Патент USA US3088292код для вставки
May 7, 1963 J. J. LOGAN 3,088,282 IGNITION APPARATUS Filed Sept. 14, 1956 4 26 /// x x \7 \ 44 k1 Джi A 5? \ 9? k?6): 6? Mi \ 22 39 it /\ 5g Д;?"""~??< 42 as Y 25 \ E 40 \ \ m K 29 47 z 46 A 48' I 11 I / I _? ,A 45 I 4/ 75 ? 7/ > INVENTOR. : I 67 i 66 i 80 74 77 /2 / l 6'4 ?52 Б5 77 JAMES J. LOGAN BY 5 MI/ ATTORNEYS United States Patent 0 ? ICC 3,088,282 Patented May 7, 1963 2 1 11 secured as by welding to the outer end of shell 110. The inner end of the device carries a combined gap and 3,088,282 IGNITION APPARATUS James J. Logan, Unadilia, N.Y., assiguor to The Bendix Corporation, a corporation of Delaware fuel nozzle assembly, generally designated 12, to which electrical current is delivered by means to be described from a lead wire having a connector 14 attached to the device. Fuel for the nozzle is delivered to the device Filed Sept. 14, 1956, 52:?. No. 609,877 3 Claims. (Cl. 60-3932) by a conduit (not shown) connected to passage 32 through the wall of shell ?10 near the outer end of the shell and This invention relates to fuel injection and ignition outwardly of the combustion chamber. apparatus and more particularly to a combined spark Coaxially positioned within the central opening in shell gap and fuel nozzle for torch ignition systems. The 1O 10 is an elongated member 16 which functions as the cur apparatus of ?the invention is useful, for example, in so rent lead to the central electrode of the spark gap of called jet ?or turbine engines. the device, and as :a portion of the means conducting fuel One of the objects of the present invention is to pro to the nozzle. Member 16 is spaced from the inner wall vide a novel combination of a spark gap and fuel nozzle 15 of shell 19 by means of electrically insulating spacer in closely spaced relationship in a unitary assembly. sleeve 17, which may be made, for example, of ?Te?on.? Another object of the invention is to provide a simpli Sleeve 17 has an outwardly thickened upper end 19 which ?ed combined spark ?gap and fuel nozzle assembly of sealingly engages the inner wall of shell 10 and a portion light-weight construction, the spark gap ?and fuel nozzle of the outer surface of member 16, the enlarged upper being readily removable ?as a unit, and thus easily serv iced or replaced. 20 end of the sleeve resting upon internal shoulder 20 on Still another object is to provide a novel torch ignition system wherein the spark gap ?and fuel nozzle are disposed in a symmetrical relationship close to each other. Another object is to provide a combined spark gap and fuel nozzle device characterized by its compactness 25 and the economy of its manufacture and maintenance. the shell. Member 16 is supported at its outer end by means of a large insulating washer 21 which is seated in counterbore 22 in the outer end of shell 10. Washer 21, which may be made of ?a hard molded resin material, retains member 16 in the desired angular position, the washer being keyed to the shell by having Still another object is to provide a unitary device hav ing a combined spark gap and fuel nozzle, the device being of such construction as readily .to provide an elec trically semi-conductive body connected to shunt with the electrodes of the spark gap. The above and further objects and novel features of the invention will more fully appear from the following description when the same is read in connection with the radial projection 24 on the former received in a radial recess in the outer end of the shell, and by the reception however, that the drawing is for the purpose of illustra tion only and is not intended as 1a de?nition of the limits of ?the invention. In the drawing wherein like reference characters refer Fuel for the nozzle is led into shell '10 through radial opening 32 through the wall of the shell and thence through ?openings or ports 35 through the wall 18 of member 16 into the longitudinal central bore in such 40 member. Communication between the pass-age 32 and of the radially outer end of cross pin 26 through the shank 25 of member 16 in the longitudinally extending slot 27 in the wall of the bore through the washer 21. The outer end of shank 25 of member .16 is threaded at 29, the shank carrying an inner nut ?30 forcibly engag ing washer 21, and an outer nut 31, the electrical con accompanying drawing. It is to be expressly understood, 35 nector 14 being gripped between such nuts. - to like parts throughout the several views, FIG. 1 is a longitudinal axial section through one form of device having a combined spark gap ?and fuel nozzle in accordance with the invention, certain parts of the device being shown in elevation, the ports 35, ?as well as the electrical insulation of the upper portion of member 16 from shell 10, are provided by an inner electrically insulating sleeve 36 which in timately surrounds