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Патент USA US3088787

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May 7, 1963
E. R. ALLER
3,088,777
APPARATUS FOR STORING GRANULAR MATERIAL
Filed Sept. 26, 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG.1
INVENTOR.
Edmund H. Al/er
BY
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May 7, 1963
E. R. ALLER
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APPARATUS FOR STORING GRANULAR MATERIAL
Filed Sept. 26, 1961
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May 7, 1-963
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May 7, 1963
E. R. ALLER
3,088,777
APPARATUS FOR STORING GRANULAR MATERIAL
Filed Sept. 26, 1961
5 Sheets-51169125
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INVENTQR.
Edmund H. Al/er
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Ute States Patent
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3,088,777
Patented May 7, 1963
1
2
3,088,777
unloading the granular material from the storage hopper
through the casing, the intermediate section of the tube
being disposed within the casing and having a valve port
APPARATUS FOR STORING GRANULAR
MATERIAL
Edmund R. Aller, Portage, Ind., assignor to General
American Transportation Corporation, Chicago, 111., a
corporation of New York
.
Filed Sept. 26, 1961, Ser. No. 140,936
11 (Ilaims. (Cl. 302-52)
The present invention relates to apparatus for storing
granular material, and more particularly to such apparatus
incorporated in railway hopper cars for storing and trans
porting such granular material of the character of that
disclosed in the copending application of Edmund R.
Aller, Serial No. 85,912, ?led January 30, 1961.
It is a general object of the invention to provide in
provided in the bottom thereof, a valve element arranged
in the bottom of the casing below the valve port and
cooperating therewith, whereby the interior of the tube is
in communication with the lower portion of the casing
when the valve element occupies its open position with
respect to the valve port and the interior of the tube is
cut-oil from communication with the lower portion of the
casing when the valve element occupies its closed posi
tion with respect to the valve port, and actuating means
for selectively operating the valve element between its
open and closed positions with respect to the valve port,
15 wherein the valve element is biased into its open position
with respect to the valve port so long as there is granular
apparatus for storing ?nely divided or granular material,
such, for example, as flour, malt, plastic resin beads, or
the like, an improved and simpli?ed pneumatic unloading
material in the storage hopper, and wherein the valve
element is operated by the actuating means into its closed
incorporated in the apparatus may be simultaneously
unloaded through a plurality of bottom discharge outlets
respectively provided therein, without interference with
each other, and without overloading of the unloading
storage hopper has been unloaded therefrom through the
casing and into the tube.
position with respect to the valve port in response to suc
system so that a plurality of individual storage hoppers 20 tion in the tube after all of the granular material in the
A further object of the invention is to provide in appara
tus of the character described, an improved outlet nozzle,
system.
25 wherein the actuating means for selectively operating the
Another object of the invention is to provide in a rail
valve element between its open and closed positions with
way hopper car including a body provided with structure
respect to the associated valve port essentially comprises
de?ning a plurality of storage hoppers therein, an im
a diaphragm disposed in the lower portion of the casing
proved arrangement of a plurality of outlet nozzles re
and operatively connected to the valve element and cooper
spectively carried by the plurality of storage hoppers, and 30 ating with the casing to de?ne a chamber therebelow,
a single conduit system commonly connected to the plural;
wherein the upper side of the diaphragm is subject to the
ity of outlet nozzles and terminating in a pair of ?xtures
pressure in the lower portion of the casing and the lower
respectively disposed at the opposite sides of the body,
side of the diaphragm is subject to the pressure in the
wherein each of the outlet nozzles incorporates automatic
chamber, and wherein a restricted passage is de?ned be
valve mechanism that is normally biased into its open 35 tween the lower portion of the casing and the chamber
position so long as there is grandular material to be un
and having an opening thereinto from the lower portion
loaded in the associated one of the storage hoppers and
of the casing that is located well outwardly from the valve
that is actuated into its closed position in response to sue
port and the valve element, so that the air pressure in the
tion in the associated conduit system after all of the gran
chamber is related to the air pressure in the lower portion
ular material in the associated one of the storage hoppers 40 of the casing at the opening into the passage from the
has been unloaded therefrom, and wherein each one of the
lower portion of the casing.
