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Патент USA US3088413

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May 7, 1963
Filed May 26; 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet J.
BY 9.72m
May 7, 1963
Filed May 26, 1959
3 She'ets-Sheet 2
May 7, 1963
Filed May 26, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet s
BY 49. @m
17/63 M
'1 in
Patented May 7, 1963
James 'I'. Bartling, Orville J. Saholt, and Bernard Smith,
China Lake, tl‘alitl, assignors to the United States of
America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
Filed May 26, 1959, Ser. No. 816,033
2 (Ilaims. (€i. 1ii2—7)
(Granted under Title 35, U.S. Code (1952), see. 266)
safely reduced water-entry speed, thus avoiding malfunc
tion problems which would otherwise be occasioned by
high-speed water impact forces.
While the particular weapon as reduced to practice and
as described in the said copending application has been
entirely satisfactory as a prototype structure to demon
strate feasibility and operativeness of the basic invention,
novel improvements in accordance with the present inven
tion have made it possible to provide a service weapon
The invention described herein may be manufactured 10 presenting both simpli?cation in structure and greater re
and used by or for the Government of the United States
liability and effectiveness in operation.
of America for governmental purposes without the pay
Primary objects of the present invention, therefore, are
ment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
to provide improvements in an anti-submarine weapon,
This invention relates to ordnance equipment and more
of the hybrid type which effects high-speed above-water
particularly to improvements in a hybrid missile of the 15 delivery of an anti-submarine payload to a suspect target
type having a high-speed ballistic air?ight phase but de
area, which simplify the weapon as to structure, assembly
livering a payload anti-submarine apparatus at safely re
and reliability thereof.
duced water-entry speed.
It is of course the immediate purpose of anti-submarine
Further objects of the invention are to provide improve
ments in such an anti-submarine weapon which extend
operations to effect delivery and detonation of explosive 20 the maximum range and which reduce ballistic dispersion
charges within lethal distance of the enemy submarine
of the weapon.
under attack. Of present interest in such respect are the
These and other objects and many of the attendant ad
shipborne anti-submarine weapons of prior art homing
vantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as
torpedo type, these being launched from tubes, or cata
the same becomes better understood by reference to the
pulted into the water a short distance from the ship, such 25 following detailed description when considered in con
weapons in any event being characterized by an entirely
nection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
or principally underwater mode of transport to the sus
FIG. 1 depicts diagrammatically and in general man
pect target area. It might seem that such anti-submarine
ner the aboveawater operational characteristics of the
homing weapons would be particularly e?icacious at all
anti-submarine weapon which the present invention con
times because of their target-seeking, pursuing and attack
capabilities. Homing torpedoes nevertheless present limi
FIG. 2 illustrates the overall con?guration of the im
tations which are bound to seriously reduce their eifec
proved weapon and the stationing of certain components
tiveness in certain tactical situations likely to be encoun
tered in actual sea warfare. Speci?cally, an enemy sub
FIG. 3 illustrates certain details of the airframe and
marine can be expected to approach a target ship closely 35 of the torpedo and rocket motor carried thereby;
enough to place it within range of torpedoes carried by
FIG. 4 is a view of the lower half of the bivalvular
the submarine, but not so closely as to place itself within
airframe taken along line 4—4 in FIG. 3;
easy reach of depth charges or homing torpedoes carried
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of the upper half of the
by that target ship or by escort destroyers or other war
bivalvular airframe taken along line 5—5 in FIG. 3;
ships. Prior art shipborne anti-submarine torpedoes are
FIG. 6 illustrates in perspective a separation ?re con
at an immediate disadvantage under such circumstances,
trol assembly as mounted in one of the upper rib mem
since the range at which a homing torpedo can detect the
bers of the airframe;
presence and direction of a target submarine is no more
FIG. 7 details the manner in which one of the thrust
than a small fraction of the stand-off range from which
lug members secured to the airframe engages in a recess
a submarine can ?re its spread of torpedoes. In an
provided in the payload torpedo;
attempt to overcome this difficulty, advanced types of
FIG. 8 is a schematic circuit diagram of the separation
ship-launched anti-submarine torpedoes have been de
signed to ?rst proceed along a predetermined course to
?re control assembly; and
FIG. 9 details the banding and cabling arrangement
ward the suspect area, then to enter some type of scan
which severably secures the airframe to its payload tor
ning search for the target, followed by switchover to a 50 pedo.
