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Патент USA US3088714

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May 7, 1963
1'. ONGARO
3,088,698
vmzcm. CA'I'APULT FOR MISSILES
Filed Aug. 16. 1960
In
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11
3 Sheets-Sheet J.
l
1111
INVENTOR.
Waaaee owmeo
BY
May 7, 1963
'r. ONGARO
3,088,698
VERTICAL CATAPULT FOR MISSILES
Filed Aug. 16. 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
IN VEN TOR.
72/(aoafe‘ 01/0440
0/44/Mf' 140 1642416
May 7, 1963
T. QNGARQ
3,088,698
VERTICAL CATAPULT FOR MISSILES
Filed Aug. 16, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
26
INVENTOR.
rr/fowze amp/e0
-—
BY
3?88£98
rates Fatent @ihee
Patented May 7, 1963
l
2
3,ilh‘8,698
of any suitable construction but are preferably skeletal
VERTICAL CA'I‘APULT FUR MIS§HES
in nature and are suitably joined together by members
7 to form a rigid and sturdy structure. A number of
guy cables 8 may be provided for retaining the tower in
proper position.
The launching tower is provided with a number of
This invention relates to vertical catapults and more
pulley systems, preferably one for each supporting struc—
particularly relates to a vertical catapult for launching
ture and one of these is illustrated in enlarged form in
missiles and the like.
FIGURE 4. In this ?gure, a double pulley 10' is sup
Of the many considerations involved in achieving a 10 ported at the top of the tower by any suitable means
successful missile launching, perhaps the most important
such as a shaft 11 and bearing 12. A pair of single
is the relation of the weight of the payload to the total
pulleys 14 and 16 are located at the base of the tower
Weight of the missile. A balance must always be reached
and are mounted for rotation in any suitable manner,
between the weight of the payload, made up, for example,
for example on bearings 18 and 20 and shafts 21 and
of instruments, and the weight of the propellant which 15 23. One track of pulley 10 and pullley 14 are inter
makes up the major portion of the remaining weight of
connected by a closed loop cable 22 carrying a shock
the missile. Without suf?cient instrumentation the mis
coupling 24 and a lifting pad 26 which is located or
sile cannot be correctly guided nor can it perform its
clamped on the cable at a position halfway around the
appointed task; without sufficient propellant the missile
cable loop from the coupling 24. Due to this relative
is unable to span its desired range. It has been found
positioning of the coupling and the lifting pad, the cou
that a high percentage of the propellant must be ex
pling is at the uppermost point on one of the straight
pended to overcome the initial inertia of the rocket
segments of the loop when the lifting pad is at the lower
caused by the force of gravity. ‘Once the missile is off
most point on the other straight segment of the loop
the ground and has achieved some slight velocity, the
as seen in FIGURE 4.
propellant is much more effective and ef?cient in achiev 25
A shock arrester or absorber 28 is arranged about the
ing distance per unit weight of propellant.
cable 22 for shock arresting engagement with the shock
According to the present invention, it has been found
arrester 28 when the lifting pad 26 nears the uppermost
that a missile can be given an initial velocity without
portion of its straight segment of the loop.
Theodore Ougaro, 2303 Ahington Road, (Jolurnhus, Ohio
Filed Aug. 16, 19nd, Ser- No. 49,936
10 Claims. (Cl. 244-63)
the consumption of any of its propellant, thereby allow
Referring to FIGURE 5, which shows the lower pulley
ing the same amount of propellant to drive the missile
14, the lifting pad 26 also clamps a second cable 30 which
farther than could previously be achieved, or, conversely,
extends upwardly and over the second groove in the
enabling the missile to be driven the same distance with
upper double pulley 14}. As shown in FIGURES 5 and
a larger payload.