?xtures mentioned may be selectively connected to a sue
A still further object of the invention is to provide in
tion conduit for the unloading purpose, so that the gran
apparatus of the character described, an improved outlet
ular material stores in each of the storage hoppers may
nozzle of the construction set forth, wherein the chamber
be unloaded from the one ?xture, and wherein the other
disposed below the diaphragm is unvented to the outside,
of the ?xtures mentioned may be selectively controlled to
thereby to prevent the possibility of the accumulation of
supply conveying air into the conduit system for the un
foreign materials in the chamber from the outside.
loading purpose.
A further object of the invention is to provide a railway
A still further object of the invention is to provide in
apparatus
of the character described, an improved outlet
hopper car of the character described, wherein each of 50 nozzle of the construction set forth, wherein the restricted
the outlet nozzles includes a casing provided with a bottom
passage between the lower portion of the casing and the
discharge opening therein and an associated bottom cover
chamber is essentially de?ned by porous material that
removably carried by the associated casing so that the
controls the rate of flow of the air therethrough.
granular material may be unloaded by gravity from the
A still further object of the invention is to provide in
associated one of the storage hoppers through the casing 55 apparatus of the character described, an improved outlet
of the outlet nozzle thereof when the bottom cover is re~
nozzle of the construction set forth, wherein the restricted
moved from covering relation with respect to the bottom
passage between the lower portion of the casing and the
discharge opening therein.
chamber is de?ned by a porous plug arranged in an open
A further object of the invention is to provide in appara
ing formed in the diaphragm.
60
tus for storing granular material including structure de?n
Further features of the invention pertain to the arrange~
ing a storage hopper provided with a bottom discharge
ment of the elements of the apparatus, whereby the above
outlet, an improved outlet nozzle comprising a casing
outlined and additional operating features thereof are
carried by the storage hopper and disposed below the
attained.
bottom outlet and communicating therewith, a suction
The invention, both as to its organization and method
tube extending through the lower portion of the casing for,
of operation, together with further objects and advantages
3,088,777
3
4
storage hoppers 42 and 45 are commonly de?ned by the
side walls 21 and 22 and by the dividing walls 27 and
thereof, will best be understood by reference to the fol
lowing speci?cation, taken in connection with the accom
panying drawings, in which:
28 and are separated laterally ‘from each other at the
lower portions thereof by the longitudinally extending
dividing bridge 32 disposed substantially centrally there
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view, partly broken
away, of a railway hopper car embodying the present
between; and the two storage hoppers 43 and '46 are
commonly de?ned by the side walls 21 and 22 and by
FIG. 2 is a plan view, partly broken away, of the
the dividing walls 26‘ and 28 and are separated laterally
railway hopper car shown in FIG. ‘1;
from each other at the lower portions thereof by the
FIG. 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional view, partly
broken away, of the railway hopper car, taken in the 10 longitudinally extending dividing ‘bridge 33 disposed sub
stantially centrally therebetween.