homing and pursuit phase if and when the target sub
Referring ?rst to FIG. 1 of the drawing, there is shown
marine is in fact detected. Despite such automatized
diagrammatically the anti-submarine weapon 15 of the
sophistication of modern anti-submarine homing torpe
present invention and, in general manner, its air?ight
does, they will not have good kill probability when em 55 path and the sequence of events therealong which lead to
ployed by vessels under circumstances as indicated above,
delivery of the weapon’s payload 16 to the suspect water
due to inherent limitations of the torpedo itself as to
area at a safely reduced water-entry speed.
speed, total range and target detection range, but particu
later in greater detail, the weapon 15 comprises an air
larly as to relatively long swim-out time which will gen
frame 17, the payload 16 extending from the forward
erally enable the target submarine to have escaped from 60 end of the airframe and severably joined thereto, reac
tion propulsion means 18 which is preferably a rocket
the target detection ?eld of the ship-launched torpedoes
motor carried in the stern portion of airframe 17, means
by the time they arrive at the originally suspect area.
for separating the airframe from the payload at a prede
It has now been made possible to overcome this serious
termined instant after launching, a parachute pack secured
di?iculty to some extent by use of an anti-submarine
to the stem end of the payload and arranged to deploy
weapon of the type disclosed in the copending and com
immediately after airframe separation, and a parachute
monly assigned US. patent application entitled “Missile,”
coupling release mechanism 20 which frees the payload
S.N. 790,976, ?led February 3, 1959, by H. G. Johnson
from the parachute at water-entry.
and H. Silk. Basically, such a weapon greatly reduces
impelled by rocket propulsion, the weapon 15 projects
the delivery time by rocket-launching itself from say a
itself from any suitable launcher (not shown), carried by
destroyer or other Warship to travel at high speed above 70 say a destroyer or other warship 21, which may be
water toward a suspect target area, yet operates further
trained at an angle of substantially 45° to provide maxi
to deliver its anti-submarine payload to that area at a
mum range capability.
The weapon pursues an essen_
tially ballistic trajectory 22 at relatively high speed until,
say at a point 23 which is reached at a predetermined and
preselected instant associated with the particular range
desired, explosive separation devices carried by the Weapon
are detonated to rupture a banding arrangement and to
thus release hinged members 24 of the airframe from
engagement with the payload 16. The hinged members
then open away from the payload, and in so doing serve
as airbrakes to retard the airframe assembly relative to
the payload. In the course of such retardation, a para 10
chute-opening lanyard, extending from the packed para
chute and secured to the airframe, comes under tension
and breaks as the parachute canopy 27 pulls out, the air
frame then breaking apart at the rear hinge structure
of its hinged members 24 and tumbling free as indicated,
these events taking place in a rapid sequence lasting only
a fraction of a second as measured from the detonation
instant. Upon deployment of parachute 27, the payload
16 continues its air?ight along a non-ballistic path to
ward the suspect area, the payload descending at an in
creasingly steep angle, as indicated, but with decrease
in speed to a safe water-entry value because of parachute
drag. At water entry of the payload 16, the reduction in
pull force then experienced by the shroud lines 28 causes
the coupling mechanism 20 to unlock, releasing the para
chute ‘27 and enabling the payload 16 to proceed unim
peded in its underwater phase of attack against the target
submarine 29.
In view of the foregoing and as has also been indi
as indicated in FIG. 2 and detailed in FIGS. 4 and 6‘.
The thrust lugs mate with scalloped recesses 36 provided
in thickened shell portions of torpedo 16 as best indicated
in FIGS. 2 and 7. The payload torpedo 16 is further
centered and maintained in substantial alignment with the
airframe by means of pad members 37, as shown in a
cutaway ‘section at the left in FIG. 3, these pad mem~
bers in this instance being conveniently secured to the
rib members 32 as detailed in FIG. 4.