member :16 ?at a zone including ports ' FIG. 2 is a view in longitudinal axial section through 45 35, ?by an outer grooved spacer and packing member 38 which surrounds and intimately engages sleeve 36 and the nozzle assembly of the device of FIG. 1, and closely ?ts within the bore in shell 10, and by upper and FIG. 3 is a longitudinal section through the insulating lower preformed annular packing members 39 land 40, body which positions the fuel nozzle at the inner end of which are interposed between the shell 10 and the sleeve the device. The embodiment of the invention illustrated in the 50 36, and are disposed, respectively, between the upper end of sleeve 38 and the lower end of washer 21, and be drawing, by Way of example, is in the form of a torch tween the lower end of sleeve 38 and the upper end of ignition device adapted to be mounted in an opening in sleeve 17. Member 36 may be, for example, a molded the wall of ?the ?combustion ?chamber of a jet or turbine engine. The inner end of the device, shown at the 55 laminated phenolic resin material; member 38 may be made, for example, of ?Te?on.? 'Ihe thus formed com bottom in 1FIG. 1, is then in communication with the posite electrically insulating and sealing structure made combustion chamber of the engine, the outer end of the up of members 36, 38, 39 and 40 provides an annular device, shown at the top in FIG. 1, extending outwardly chamber surrounding member 16 at ports 35 and com beyond the outer wall of the engine. The ignition device municatingwith passage 32. may either be operated continuously, by continuously 60 The construction of the nozzle assembly, generally des introducing fuel thereto while energizing the spark gap, ignated 41, which is mounted upon the lower end of or may be operated only intermittently as in the starting member :16, will ?be more fully understood by considera of certain types of engines in which combustion is self sustaining. The device in .the embodiment shown has an elongated shell :10 made of strong electrically conducting material tion of FIG. 2. The nozzle assembly has a main tubular body 42, said body having on its outer end external threads 44 which are received in the internal threads 45 on the inner end of wall 18 of member 16. A ?strainer such as ?alloy steel. The shell has a circular cylindrical member 46, having a cylindrical strainer sleeve 4-7, has upper portion, a downwardly converging, conical inter an inner ?ange 49 thereon clamped between the end of a mediate ?portion adapted to inter?t with the passage counterbore at the lower end of body v16 and the outer end through the wall of the combustion chamber of .the engine, 70 of body 42 of the nozzle. Member 42 has a central and an inner circular end of smaller diameter. The shell cylindrical passage 50 therein, passage ?50 terminating at is retained on the engine by means of a mounting ?ange an inner sharply converging conical end wall 511 which . 3 communicates with a central nozzle ori?ce 52. Centrally 4 through member 42 so that a narrow elongated annular shell ?10 above the end 19? of sleeve 17, and the washer 21 is mounted in the counterbore at the outer end of shell 10. The assembly of the nozzle 41, cap 71, and member 16 is then inserted in the inner end of shell >10 and is thrust into the fully assembled position shown in FIG. 1. Nut 30, applied to threaded shank .29 of member $16, pulls the channel is presented between the pintle member and the wall of the bore 50. At the inner end of member 54 internal assembly axially outwardly of the shell and in sures ?a tight seal between members 19, 20, 40, 38, 39, positioned in passage 50 is an elongated nozzle pint-1e 54 having an inner cylindrical ?ange 55 thereon engaging wall 50 immediately above end 51. The body mem: ber 54 has a diameter somewhat less than that of bore 50. there is a shallow centrally located chamber 56 open to and 21. The internal assembly made up of the member ori?ce 52, said chamber communicating with said nar 10 41 and the member 18 are thus held under longitudinal row annular channel through two oppositely disposed tension ?between ?ange 66, which abuts insulator 67, at generally tangentially disposed passages 57 (one shown). the bottom and the nut 30 and the washer thereheneath, Pintle ember 54 is maintained in position bottomed in the latter abutting insulator 21. The housing or tubular the bore 50 against end wall 51 by a threaded hollow in shell 10 is thus held under compression between the ?ange sert sleeve 60 received in the outer internally threaded ?66, insulator 67, and cap 71 on the bottom end thereof portion 61 of member 42 to maintain tight engagement and the insulator 21 on the top end thereof. , between the pintle member and the insert sleeve, a spring Threads 73 at the end of \cap 71 are partially ground washer 62 being disposed between