7, the lifting pad 26 preferably consists of two metal
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide
sections 27 and 29, one of which is formed with a hori
35
apparatus to impart an initial velocity to a missile.
zontal flange 32 which serves as the lifting surface. The
It is a vfurther object of this invention to provide ap
two sections 27 and 29 are joined together in any suitable
paratus for imparting an initial velocity to a missile with
out drawing on any of the propellant carried by the
missile.
manner, such as by screw and nut assemblies, so as to
?rmly grasp the cables 22 and 30’. The lifting pad 26
40 is also provided with a plurality of wheels 34 that co
It is a still further object of this invention to utilize
operate with guides 36 which extend up along the sup
the force of gravity ‘for launching a missile.
porting structure 6.
It is another object of this invention to provide ap
Referring again to FIGURE 4, the capable 30 is
paratus for overcoming the inertia of a body by utilizing
passed around the second groove of the upper pulley
the force of ‘gravity acting on another body.
45 10 and thence beneath the lower pulley 16. While the
It is 1a further object of this invention to provide launch
pulley 16 is illustrated as being laterally offset from the
ing apparatus for ‘a missile.
axes of pulleys 10‘ and 14- this is for purpose of clarity
These and ‘further objects and advantages of the in
only and this pulley axis would ordinarily be quite close
vention will become more apparent upon reference to the
to a vertical line through the axes of pulleys 10 and 14.
following speci?cation, appended claims and drawings,
wherein:
50 It can be seen from this arrangement that when a down
ward force is exerted on the cable 30, the lifting pad 26
will be lifted or moved toward its uppermost position,
paratus constructed according to the present invention;
while the coupling 24 is drawn down into contact with
FIGURE 2 is a view taken partly in section along the
the shock arrester 28. While only one pulley system
line 2——2 of FIGURE 1;
55 is illustrated in FIGURE 4, it will be recalled that it
FIGURE 3 is a view in section taken along line 3—3
was previously stated that one such system is preferably
in FIGURE 2;
provided for each support section 6.
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged view of the pulley system
Referring again to FIGURE 1, the force tower 38' may
used in the launching apparatus of FIGURE 1;
be of any suitable structural arrangement and is pro
FIGURE 5 is a view taken along line 5—5 of FIG 60 vided at its top with a number of pulleys 40 correspond
URE 4;
ing in number to the pulleys 10‘ at the top of the catapult
FIGURE 6 is a view taken along line 6-6 of FIGURE
tower 4. A like number of pulleys 42 is also provided
1; ‘and
at the base of the force tower.
FIGURE 7 is a view partly in section taken along line
The cable 30 after passing beneath the lower pulley
7-—7 of FIGURE 5.
16 at the base of the catapult tower proceeds across be
Referring now to the several ‘?gures, and in particular
neath a suitable one of the lower pulleys 42 and thence
to FIGURE 1, there is shown a launching apparatus
upwardly to a corresponding upper pulley 40‘. After
generally indicated at 1 which comprises a catapult tower
being crossed over this pulley, the cable is ?xedly at
4 and a force tower 38. The missile 2 to be launched
tached to the inner cylindrical wall 41 of an annular
is nested in position in the catapult tower 4 which is made 70 tank 44 at a point 46'. The inner wall 41 surrounds the
up of any desired number of structure supports 6, shown
tower 38 in such a manner as to be slidable thereover.
in greater detail in FIGURE 6. These supports may be
FIGURES 2 and 3 show the tank 44 in greater detail.
FIGURE 1 is a front elevation View of launching ap
3,088,698
3
As can be seen from these ?gures the tank is arranged
annularly around the tower 38 and is comprised of the
inner cylindrical wall 41, an outer cylindrical wall 43
and a bottom 45.