It will be understood that the payload torpedo 16 may
be conventional in all respects except for adaptive modi
?cation to engage with the airframe, for example as in
the illustrated instance wherein the scalloped recesses 36
in the torpedo shell are shaped to coact with the thrust
lugs of members 35, in this instance providing a wedg
ing action to securely clamp the payload torpedo with
in the airframe between the thrust lugs and pad mem
bers 37, and in alignment with the thrust axis of the air
frame. By way of example of typical payloads, the tor
pedo may if desired be of type which is self-energizing by
means of depth-responsive hydrostat switch assemblies
which control propulsive, electronic, steering or other
circuits when the torpedo has reached a depth of say l8
feet after water-entry, or of other type wherein circuits
may be energized, at some instant prior to water entry,
by a timing mechanism or by any other means conven
tionally employed. Thus, in the event the torpedo is of
type requiring that pull-wires be withdrawn from vari
ous devices therein, prior to water entry, this would of
cated in the previously mentioned copending application, 30 course be easily accommodated by anchoring the said
pull wires directly or through lanyards to the airframe as
it will be understood that any operational system in which
sembly 17. It may also be noted at this point that tor
the anti-submarine weapon disclosed herein would be
pedo shell-mounted devices, such as the electrical connec
tor member 38 shown in FIG. 3, or any element carried
termine target direction and range information, such
that a separation timing circuit in the weapon itself and 35 within the bivalvular airframe, may be made readily ac
cessible as sometimes required for test, adjustment or
the training direction of the Weapon launcher may be suit
other purposes, simply by providing a window or other
ably =set to result in delivery of the Weapon to the
cut-away in the airframe shell as indicated.
suspect or predicted target area. This presetting may be
Where the torpedo happens to be of type having large
accomplished simply by operator control before launch
ing; in its most advanced version, such a system may 40 elevator ?ns 40‘ which are slightly skewed, as sometimes
employed must of course function to detect and to de
be fully automatized to continuously provide train
ing orders for the weapon launcher, and timing orders for
the weapon itself, so that the weapon is always suitably
employed with single-propeller torpedoes for underwater
heel correction, air?ight stability of the weapon can be
improved by use of aligned fairing vanes 41 secured to the
hinged members 24 and arranged to enclose the skewed
set and ready to be ?red at any instant in the period dur
ing which the launching vessel is at suitable position and 45 ?ns 40. Where the ?ns are not skewed, for example the
rudder ?ns 42 in FIGS. 2 and 3, airframe 17 is simply
range relative to the target submarine to be attacked.
provided with slit windows 43 through which ?ns 42 pro
Further description of the several elements of a com
trude, providing additional air?ight stability.
plete system, however, is not included herein since the
As indicated in FIGS. 2 and 3, rocket motor 18 is
system may be entirely conventional and since details
thereof are unnecessary to an understanding of the present 50 secured to the lower bivalvate member 32, by one or
more straps 44 having \any suitable clamping or tighten
invention which is concerned with improvements in the
ing means (not shown). The rocket motor is of course
weapon per se. It should also be understood that the
supported and maintained in aligned position, as by means
representation in FIG. 1 is simply schematic, and that
of pad members (not shown) similar to those provided
the anti-submarine weapon 15 therein is shown in exag
55 for the payload torpedo, or by adjustable pad members
gerated relative size for ease of illustration.
where this may appear desirable, and further by means
Referring now to FIG. 2 which illustrates the con?gu
of an arcuate transverse rib 45 secured to the lower hinged
ration of the improved hybrid weapon 15 and the sta
member 24 and having a ?ange which mates with an an
tioning of certain components therealong, and to FIG. 3
nular groove provided near the forward end of the
which illustrates in greater detail the airframe and the
manner in which it severably clamps against the anti 60 rocket motor, as shown. A like ‘mating arcuate trans
verse rib (not shown) is secured to the upper hinged
submarine payload, the airframe 17 is essentially a bi
member '24, these transverse ribs thus serving to restrain
valvular structure comprising a pair of semi-cylindrical
the rocket motor against displacement along the airframe
shells 24 which are strengthened against distortion under
17. Additional arcuate transverse ribs may be employed
bending moments and compressive thrust forces by means
of rib members 32, these rib members in this instance 65 to improve rigidity of the semi-cylindrical shells 24 of
extending beyond the bivalvular shells 24 as best shown in
the airframe.