direction of the arrows along the line 3-—3 in FIG. 2.;
Each of the storage hoppers ‘41 to 46, inclusive, is
FIG. 4 is a greatly enlarged ‘fragmentary plan view of
provided with individual bottom wall structure having
one of the outlet nozzles incorporated in the railway hop
the general con?guration of an inverted frusto pyramid
per car, as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, inclusive;
FIG. 5 is a greatly enlarged longitudinal sectional view 15 and terminating in a bottom discharge outlet each car
rying a surrounding substantially rectangular collar. For
of the outlet nozzle, taken in the direction of the arrows
example, as shown in FIG. 3, the downwardly tapered
along the line 5—5 in FIG. 4;
bottom wall structure of the individual storage hopper
FIG. 6 is a greatly enlarged lateral sectional view of
41 terminates in the individual bottom discharge out
the outlet nozzle, taken in the direction of the arrows
20 let 51 that is provided with the individual surround
along the line 6-6 in FIG. 4;
ing substantially rectangular collar 61, and the down
FIG. 7 is a further enlarged fragmentary sectional
wardly tapered bottom wall structure of the individual
view of a constructional detail of the outlet nozzle, taken
storage hopper 44 terminates in the individual bottom
within the circle designated “7” in FIG. 5, and illustrat
discharge outlet 54 that is provided with the individual
ing a porous plug that may be arranged in the diaphragm
invention;
25
incorporated therein;
FIG. -8 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary longitudinal
surrounding substantially rectangular collar 64. In the
arrangement, the bottom discharge outlets 51, etc., of the
individual storage hoppers ‘41, etc., are disposed in a
substantially horizontal common lower plane that is lo
cated well below the center sill 11 of the under-frame
actuating mechanism for the valve element incorporated
30 of the car 10, as shown in FIG. 3; which lower plane is
therein;
positioned appropriately above the associated railway
FIG. 9 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary longitudinal
track 14, as established by the wheels 13 of the trucks
sectional view of the lower portion of the outlet nozzle,
12, ‘for the usual road ‘bed clearance purpose, as indi
similar to FIG. 5, and illustrating another modi?ed form
cated in FIG. 1. On the other hand, the dividing bridges
of the actuating mechanism for the valve element in
35 31, 32 and 33 positioned at the tops of the bottom struc
corporated therein; and
'
tures of the six individual storage hoppers 41 to 46, in
FIG. 10 is a further enlarged fragmentary view, simi
elusive, are positioned above the center sill 11, as clearly
lar to FIG. 7, of a constructional detail of the outlet
shown in FIG. 3. Accordingly, the three individual stor
nozzle, and illustrating a modi?ed form of the porous
sectional view of the lower portion of the outlet nozzle,
similar to FIG. 5, and illustrating a modi?ed form of the
plug that may be arranged in the diaphragm incorporated 40 age hoppers'41, 42 and 43 disposed on the side of the
car 10 adjacent to the side wall 21' are respectively pro
therein.
'
'
Referring now to FIGS. 1 to 3, inclusive, of the draw
vided with ‘three downwardly tapered bottom wall struc
ings, the railway‘ hopper car 10 there illustrated ‘and enr
bodying the features of the present invention, is especial
ly adapted for storage and transportation of ?nely ‘divided
tures that are‘ arranged between the center sill 11 and
the adjacent side wall 21v of the car 10, while the three
a rigid underframe, including a longitudinally‘ extending
center sill 11; which underframe is supported adjacent
tom wall structures that are arranged between the cen
ter sill 11_and the adjacent side wall 22 of the car It}.
individual storage 'hoppers 44, 45* and 46 disposed on
or granular materials, such, for example, as ?our, malt, 45 the ‘side of the car 10 adjacent to the side wall 22‘ are
respectively provided with three downwardly tapered bot
plastic resin beads, or the like; and the car 10 comprises
to the opposite ends thereof by a pair of trucks 12 carry
ing track wheels 13 cooperating with an associated rail
50
The roof 24 carries arplu'rality of longitudinally spaced
apart ?lling hatches 67 on opposite sides thereof that
respectively communicate with the individual ones of the
storage hopper pairs 41, 44, 42, 45 and 43, 46; and each
of the ?lling hatches 67 is provided with an individually
longitudinally extending and ‘laterally spaced-apart side
walls 21 and 22, a pair of laterally extending and longi 55 associated removable hatch cover 618 normally arranged
in sealed relation therewith.
tudinally spaced-apart end walls 23, and a roof 24. Ar
Further, thebody 20 of the car 10‘ is provided with
ranged within the body 20‘ are a pair of laterally extend
way track, indicated at ‘14.