The bottom 45 is provided with a
number of holes or openings 48 and the tank is provided
with a suitable plastic liner 50 to prevent ?uid from
Al
the appended claims rather than by the foregoing de
scription, and all changes which come within the mean
ing and range of equivalency of the claims are there
fore intended to be embraced therein.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by the
United States Letters Patent is:
1. Missile launching apparatus comprising, a launching
escaping through these openings. Further openings 47
tower, a ?rst pulley means associated with said launching
are provided in the outer cylindrical wall 43.
tower, a second pulley means associated with said launch
Referring again to FIGURE 1, it may be seen that a
circular open top tank 52 is provided around the base 10 ing tower, ?rst closed loop cable means operatively con
necting said ?rst and second pulley means, means asso
of the force tower 38 and has mounted therein a heavy
ciated with said ?rst closed loop cable means adapted
anvil structure 319. Anvil structure 39 has mounted in
to impart a force to the missile to be launched, a third
the upper surface thereof a series of upwardly extending
pulley means associated with said launching tower, a force
spindles 56 correspond in number and position to the
holes 48 in the bottom 45 of the tank 44. A supply 15 tower, force developing means movably associated with
said force tower, second cable means connected to said
pipe 58 and a pumping station 60 are provided for ?ll~
force developing means and associated with fourth pulley
ing the tank 44 with ?uid stored in the tank 52.
means for raising said force developing means relative
The operation of the apparatus described above will
to said force tower, means for releasing the kinetic energy
now be discussed. The tank 44 is raised by any suitable
means such as a puller 35 engaging the pad 26. A mis 20 of said movable means as it approaches the lower end
of its path of motion, said second cable means being
sile 2 is placed in the catapult tower 4 so that protrud
operatively associated with said third pulley means and
ing sections 62 of the missile rest on the ?anges 32 of
said second pulley means so as to transmit forces de
the lifting pads 26 in the manner shown in FIGURE 4.
veloped by said force developing means to said means
At this time, the tank 44 is secured at the top of the
force tower 38 by any suitable means such as releasable 25 associated with said ?rst closed loop cable means.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the force de
clamp 37 engaging the pad 26. Fluid from the tank
veloping means is a tank adapted to be ?lled with ?uid
52 is now pumped through the pipe 58 and into the
and wherein the force is developed by reason of the
tank 44 under the action of the pumping station 60.
force of gravity causing said tank to be lowered relative
A su?icient amount of ?uid is pumped into the tank 44
so that its total weight is considerably greater than that 30 to said force tower.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the kinetic energy
of the missile 2.
releasing means comprises means for emptying said tank
When it is desired to launch the missile, the tank 44
of said ?uid.
is released by the clamp 37 and the force of gravity causes
4. Apparatus for launching missiles comprising a
it to drop toward its base. Cables 30 are thereupon
35 launching tower for supporting a missile to be launched,
hauled downwardly over pulleys 40 to move the loop
a force tower, force transmitting means passing over
cables 22 in the catapult tower 4 and thereby cause
support means in each of said towers, one end of said
the lifting pads to move upwardly. The tank 44 ac
force transmitting means being adapted to engage a
celerates rapidly due to the force of gravity and this
missile
in said launching tower for imparting accelerat
accelerating force is substantially completely transmitted
through the cable 30 and the lifting pad 26 to the mis
sile. As the tank 44 approaches the bottom of its
travel, the spindles 56 in anvil structure 39 pierce the
plastic liner 50 through the holes 48 in the bottom 45
of tank 44, causing the plastic lining to shatter. In addi
tion the impact bursts the lining immediately over the 45
openings 47 in the outer wall of the tank so that the
?uid contained in the tank is released causing the tank
to lose most all of its kinetic energy.
The ?uid is re
ing forces to said missile, ?uid carrying weight means
secured to the other end of said force transmitting means,
means for suspending said weight above the base of said
force tower, and means for releasing said weight whereby
the falling forces of said weight pass by way of said
force transmitting means to said launching tower to
accelerate a missile, said weight including impact respon
ill/1? means for discharging said ?uid at the end of its
a
.