In order to improve stability and to reduce ballistic dis
FIG. 3. Opposed arcuate bail members 33 are pivotally
joined at their ends, as by short bolt means 34, and are
persion of the weapon 15, the airframe is provided with
secured to the rear extremities of rib members 32 to
a cruciform arrangement of ?ns 50 which may conven
serve as hinging means for'the bivalvular airframe. When 70 iently be secured to the rib members 32 as best shown in
closed against the payload, and so maintained by a band
FIGS. 3 and 5. Also conveniently carried in the rib mem
ing and cabling arrangement as later described, the hinged
bers 32 of the upper hinged member 24, for example at
members 24 grasp the payload, in this instance a homing
stations to bear against the forward portion of rocket
torpedo, by means of thrust lug members 35 which are
motor 18 as indicated by FIGS. 3 and 5, are ejection
secured to the rib members 32 at their forward extremities 75
springs 51 which are under compression to insure opening
separation ‘fire control assemblies are properly mounted
of the airframe when the banding arrangement is severed
in place within the upper rib members 32 as indicated in
at the separation instant.
FIG. 6, the explosion-directing slits 77 are positioned to
The present weapon includes a packed parachute which
face directly against the separation strap 60‘ which passes
comes into play to decelerate the payload torpedo 16‘ after
across windowed regions provided in the rib members
airframe separation, and a parachute coupling release
32 as also shown in FIG. 6.
mechanism 54 for jettisoning the parachute upon water
The separation ?re control assemblies 75 may of course
impact of the torepdo. As in the previously-mentioned
be designed to carry any desired type of separation ?re
copending application, these may be of any suitable type
control means adapted to provide an adjustable predeter
normally intended for use with aircraft-launched torpe 10 mined delay between the weapon launch instant and the
does. While thus conventional and not further detailed,
instant at which ‘the explosive charges are ?red to sep
it may be noted that in the particular embodiment illus
arate the airframe from the payload torpedo. These as
trated in FIG. 2, coupling mechanism 54 is to be under
semblies 75 may consist of entirely conventional ele
stood as threadedly engaging a stub extension of the pro—
ments, such as those briefly described in connection with
peller shaft upon which propeller hub 55 is mounted, and 15 a typical ?re control circuit as given in FIG. 8, wherein
that it is secured to the canister 56 from which the para
chute later deploys and to which its shroud lines are
anchored. It will also be understood that for the pur
pose of extracting the packed parachute 27 from its can
the separation ?re control assembly 75 begins charging
sides of the lower hinged member 24, facilitating assem
bly and tensioning of the strap and cable arrangement.
forming part of a conventional acceleration-responsive
device 87, preferably of the type which does not close its
arming switch 86 until the weapon experiences a sustained
acceleration, say 10 G for a period of 1 second, which
values are normally exceeded in the described embodi
ment. Capacitor 80 then charges to substantially the
voltage delivered by source 88, charging resistor 89- being
40 of very low ohmage compared to the protective bleeder
capacitor 80 very soon after the weapon is launched, and
at a later instant closes switch 81 to complete the electrical
circuit between capacitor 80 and primer 82 of the ex
ister 56 when the airframe separates from the payload 20 plosive charge. Switch 81 here forms part of and is con
torpedo as has been described, the parachute static line
trolled by a timing device 83 such as employed for ?are
or lanyard 57 is anchored by any suitable means to the
fuzes, generally of clock-escapement type adapted to be
lower bivalve member 24.