such members. The off on a taper, as shown in FIG. 1. The resulting internal outer end of pintle member 54 is diametrically slotted at lands on cap 71 forcibly engage the outer surface 72 on 59 to afford communication between the annular channel 20 shell 10, such ?outer surface being tapered in the same di rection and at least generally the same angle as the taper around the pintle member and the central passage formed by the bores through the outer end of member 42 and the ?of threads 73, so as to center the cap on the shell and maintain the cap and shell from relative rotation. insert sleeve 60?. When the nozzle member is assembled The combined spark gap and fuel nozzle of the inven in the unit as shown in FIG. 1, fuel under pressure flows through passage 32, inwardly through ports 35 in walls 25 tion is of advantage because of its compactness, economy 18 of member 16, thence longitudinally of the central pas of parts, and ease of installation and substitution, if neces sary. The current lead to the central electrode is formed sage in member 16, inwardly through the screen 47, by the conduit which feeds fuel to the nozzle, so that only through central passage 48 in ?ange member 49, and one part need be provided to perform these two functions. thence through the above described passages in member 42 to ori?ce 52 of the nozzle. Below the ori?ce 52 the 30 The annular spark gap ?formed between surface 77 on ?ange 76 and surface 79 on ?ange 66 surrounds, and is nozzle is provided with an inwardly ?ared hood 64 to pro centrally located with respect to, ori?ce ?52 of the fuel tect the spark gap from contact with the fuel issuing from nozzle. Such symmetrical disposition of the spark gap ori?ce 52. and fuel nozzle, as Well as their location close to each The inner end of body 42. of the nozzle assembly is pro vided with an outwardly directed ?ange 65, the outer edge 35 other, promotes efficient and fast ignition of the fuel, which is usually a liquid although it may be gaseous, if 66 of which is of a somewhat enlarged diameter. Such desired. ?ange portion 66 forms the inner electrode of the spark Although one embodiment of the invention is illustrated gap. in the drawing and described in the foregoing speci?ca A ceramic insulator 67, made, for example, of fused alu mina, surrounds and is a??ixed to the inner end of body 40 tion, it is to be ?expressly understood that the invention is not limited thereto. For example, although the spark 42 in the assembled device. As shown in FIG. 1 such in gap shown and described is of the high energy, low volt sulator has internal threads 69 engaged with external age shunted gap type, the gap, if desired, may be of ?the threads 70 on body 42 located outwardly of ?ange 65 high voltage unshunted type. The device of the invention thereon. The insulator '67 cooperates with a removable cap .71 which is attached to the inner end of shell 10 so as 45 may be used, tor example, as a starter for the main burner of a turbine or jet engine, or it may be used to carry all In the construc the fuel to the engine of a turbine type starter. Various tion shown, insulator 67 also serves as a support for an to hold the nozzle coaxial of the shell. changes may also be made in the design and arrangement electrical semiconductive layer ?80 which is connected in ?of the parts illustrated as well as in the materials thereof shunt between the inner electrode 66 and the outer elec trode of the spark gap, such outer electrode being formed 50 herein suggested as suitable without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as it will now be under by the radially inwardly projecting ?ange 76 on the end of stood by those skilled in the art. cap 71. Insulator 67 is retained in the cap by means of What is claimed is: an insert sleeve or ring 75 which has threaded engage 1. Tomb ignition apparatus comprising an elongated ment with internal threads on the cap, ring 75 overlying the larger diametered, ?anged inner end 74 of the insulator. 55 metal casing having a central passage longitudinally there through, said casing having an inner end adapted to pro Semi-conductive layer 80 may be made of a number of ject into a combustion chamber and an opposite, outer end materials known for that purpose, and in a variety of adapted to be positioned outwardly of the combustion manners. One such layer which has proved to be satis chamber, said ?casing having an annular shoulder project factory is that disclosed in the patent to Harris, No. 2,953,704, issued September 20, 1960. 