantially the same time. 'It
stantial mass and vertically suspended opposite one 10 has been determined that a pressure of approximately
another on either side of the conveyor 3a by and be
900 lbs. per square inch exerted on the piston 163a of
tween pairs of upper and lower guide rods 168 extending
each of said cylinders 163 is su?icient to press the deco
substantially transversely horizontally across said con
rative ‘foil into substantial engagement engagement with
veyor 3a.
the underlying surfaces :for proper vattachment of the
Each of the hydraulic cylinders 163 is seen to be pro 15 same to said surfaces. With the heating elements being
vided with a movable piston 163a.
connected to a suitable source of electrical energy and
A platen 169 is disposed adjacent to and forwardly of
each mounting plate 167, each of said platens being sus
pended in a vertical plane from the aforesaid upper pair
thus supplying heat to the respective platens 169, said
decorative ‘foil is thereby attached through the combined
effects of heat and pressure to said book surfaces b and c.
of guide rods 168. As seen in FIG. 8, each of said 20
It has likewise been determined that when using a pres
platens is attached at its upper end to a pair of trolley
sure of approximately 900 lbs. per square inch and a heat
members 169a each of which in turn has wheels 16%
ing element temperaturre of 300 degrees Fahrenheit, a
rotatable upon one of the guide rods 168.
period of approximately 3 seconds is desirable for the
Each platen is seen to preferably centrally mount a
proper application of said decorative foil.
plurality of radially spaced rib elements 170 on the rear 25
At the expiration of the predetermined time period, the
face thereof to thus de?ne a recess 169d therebetween.
hydraulic cylinders 163 are each reversibly actuated so as
Upon actuation of the hydraulic cylinder 163, each of
to draw the pistons 163a away from the ‘respective book
the pistons 163a thereof is intended to enter into the
surfaces b and 0, so as to permit said group of books B
aforesaid recess 169d to thus engage with the rear face
to be removed ‘from the press mechanism and directed
of the respective platen 167 being thereby effective to
to the next fabrication station 7.
slide the platen toward the group of books B deposited
A suitable spring element as indicated at 168a may be
on the conveyor 3a.
connected vbetween the mounting ‘frame and each platen
Although not herein shown, a plurality of conventional
169. Thus ‘as the piston 163a is moved away from each
heating elements similar to those utilized in the element
platen 169 said spring element having previously been ex
152 of the press mechanism 18 is preferably attached 35 tended, is operable to draw said connected platen away
and/0r imbedded within each of the platens 169, being
from its respective surfaces of said group of books B.
likewise connected to a suitable source of electrical
As previously mentioned, the next step in the instant
energy so as to be capable of supplying heat to the latter.
method of applying the decorative foil to the surfaces of
A layer of pliable material such as is identi?ed at 172 is
attached to the face of each of the platens so as to over 40
lie the heating elements, said layer being of such rubber
the group of books B is the application of said foil to
the rounded corners of said ‘group interposed between
the surfaces a and b, and a and c.
composition as to provide for the transmission or conduc
To accomplish this, the group of books B is removed
tion of heat therethrough and to the metallic foil to be
attached to the aforesaid surfaces [J and c of the group
from the press mechanism 22 at station 6 and carried
along the aforesaid conveyor 3a to the press mechanism
of books B in the manner as will now be described.
45 as is indicated by the reference character 25 which is then
The rib elements 170, being rigidly attached to the
intended to apply decorative foil to ‘said intervening sur
rear face of each platen 169, are effective to rapidly
face edges.
dissipate the heat from said rear face and thereby pre—
For this purpose, the press mechanism 25 as may be
vent the piston 163a from being excessively heated.
best seen in FIGS. 1 :and 9 includes a framework indicated
As best seen in FIG. 8, the clamping frame 5 holding
in its entirety by the reference numeral 180, said frame
the group of books B is disposed, on the conveyor 3a
work having legs 181 straddling the conveyor 3a and sup
as is aforementioned, edgewise between the guide rails
porting a pair of hydraulic cylinders 184 thereabove.
161, the latter being preferably disposed in spaced rela
As best seen in FIG. 8, said framework is preferably pro
vided with frame 'members 186 each of which is seen to be
tion to each other so as to readily accommodate said
frame therebetween. As is likewise previously indicated,
the group of books B is adjusted within its supporting
55 connected at its one end to the rearward portion of a vise
‘element 188 and extending upwardly and inwardly there
frame so as to locate the group surfaces b and c facing
‘from toward the conveyor 3a being likewise rigidly con
toward the sides of the conveyor 3a and platens 169 dis
posed adjacent thereto. The guide rails ‘161 are prefer
ably of such height so that when the frame 5 is disposed
therebetween the under surface of said group of books
B rests upon the upper edge of each of said guide rails
to thus locate said frame 5 slightly above the base and
member 189, said assembly being thus somewhat pyram
idal in construction. Each of said frame members 186
is preferably inclined at an angle of approximately 45°
and is seen to have the cylinder 184 mounted thereon,
conveyor 3a.
relation to its supporting frame ‘member and thus inclined
nected at its upper end to one end of a horizontal frame
the latter being disposed in substantial perpendicular
In this manner, the frame 5 is prevented
from being inadvertently moved along the conveyor sub
sequent to its being positioned for the application of
decorative foil thereto.