pre-set to effect its switch-closing operation at any desired
Until released at a predetermined and prescribed in
time-interval after release of the escapement mechanism
stant during airflight of the weapon, the bivalvate mem 25 to initiate its timing function. Such release may be accom
bers 24 are ?rmly secured in clamping engagement with
plished by the simple yet effective conventional arrange
both the payload torpedo 16 and rocket motor 18 by
ment which employs an escapement-unlocking pull-wire
means of the separation strap and cable system shown in
84 as indicated in FIGS. 3 and 6, in this instance operated
FIG. 3. As detailed in FIG. 9, separation strap 60, side
at missile-launching by means of a lanyard 85 anchored
cables 61 and overhead cable 62 terminate in ?ttings
to the launcher (not shown). As a safety measure, the
which engage slots in crank members 63 and 64 at both
capacitor charging circuit includes an arming switch 86
Crank members 63 and 64 are pivotally secured to the
lower hinged member 24, as by means of bolts 65 thread
edly engaging crank blocks (not shown) or other thicken
ing means secured to the said hinged member. Stop pins
66, provided as shown for the forward crank members
63 and secured to the airframe, enable the strap 60 to be
separately tensioned, by tightening nuts 67 of the T-bolts
resistor 90.
68 against the upper arms 69 of crank members 63, and
The circuit element values are not critical
but, by way of example, capacitor 80 may have a value of
to thus develop considerably greater clamping force than
2 microfarads, charging resistor 89 may be 0.1 megohm,
is required for the overhead cable 62. Overhead cable
bleeder resistor 90 may be 44 megohms, and source 88
62 may be terminated simply with ball ?ttings as indi
may deliver 90 volts to the charging circuit.
cated to engage against the upper arms 70 of aft crank 45
The weapon is of course ?red by applying ignition
members 64-, and one end of each of the remaining side
voltage, as required to detonate an igniter charge carried
cables 61 terminates in a threaded bolt ?tting 71 to
‘by the rocket motor igniter assembly 92, to an electrical
provide means for placing the cables under tension and
connector 93 which is mounted upon the lower hinged
thus securely binding the hinged members together at the
member of the airframe structure and which connects to
forward end of rocket motor 18.
the igniter assembly as indicated in FIG. 3, this connector
being of any conventional tape adapted to mate with a
Further strengthening of the airframe against distor
tions which would arise from relative movement of the
hinged members 24 under in?uence of bending moments
experienced by the weapon, is provided by means of shear
breakaway connector (not shown) having cabling which
is associated with the launching apparatus and through
which the ignition voltage is supplied.
resisting structures at the forward portions of the hinged
As in the earliest version of this type of anti-submarine
members. In the particular embodiment illustrated in
weapon as described in the previously mentioned copend
FIG. 3, pairs of alignment blocks 72 are secured to each
ing application, rocket motor 18 may be of conventional
side of the hinged members 24, one of these blocks 72
IATO type ordinarily used for boosting aircraft power and
in each pair carrying a shear-resisting pin and the other
60 acceleration at take-off, these rocket motors being avail
having a matching bore therein, positioned to accept the
able with various burning time and total impulse char
said pins during assembly of the bivalvular airframe.
acteristics such that a suitable selection can be made to
Referring now to the separation ?re control and strap
provide a desired maximum range for the weapon. Such
rupturing means employed to release the hinged mem
range is principally dependent upon the thrust and impulse
bers 24, these are provided as duplicate assemblies in each
65 characteristics of the rocket motor, the weight of the
weapon 15 to reduce possibility of malfunction as to
complete weapon, and the drag of the weapon prior to
airframe separation, and again are very conveniently
separation time. In addition to ‘other advantages, the
mounted in the upper rib members 32, at the forward ends
structure improvements as disclosed make possible a sig
thereof as indicated in FIG. 3. Each of the unitary as
ni?cant reduction in the total weight of the weapon and
semblies 75, external appearance thereof shown in FIG. 6, 70 correspondingly provides considerably greater maximum
in this instance carries both the separation ?re control
range capability for the weapon using any given rocket
apparatus and an explosive block 76, the latter being pro
motor. As a speci?c example based upon the particular
vided as an insert unit to facilitate entry and wiring of
embodiment here described, employment of a JATO unit
an electrical primer type of explosive charge, and having
weighing approximately 130 pounds and designed to de
an explosion-directing slit 77 formed therein. When the 75 liver about l3,000' lb.-secs. total impulse over a period of
1.8 seconds, and a payload torpedo and other components,
as described, which bring the total weight to approximate
ly 560 pounds, provides a maximum safe-delivery range
of approximately 4000 yards, the separation time in this
instance being 23 seconds and the delivery time being
about 39 seconds.
