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Патент USA US3088292

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May 7, 1963
Filed Sept. 14, 1956
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United States Patent 0 ? ICC
Patented May 7, 1963
11 secured as by welding to the outer end of shell 110.
The inner end of the device carries a combined gap and
James J. Logan, Unadilia, N.Y., assiguor to The Bendix
Corporation, a corporation of Delaware
fuel nozzle assembly, generally designated 12, to which
electrical current is delivered by means to be described
from a lead wire having a connector 14 attached to the
device. Fuel for the nozzle is delivered to the device
Filed Sept. 14, 1956, 52:?. No. 609,877
3 Claims. (Cl. 60-3932)
by a conduit (not shown) connected to passage 32 through
the wall of shell ?10 near the outer end of the shell and
This invention relates to fuel injection and ignition
outwardly of the combustion chamber.
apparatus and more particularly to a combined spark
Coaxially positioned within the central opening in shell
gap and fuel nozzle for torch ignition systems. The 1O
10 is an elongated member 16 which functions as the cur
apparatus of ?the invention is useful, for example, in so
rent lead to the central electrode of the spark gap of
called jet ?or turbine engines.
the device, and as :a portion of the means conducting fuel
One of the objects of the present invention is to pro
to the nozzle. Member 16 is spaced from the inner wall
vide a novel combination of a spark gap and fuel nozzle
15 of shell 19 by means of electrically insulating spacer
in closely spaced relationship in a unitary assembly.
sleeve 17, which may be made, for example, of ?Te?on.?
Another object of the invention is to provide a simpli
Sleeve 17 has an outwardly thickened upper end 19 which
?ed combined spark ?gap and fuel nozzle assembly of
sealingly engages the inner wall of shell 10 and a portion
light-weight construction, the spark gap ?and fuel nozzle
of the outer surface of member 16, the enlarged upper
being readily removable ?as a unit, and thus easily serv
iced or replaced.
20 end of the sleeve resting upon internal shoulder 20 on
Still another object is to provide a novel torch ignition
system wherein the spark gap ?and fuel nozzle are disposed
in a symmetrical relationship close to each other.
Another object is to provide a combined spark gap
and fuel nozzle device characterized by its compactness 25
and the economy of its manufacture and maintenance.
the shell. Member 16 is supported at its outer end by
means of a large insulating washer 21 which is seated in
counterbore 22 in the outer end of shell 10.
Washer 21, which may be made of ?a hard molded
resin material, retains member 16 in the desired angular
position, the washer being keyed to the shell by having
Still another object is to provide a unitary device hav
ing a combined spark gap and fuel nozzle, the device
being of such construction as readily .to provide an elec
trically semi-conductive body connected to shunt with
the electrodes of the spark gap.
The above and further objects and novel features of
the invention will more fully appear from the following
description when the same is read in connection with the
radial projection 24 on the former received in a radial
recess in the outer end of the shell, and by the reception
however, that the drawing is for the purpose of illustra
tion only and is not intended as 1a de?nition of the limits
of ?the invention.
In the drawing wherein like reference characters refer
Fuel for the nozzle is led into shell '10 through radial
opening 32 through the wall of the shell and thence
through ?openings or ports 35 through the wall 18 of
member 16 into the longitudinal central bore in such
40 member. Communication between the pass-age 32 and
of the radially outer end of cross pin 26 through the
shank 25 of member 16 in the longitudinally extending
slot 27 in the wall of the bore through the washer 21.
The outer end of shank 25 of member .16 is threaded at
29, the shank carrying an inner nut ?30 forcibly engag
ing washer 21, and an outer nut 31, the electrical con
accompanying drawing. It is to be expressly understood, 35 nector 14 being gripped between such nuts. -
to like parts throughout the several views,
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal axial section through one form
of device having a combined spark gap ?and fuel nozzle
in accordance with the invention, certain parts of the
device being shown in elevation,
the ports 35, ?as well as the electrical insulation of the
upper portion of member 16 from shell 10, are provided
by an inner electrically insulating sleeve 36 which in
timately surrounds member :16 ?at a zone including ports
' FIG. 2 is a view in longitudinal axial section through 45 35, ?by an outer grooved spacer and packing member 38
which surrounds and intimately engages sleeve 36 and
the nozzle assembly of the device of FIG. 1, and
closely ?ts within the bore in shell 10, and by upper and
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal section through the insulating
lower preformed annular packing members 39 land 40,
body which positions the fuel nozzle at the inner end of
which are interposed between the shell 10 and the sleeve
the device.