With said group of books B thus located, a suitable
length of decorative foil as is identi?ed by the reference
character G, said foil being identical to that as is above
described, is then laid over the previously gild-edged sur
face a so ‘as to hang downwardly over the surfaces b and 0.
Small weights such as shown at 175 may be attached to
65
downwardly and inwardly toward said conveyor 3a, said
tangle of inclination therefore likewise being preferably
45° from a vertical line through said conveyor.
Although not herein shown in detail, each of the cyl
inders 184 is preferably adjustable relative to the con~
veyor 3a so as to accommodate various sizes and con
?gurations of books [13.
Each of said cylinders 184 has a movable piston 191
which carries a platen 193. Suitable :heating elements
similar to those utilized in the previous pressing apparatus
the downwardly hanging portions of said foil to thus pull 75
at stations 5 and 6 are attached to the outer face of said
3,038,238
13
14
platens 193 being thus :capable of supplying heat to the
‘to sequentially abrasively sand predetermined sides of
same. A suitable pliable material such as soft rubber as
is identi?ed at 195, is also placed over said heating ele
_coplanar relation to each other and pressure means in said
said group 'to thus locate the edges along each side ‘in _
‘path disposed in tandem relation .therealong to said sand
ments, said pliable material being of suitable composition
ing means for applying decorative material to said sanded
edges.
3. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet material,
so as to provide for the e?'icient conduction of heat
therethrough.
'
As seen in FIG. .9, the clamping frame 5 having the
comprising conveyor means de?ning a conveyance path,
group of books ‘B ?rmly held therein is disposed cen
means for holding a predetermined number of sheets to
trally on the conveyor 3a, said frame standing edgewise
thereon, with‘said rgi'oup‘iof .books B adjusted therein so as 10 be decoratedin a compact group, means operable with
said conveyor means for moving said holding means along
to have the group surface 41 facing upwardly and the ad
said conveyance path, sanding means disposed in said path
jacent surfaces li and c facing in oppoite directions toward
and including a plurality of abrasive endless belts each
the sides of’ the instant mechanism whereby the aforesaid
having an vabr-asing run movable transversely across said
surface edges face toward the cylinder 184 adjacent
thereto.
’
_
i
'
'
The vise members 188 are each provided with a mov
being operable to abrasively sand the sheet edges of
15 path
said group along its one longitudinal surface, and means
in said path disposed in tandem relation therealong to said
able ram 198 which is slidably carried within stationary
guides 199 substantially transversely of the conveyor 3a.
sanding means for applying decorative material to said
Each of said rams 198 is carried upon a screw 201, the
4. Apparatus ‘for decorating the edges of sheet material
sanded edges.
latter in turn, being driv-in-gly connected to a suitable
as de?ned in claim 3 and wherein adjacent abrasive end
sprocket and ‘chain drive as is identi?ed at 203.
less belts are movable transversely across the conveyance
With this assembly, it is intended that with the clamp
path in opposite directions relative to each other.
ing frame 5 and group of books B carried therein being
5. Apparatus for decorating the ‘edges of sheet material
properly positioned on the aforesaid conveyor 3a, each
as de?ned in claim 3 and wherein the endless abrasive
25
of the rams 198 may then be actuated by its connecting
belts are suspended ‘above the conveyance path and ad
drive 293 so as to be carried toward and into pressure ,
justably moved into abrasing engagement with a predeter
engagement with said group of books B whereby the same
mined longitudinal surface of said compact group.
is securely held therebetween during the interval the deco
6. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet material,
rative foil is to be applied.
comprising conveyor means de?ning a conveyance path,
With the group of books B thus held in position, suit 30 means for holding a predetermined number of sheets to
able lengths of metallic toil G are placed over the afore
be decorated in a compact group, means operable with
said rounded surfaces, and the hydraulic cylinders 184 are
said conveyor means for moving said holding means
then actuated to bring the platens 193 into pressure en
along said conveyance path, sanding means along said
gagement With said foil. With the heating elements car
path and including abrasive means movably disposed
ried within the platens 193 being thence operable to sup 35 on opposite sides of said path and operable to simultane
ply heat to the same, the decorative foil is thereby attached
ously abrasively sand opposed surfaces of said group, and
to said rounded surfaces. It has been determined that
pressure means in said path disposed in tandem relation
with the application of approximately 250 lbs. per square
therealong to said abrasive means for simultaneously ap
inch exerted on said surfaces by the hydraulic cylinders
40 plying decorative foil to said sanded surfaces.