Intermediate ranges are of course
at their aft ends, means clamping said shell structures
against said payload apparatus and in thrust association
therewith, and shear-resisting means releasably mating
said shell structures near the forward portions thereof,
said shear-resisting means comprising a pair of alignment
blocks secured to the contiguous sides of said bivalvular
members respectively, one of the blocks in each pair car
obtained by presetting the weapon for earlier separation
rying a shear-resisting pin, and the other block in said
times, a range of approximately 2100 yards for the de
pair having a matching bore in which said pin is received.
scribed embodiment, for example, being obtained by
2. In an anti-submarine weapon comprising a payload
imposing a separation time of 10‘ seconds.
apparatus effective to operate against a submerged target
It will now be understood that the anti-submarine weap
submarine when delivered to a suspect water area, and
on 15 as described presents signi?cant and novel improve
an airframe of generally tubular con?guration severably
ments in structure which reduce its weight, simplify its
joined to said payload apparatus, extending rearwardly
manufacture and assembly, extend its maximum range
capability with a rocket motor of any given total impulse, 15 therefrom and carrying reaction propulsion means opera
tive to project said weapon into a ballistic trajectory
and further provide a strengthened and cleaner aero
directed toward said suspect water area, in combination,
dynamic con?guration which increases its accuracy of
the improved structure wherein said tubular airframe is
a bivalvular con?guration, said bivalvular airframe com
It will also be appreciated that while the detailed de
scription of the invention has been given in terms of an 20 prising a pair of semi-cylindrical shell structures hinged
at their aft ends and folded forwardly toward and releasa
embodiment speci?cally employing a conventional homing
bly engaging said payload apparatus, strap means releasa
torpedo as the payload, other types of anti-submarine pay
bly clamping the forward ends of said shell structures
loads may be used, e.g. of depth charge type having
against said payload apparatus, and cabling means binding
extremely high yield and adapted to detonate at a prede
termined instant or at a predetermined depth, details of 25 said shell structures together at a substantially central
station therealong and linked to said strap means for
the particular payload however forming no part of the
therewith, said cabling means being linked to said
present invention.
strap means by means including pivotally mounted crank
Obviously many modi?cations and variations of the
present invention are possible in the light of the above
teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within 30
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
the scope of the appended claims the invention may be
practiced otherwise than as speci?cally described.
What is claimed is:
Wiley _______________ __ Apr. 16, 1929
1. In an anti-submarine weapon comprising a payload
Leland ______________ __ Nov. 20, 1945
apparatus effective to operate against a submerged target 35 2,389,202
submarine when delivered to a suspect water area, and
an airframe of generally tubular con?guration severably
joined to said payload apparatus, extending rearwardly
Short _______________ __ May 24, 1949
Smythe ______________ __ Jan. 30, 1951
Montgomery __________ __ Aug. 13, 1957
therefrom and carrying reaction propulsion means opera
tive to project said weapon into a ballistic trajectory 40
page 115, March 1943. Copy in
directed toward said suspect water area, in combination,
Div. 10 and Scienti?c Library.
the improved structure wherein said tubular airframe is
“Aviation Week,” vol. 68, No. 8, February 24, 1958,
of bivalvular con?guration, said bivalvular airframe com
pp. 56, 57. Copy in Scienti?c Library and Div. 10.
prising a pair of semi-cylindrical shell structures hinged
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