The embodiment of the invention illustrated in the 50 36, and are disposed, respectively, between the upper end
of sleeve 38 and the lower end of washer 21, and be
drawing, by Way of example, is in the form of a torch
tween the lower end of sleeve 38 and the upper end of
ignition device adapted to be mounted in an opening in
sleeve 17. Member 36 may be, for example, a molded
the wall of ?the ?combustion ?chamber of a jet or turbine
engine. The inner end of the device, shown at the 55 laminated phenolic resin material; member 38 may be
made, for example, of ?Te?on.? 'Ihe thus formed com
bottom in 1FIG. 1, is then in communication with the
posite electrically insulating and sealing structure made
combustion chamber of the engine, the outer end of the
up of members 36, 38, 39 and 40 provides an annular
device, shown at the top in FIG. 1, extending outwardly
chamber surrounding member 16 at ports 35 and com
beyond the outer wall of the engine. The ignition device
municatingwith passage 32.
may either be operated continuously, by continuously 60
The construction of the nozzle assembly, generally des
introducing fuel thereto while energizing the spark gap,
41, which is mounted upon the lower end of
or may be operated only intermittently as in the starting
:16, will ?be more fully understood by considera
of certain types of engines in which combustion is self
The device in .the embodiment shown has an elongated
shell :10 made of strong electrically conducting material
tion of FIG. 2. The nozzle assembly has a main tubular
body 42, said body having on its outer end external
threads 44 which are received in the internal threads 45
on the inner end of wall 18 of member 16. A ?strainer
such as ?alloy steel. The shell has a circular cylindrical
member 46, having a cylindrical strainer sleeve 4-7, has
upper portion, a downwardly converging, conical inter
an inner ?ange 49 thereon clamped between the end of a
mediate ?portion adapted to inter?t with the passage
counterbore at the lower end of body v16 and the outer end
through the wall of the combustion chamber of .the engine, 70 of body 42 of the nozzle. Member 42 has a central
and an inner circular end of smaller diameter. The shell
cylindrical passage 50 therein, passage ?50 terminating at
is retained on the engine by means of a mounting ?ange
an inner sharply converging conical end wall 511 which
communicates with a central nozzle ori?ce 52. Centrally
through member 42 so that a narrow elongated annular
shell ?10 above the end 19? of sleeve 17, and the washer 21
is mounted in the counterbore at the outer end of shell
10. The assembly of the nozzle 41, cap 71, and member
16 is then inserted in the inner end of shell >10 and is thrust
into the fully assembled position shown in FIG. 1. Nut
30, applied to threaded shank .29 of member $16, pulls the
channel is presented between the pintle member and the
wall of the bore 50. At the inner end of member 54
internal assembly axially outwardly of the shell and in
sures ?a tight seal between members 19, 20, 40, 38, 39,
positioned in passage 50 is an elongated nozzle pint-1e 54
having an inner cylindrical ?ange 55 thereon engaging
wall 50 immediately above end
51. The body mem:
ber 54 has a diameter somewhat less than that of bore 50.
there is a shallow centrally located chamber 56 open to
and 21. The internal assembly made up of the member
ori?ce 52, said chamber communicating with said nar 10 41 and the member 18 are thus held under longitudinal
row annular channel through two oppositely disposed
tension ?between ?ange 66, which abuts insulator 67, at
generally tangentially disposed passages 57 (one shown).
the bottom and the nut 30 and the washer thereheneath,
Pintle ember 54 is maintained in position bottomed in
the latter abutting insulator 21. The housing or tubular
the bore 50 against end wall 51 by a threaded hollow in
shell 10 is thus held under compression between the ?ange
sert sleeve 60 received in the outer internally threaded
?66, insulator 67, and cap 71 on the bottom end thereof
portion 61 of member 42 to maintain tight engagement
and the insulator 21 on the top end thereof.