60 ing inwardly from the wall of the passage intermediate the length of the casing, an elongated metal member centrally The thus described combined spark gap and fuel noz disposed within the casing, a ?rst sleeve of electrically in zle device may be assembled as follows: sulating material surrounding the elongated member at The parts of the nozzle are ?rst assembled in the man the shoulder and extending on both sides thereof longi ner shown in FIG. 2. Ceramic insulator 67 is then placed in cap 71 and is retained therein by ring 75. The 65 tudinally of the casing, said ?rst sleeve snugly engaging the casing and the elongated member and having an out nozzle assembly ?of FIG. 2 is screwed into ceramic insert wardly extending ?ange overlying and engaging the 67. Sleeve member 36 is cemented to member 16 to form shoulder on the casing, the elongated member at its outer a seal between them. Screen ?47 is placed in member 16 end having a cylindrical portion of reduced diameter over within tubular portion 18, and the above-described nozzle assembly is then screwed into the end of member 16. A 70 lapping the ?ange on the ?rst sleeve, a second electrically insulating sleeve snugly engaging the outer reduced diam wrench is applied to ?atted portions 42' on member 42 to allow the nozzle assembly to be tightened into member 16 eter portion of the elongated member and having its inner to form a seal with the ?ange 49 of the screen. end telescop'ed within the outer end of the ?rst sleeve, a Insulating sleeve 17 is then inserted in body 10, sealing longitudinally extending central bore in the elongated members 40, 38, and 39 are inserted in that order into 75 member extending throughout a ?substantial portion of "in 3,088,282 6 5 the length thereof from the inner toward the outer end of the elongated member, a nozzle on the inner end of the elongated member communicating with said bore, bore in at least a portion thereof confronting said sleeve, a relatively stiff resilient electrically insulating ring-like member snugly interposed between the sleeve and the wall of the counterbore of the casing, annular sealing means means to supply the nozzle with fuel comprising a trans interposed between the wall of the counterbore and the verse passage through the Wall of the casing, the second sleeve and sealingly engaged therewith and with the ends sleeve, and the wall of the elongated member into the of the ring-like member, means to place the annular seal bore therein, ?and an annular spark gap comprising a first, ing means and the ring-like member in ?axial compression, inner annular electrode on the inner end of the elongated and means to supply the nozzle with fuel, said last named member and a second, outer annular electrode on the inner end of the casing. 10 means comprising a longitudinally extending passage Within the elongated member leading to the nozzle, and 2. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 1, wherein the fuel a transverse passage extending through the side wall of supply means comprises an annular electrically insulat the casing, through the ring-like member, and through the ing member interposed between the casing and the second ?side wall of the elongated member into the longitudinal sleeve at the location of said transverse passage, a trans verse opening through said annular insulating member 15 passage therein. constituting a portion of said transverse passage, annular References Cited in the ?le of this patent ?sealing means interposed between the casing and the sec ond sleeve ?at both ends of the annular insulating member, UNITED STATES PATENTS and means to subject the sealing means to substantial axial compression. 20 3. Torch ignition apparatus comprising an elongated metal ?casing having a central passage longitudinally there through, said casing having an inner end adapted to pro ject into a combustion chamber and an opposite, outer end adapted to be positioned outwardly of the combustion chamber, an elongated metal member centrally disposed within the casing, the inner end of the member carrying a nozzle lying adjacent the inner end of the casing, the nozzle carrying a ?rst electrode of a spark gap located at the inner end of the casing, a second electrode of said 30 spark gap being carried by and making electrical connec tion with the inner end of the casin g, means for electrically insulating the member from the casing comprising an electrically insulating sleeve surrounding the elongated 1,210,668 2,255,203 Meyer ________________ __ Jan. 2, 1917 Wiegand ______________ __ Sept. 9, 1941 2,572,209 2,574,495 Smits _______________ __ Oct. 23, 1951 Parker ______________ __ Nov. 13, 1951 2,684,665 Tognola _______ __'____ __ July 27, 1954 2,859,590 Masom _____________ __ Nov. 11, 1958 619,354 621,789 Great Britain __________ .__ Mar. 8, 1949 Great Britain _________ .__ Apr. 20, 1949 738,966 Great Britain ______ _._'___ Oct. 19, 1955 FOREIGN PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES ?Lodge I'gniters for Gas Turbines,? published in the Oil Engine and Gas Turbine, March 1955, pp. 435 and 436, member Within the casing, the casing having a counter 35 copy in Div. 118. ".4.