5. Apparatus for launching missiles comprising a
tained in the tank 52.
launching tower for supporting a missile to be launched,
Approximately at the same time that the tank 44 50 a force tower, force transmitting means passing over sup
reaches the bottom of its travel the arrestor coupling
port means in each of said towers, one end of said
24 comes into contact with the shock arrestor 28 which
transmitting means being adapted to engage a missile
acts to slow down and eventually stop the movement of
in said launching tower for imparting accelerating forces
the loop cable 22, thus preventing the lifting pad 26 55 to said missile, ?uid carrying weight means secured to
from coming into contact with the pulley 10. At this
the other end of said force transmitting means, means
time, the missile 2 is catapulted out of the launching
to raise said ?uid carrying means while no ?uid is located
tower and, with towers of practical height may be given
therein to a position above the base of said force tower,
a vertical velocity of about 100‘ feet per second.
means for suspending said weight in said raised position,
By the apparatus described above, it can be seen that
60 means for ?lling said weight means with a ?uid, and
an initial velocity can be imparted to a missile without
means for releasing said weight whereby the falling forces
the need of consuming any of its propellant. By the
of said weight pass by way of said force transmitting
use of the apparatus described, the force of gravity act
means to said launching tower to accelerate a missile.
ing on one body can be transmitted through a cable sys
6. Apparatus for launching missiles comprising a ver
tem and applied to the missile, thus catapulting it from 65 tical launching tower for supporting a propellant burning
the ground. In this manner, greater ef?ciency of the
missile to be launched, a force tower, force transmitting
missile can be achieved by providing it with either greater
means passing over support means in each of said towers,
range for a given amount of propellant or a greater pay
one end of said force transmitting means being adapted
load for the same range attained by comparable present
to engage a missile in said launching tower for imparting
missile launching system.
70 accelerating forces to said missile, ?uid carrying weight
The invention may be embodied in other speci?c forms
means secured to the other end of said force transmitting
without departing from the spirit or essential characteris
means, means to raise said weight means while no ?uid
tics thereof. The present embodiment is therefore to
is located therein to a position above the base of said
force tower, means for suspending said weight in said
be considered in all respects as illustrative and not re
strictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by 75 raised position, means for ?lling said suspended weight
5
3,088,698
means with a ?uid, and means for releasing said weight
whereby the falling forces of said weight pass by way
6
path of motion, said second cable means being opera
tively associated with said third pulley means and said
of said force transmitting means to said launching tower
second pulley means so as to transmit forces developed
to accelerate a missile, said weight including impact re
by said ‘force developing means to said ?rst means asso
sponsive means for discharging said ?uid at the end of 5 ciated with said closed loop cable means.
its fall.
8. Missile launching apparatus according to claim 7
7. Missile launching apparatus comprising, a launch
wherein, shock absorbing means is located on said closed
ing tower, ?rst pulley means associated with said launch
loop cable means to prevent the said ?rst means asso
ing tower, second pulley means associated with said
launching tower, closed loop cable means operatively 10 ciated with said closed loop cable from coming in con
tact with said ?rst and second pulley means.
connecting said ?rst and second pulley means, ?rst means
9. Missile launching apparatus according to claim 7
associated with said closed loop cable means adapted to
wherein, said means for rupturing said membrane is a
impart a force to the missile to be launched, ‘third pulley
spiked surface located at the base of said force tower.
means associated with said launching tower, a force
10. Missile launching apparatus according to claim 7
tower, force developing tank means adapted to be ?lled 15
with a ?uid associated with said force tower, said tank
wherein, second tank means is so located in relation to
means being of a porous construction, a rupturable mem
the force tower as to receive and retain the fluid released
brane which is adapted to retain the ?uid within said
by said ?rst tank.
porous tank means substantially covering the inner sur
face of the tank, second cable means connected to said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
force developing means and associated with fourth pulley
UNITED STATES PATENTS
means for raising said force developing tank means rela~
975,953
Hourwich ___________ __ Nov. 15, 1910
tive to said force tower, means for rupturing said mem
2,672,306
Doolittle et al ________ __ Mar. 16, 1954
brane thereby releasing the kinetic energy of said mov
able tank means as it approaches the lower end of its 25 2,763,447
Carrau _____________ __ Sept. 18, 1956
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