between the pintle member and the insert sleeve, a spring
Threads 73 at the end of \cap 71 are partially ground
washer 62 being disposed between such members. The
off on a taper, as shown in FIG. 1. The resulting internal
outer end of pintle member 54 is diametrically slotted at
lands on cap 71 forcibly engage the outer surface 72 on
59 to afford communication between the annular channel 20 shell 10, such ?outer surface being tapered in the same di
rection and at least generally the same angle as the taper
around the pintle member and the central passage formed
by the bores through the outer end of member 42 and the
?of threads 73, so as to center the cap on the shell and
maintain the cap and shell from relative rotation.
insert sleeve 60?. When the nozzle member is assembled
The combined spark gap and fuel nozzle of the inven
in the unit as shown in FIG. 1, fuel under pressure flows
through passage 32, inwardly through ports 35 in walls 25 tion is of advantage because of its compactness, economy
18 of member 16, thence longitudinally of the central pas
of parts, and ease of installation and substitution, if neces
sary. The current lead to the central electrode is formed
sage in member 16, inwardly through the screen 47,
by the conduit which feeds fuel to the nozzle, so that only
through central passage 48 in ?ange member 49, and
one part need be provided to perform these two functions.
thence through the above described passages in member
42 to ori?ce 52 of the nozzle. Below the ori?ce 52 the 30 The annular spark gap ?formed between surface 77 on
?ange 76 and surface 79 on ?ange 66 surrounds, and is
nozzle is provided with an inwardly ?ared hood 64 to pro
centrally located with respect to, ori?ce ?52 of the fuel
tect the spark gap from contact with the fuel issuing from
nozzle. Such symmetrical disposition of the spark gap
ori?ce 52.
and fuel nozzle, as Well as their location close to each
The inner end of body 42. of the nozzle assembly is pro
vided with an outwardly directed ?ange 65, the outer edge 35 other, promotes efficient and fast ignition of the fuel,
which is usually a liquid although it may be gaseous, if
66 of which is of a somewhat enlarged diameter. Such
?ange portion 66 forms the inner electrode of the spark
Although one embodiment of the invention is illustrated
in the drawing and described in the foregoing speci?ca
A ceramic insulator 67, made, for example, of fused alu
mina, surrounds and is a??ixed to the inner end of body 40 tion, it is to be ?expressly understood that the invention is
not limited thereto. For example, although the spark
42 in the assembled device. As shown in FIG. 1 such in
gap shown and described is of the high energy, low volt
sulator has internal threads 69 engaged with external
age shunted gap type, the gap, if desired, may be of ?the
threads 70 on body 42 located outwardly of ?ange 65
high voltage unshunted type. The device of the invention
thereon. The insulator '67 cooperates with a removable
cap .71 which is attached to the inner end of shell 10 so as 45 may be used, tor example, as a starter for the main burner
of a turbine or jet engine, or it may be used to carry all
In the construc
the fuel to the engine of a turbine type starter. Various
tion shown, insulator 67 also serves as a support for an
to hold the nozzle coaxial of the shell.
changes may also be made in the design and arrangement
electrical semiconductive layer ?80 which is connected in
?of the parts illustrated as well as in the materials thereof
shunt between the inner electrode 66 and the outer elec
trode of the spark gap, such outer electrode being formed 50 herein suggested as suitable without departing from the
spirit and scope of the invention as it will now be under
by the radially inwardly projecting ?ange 76 on the end of
stood by those skilled in the art.
cap 71. Insulator 67 is retained in the cap by means of
What is claimed is:
an insert sleeve or ring 75 which has threaded engage
1. Tomb ignition apparatus comprising an elongated
ment with internal threads on the cap, ring 75 overlying
the larger diametered, ?anged inner end 74 of the insulator. 55 metal casing having a central passage longitudinally there
through, said casing having an inner end adapted to pro
Semi-conductive layer 80 may be made of a number of
ject into a combustion chamber and an opposite, outer end
materials known for that purpose, and in a variety of
adapted to be positioned outwardly of the combustion
manners. One such layer which has proved to be satis
chamber, said ?casing having an annular shoulder project
factory is that disclosed in the patent to Harris, No.
2,953,704, issued September 20, 1960.