184 and the application of approximately 300 degrees
7. Apparatus for decorating the edges ‘of sheet material,
Fahrenheit a time period of .3 seconds is su?icient to
comprising cnoveyor means de?ning a conveyance path,
means for holding a predetermined number of sheets to
be decorated in a compact group, means operable with
said conveyor means for moving said holding means along
properly attach said foil to said surfaces.
-At the expiration of said time period, the cylinders
184 are then reversibly actuated, and the clamping frame 5
is removed from the instant fabrication station #7 45 said conveyance path, sanding means along said path and
and directed to the platform 27 at the discharge station
including a plurality of endless abrasive belts movably dis
#8 whereby the group of books B is removed from said
posed on opposite sides of said path being operable to
frame to thus be ready for binding or the like.
Having thus described the method of and the instant
apparatus especially designed to practice the said method
for edge decorating the sheet edges of books and the like,
it is to be realized that the same is susceptible to various
modi?cations ‘and arrangements of parts without depart
ing from the scope of the inventive concepts ‘as are de
?ned in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet mate
simultaneously abrasively sand opposed longitudinal sur
50
faces ‘of said group, and pressure means in said path dis
posed in tandem relation therealong to said endless belts
for simultaneously applying decorative foil to said sanded
surfaces.
8. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet material,
as is de?ned in claim 7 and wherein adjacent endless belts
55 on the same side of said conveyance path are movable in
opposite directions to each other.
9. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet material,
rial, comprising conveyor means de?ning a conveyance
comprising conveyor means de?ning a conveyance path,
path, means for holding a predetermined number of sheets
means for holding a predetermined number of sheets to
60
to be decorated in a compact group, means operable with
be decorated in a compact group, means operable with
said conveyor means for moving said holding means along
said conveyor means for moving said holding means along
said conveyance path, means in said path for abrasively
said conveyance path, sanding means in said path and in
sanding the sheet edges of predetermined sides of said
cluding an endless abrasive belt disposed along said path
group to thus locate the edges along each side of said
and engageable with the corner of said group de?ned be
group in coplanar relation to each other, and pressure 65 tween adiacent longitudinal surfaces thereof being oper
means in said path disposed in tandem relation there
able to abrasively sand the same, and pressure means dis
along to said sanding means for applying decorative foil
posed along said path for applying decorative foil to said
to said sanded edges.
2. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet material,
sanded corner.
10. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet mate
comprising conveyor means de?ning a conveyance path, 70
rial as is de?ned in claim 9 and wherein said endless
means for holding a predetermined number of sheets to
belt is oscillatably actuatable over said corner.
be decorated in a compact group, means operable with
11. Apparatus ‘for decorating the edges of sheet mate
said conveyor means for moving said holding means along
rial,
comprising conveyor means de?ning a conveyance
said conveyance path, a plurality of sanding means dis
posed at spaced intervals along said path being operable 75 path, means for holding a predetermined number of sheets
15
3,088,238
to be decorated in a compact group, means operable with
said conveyor means for moving said holding means along
said conveyance path, sanding means in said path and
including a plurality of endless abrasive belts disposed
along said path ‘and engageable with opposed longitudinal
corners of said group being thus effective to abrasively
sand the same, ‘and means for generating heat and pres
sure being disposed along said path in tandem relation to
said abrasive means for simultaneously applying decora
tive foil to said sanded corners.
12. Apparatus for decorating the edges of sheet mate
rial, comprising conveyor means de?ning :a conveyance
path, means for holding a predetermined number of sheets
to be decorated in a compact group, means operable with
said conveyor means for moving said holding means 15
along said conveyance path, sanding means disposed in
15
said path and including a plurality of abrasive endless
belts each having an abrasing run movable transversely
across said path ‘and longitudinally along said sheet edges
being operable to abrasively sand the sheet edges of said
said
grouppath
along
for its
generating
one longitudinal
heat and pressure
surface, being
‘and means
disposed
in tandem relation therealong to said sanding means for
applying decorative material to said sanded edges.
References Cited inthe ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
221,933
413,995
824,671
2,748,046
Oecholi _____________ __ Nov. 25, 1879
Wright _____________ __ Oct. 29, 1889
Ritchie _____________ __ June 26, 1906
7
Works _______________ __ May 29, 1956
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