60 ing inwardly from the wall of the passage intermediate the
length of the casing, an elongated metal member centrally
The thus described combined spark gap and fuel noz
disposed within the casing, a ?rst sleeve of electrically in
zle device may be assembled as follows:
sulating material surrounding the elongated member at
The parts of the nozzle are ?rst assembled in the man
the shoulder and extending on both sides thereof longi
ner shown in FIG. 2. Ceramic insulator 67 is then
placed in cap 71 and is retained therein by ring 75. The 65 tudinally of the casing, said ?rst sleeve snugly engaging
the casing and the elongated member and having an out
nozzle assembly ?of FIG. 2 is screwed into ceramic insert
wardly extending ?ange overlying and engaging the
67. Sleeve member 36 is cemented to member 16 to form
shoulder on the casing, the elongated member at its outer
a seal between them. Screen ?47 is placed in member 16
end having a cylindrical portion of reduced diameter over
within tubular portion 18, and the above-described nozzle
assembly is then screwed into the end of member 16. A 70 lapping the ?ange on the ?rst sleeve, a second electrically
insulating sleeve snugly engaging the outer reduced diam
wrench is applied to ?atted portions 42' on member 42 to
allow the nozzle assembly to be tightened into member 16
eter portion of the elongated member and having its inner
to form a seal with the ?ange 49 of the screen.
end telescop'ed within the outer end of the ?rst sleeve, a
Insulating sleeve 17 is then inserted in body 10, sealing
longitudinally extending central bore in the elongated
members 40, 38, and 39 are inserted in that order into 75 member extending throughout a ?substantial portion of
the length thereof from the inner toward the outer end of
the elongated member, a nozzle on the inner end of
the elongated member communicating with said bore,
bore in at least a portion thereof confronting said sleeve,
a relatively stiff resilient electrically insulating ring-like
member snugly interposed between the sleeve and the wall
of the counterbore of the casing, annular sealing means
means to supply the nozzle with fuel comprising a trans
interposed between the wall of the counterbore and the
verse passage through the Wall of the casing, the second
sleeve and sealingly engaged therewith and with the ends
sleeve, and the wall of the elongated member into the
of the ring-like member, means to place the annular seal
bore therein, ?and an annular spark gap comprising a first,
ing means and the ring-like member in ?axial compression,
inner annular electrode on the inner end of the elongated
and means to supply the nozzle with fuel, said last named
member and a second, outer annular electrode on the inner
end of the casing.
10 means comprising a longitudinally extending passage
Within the elongated member leading to the nozzle, and
2. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 1, wherein the fuel
a transverse passage extending through the side wall of
supply means comprises an annular electrically insulat
the casing, through the ring-like member, and through the
ing member interposed between the casing and the second
?side wall of the elongated member into the longitudinal
sleeve at the location of said transverse passage, a trans
verse opening through said annular insulating member 15 passage therein.
constituting a portion of said transverse passage, annular
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?sealing means interposed between the casing and the sec
ond sleeve ?at both ends of the annular insulating member,
and means to subject the sealing means to substantial
axial compression.
3. Torch ignition apparatus comprising an elongated
metal ?casing having a central passage longitudinally there
through, said casing having an inner end adapted to pro
ject into a combustion chamber and an opposite, outer
end adapted to be positioned outwardly of the combustion
chamber, an elongated metal member centrally disposed
within the casing, the inner end of the member carrying
a nozzle lying adjacent the inner end of the casing, the
nozzle carrying a ?rst electrode of a spark gap located at
the inner end of the casing, a second electrode of said 30
spark gap being carried by and making electrical connec
tion with the inner end of the casin g, means for electrically
insulating the member from the casing comprising an
electrically insulating sleeve surrounding the elongated
Meyer ________________ __ Jan. 2, 1917
Wiegand ______________ __ Sept. 9, 1941
Smits _______________ __ Oct. 23, 1951
Parker ______________ __ Nov. 13, 1951
Tognola _______ __'____ __ July 27, 1954
Masom _____________ __ Nov. 11, 1958
Great Britain __________ .__ Mar. 8, 1949
Great Britain _________ .__ Apr. 20, 1949
Great Britain ______ _._'___ Oct. 19, 1955
?Lodge I'gniters for Gas Turbines,? published in the Oil
Engine and Gas Turbine, March 1955, pp. 435 and 436,
member Within the casing, the casing having a counter 35 copy in Div. 118.
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