The underframe carries a body 20, including a pair of
ing and longitudinally spaced-apart end dividing walls 25
‘and 26 and a pair of laterally extending and longitudi
nally spaced-apart intermediate dividing walls 27 and 28,
six outlet nozzles 71 to 76, inclusive, respectively car
ried by the six collars 61 to 66, inclusive, and respectively
communicating with the six bottom discharge outlets 51
three longitudinally extending and longitudinally spaced
to 56,'inclusive, respectively provided in the six storage
apart dividing bridges 31, 32 and 33, and bottom wall
hoppers 41' to ‘46, inclusive. The six outlet nozzles 71
structure cooperating to de?ne therein six individual stor
to 7 6,- inclusi‘ve, are of identical construction and arrange
age hoppers 41, ‘42, 43, 44, 45 ‘and 46. In the arrange
ment; whereby only the outlet nozzle 71 has been shown
ment, the three storage hoppers 41, 42 and 43 are dis 65 in detail in FIGS. 4 to 6‘, inclusive.
posed in longitudinal spaced-apart relation on the side of
Y Referring now to FIGS. 4 to 6, inclusive, the outlet
the car 10 adjacent to the side wall 21, while the three
nozzle 71 comprises a hollow casing 81 terminating in
storage hoppers 44, 451 and 46 are disposed in longi
an open top 82 that is surrounded by an outwardly di
tudinal spaced-apart relation on the side of the car 10
rected substantially rectangular collar 83 that is adapted
adjacent to the side wall 22. The two storage hoppers 70 to be removably secured in place below the substantially
41 and 44 are commonly de?ned by the side walls 21
rectangular collar '61 carried by the bottom wall struc
and 22 and by the dividing w?ls 25 and 2.7 and are
ture of the storage hopper 41 disposed in surrounding
separated laterally from each other at the lower portions
relation with respect to the bottom discharge outlet 51
thereof by the longitudinally extending dividing bridge
thereinto. More particularly, the collar 83 is arranged
31 disposed substantially centrally therebetween; the two
3,088,777‘
immediately below the collar 61 with a sealing gasket 84
therebetween and is secured in place by a plurality of
6
sage between the lower portion of the casing 81 and the
chamber 97 disposed below the diaphragm 95. More
bolts 85 projecting through aligned openings respectively
speci?cally, the button-like plug 98 may be formed of
formed in the collars 61 and '83 and in the gasket 84 and
porous material selected from the class consisting of
respectively carrying cooperating nuts 86. Also, the cas 5 ceramic materials, plastic materials, and sintered metal
ing 81 terminates in a ‘bottom discharge opening 87 dis
oxide materials.
posed directly below the top opening ‘82; which bottom
In view of the foregoing, it will be understood that the
discharge opening 87 is normally closed by an associated
interior of the storage hopper 41 is in communication
removable bottom cover 88. The cover 88 is normally
through the bottom discharge outlet 51 with the interior
retained in place by a pair of threaded studs 89 respec~ 10 of the casing 81 of the outlet nozzle 71. In turn, the
tively carrying a pair of cooperating nuts 90. The inner
interior of the suction tube 91 communicates with the
ends of the studs 89 are respectively received in a co
interior of the hood 93; and the interior of the hood 93
operating pair of threaded openings provided in the bot
selectively communicates with the interior of the lower
tom of the casing 81 and the intermediate portions of the
portion of the casing 81 through the valve port 94 de
studs 89 respectively project through cooperating open 15 pending upon the position of the valve element 95a.
ings provided in the bottom cover ‘88, and the outer ends
More particularly, the valve element 95a occupies a
of the threaded studs 89 respectively receive the nuts 90.
normal lower open position with respect to the valve port
Further, the outlet nozzle 71 comprises a suction tube
94 when the diaphragm 96 occupies its normal lower posi
91 extending longitudinally therethrough ‘and formed in
tion, ‘as illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6. On the other hand,
tegrally with the casing 81; and preferably, the casing 20 the valve element 95a occupies ‘an operated upper closed
81 and the suction tube ‘91 comprise an integral metal
position with respect to the valve port 94, as indicated in
casting formed of a suitable aluminum alloy. The suc
dotted lines in FIG. 5, when the diaphragm 96 occupies
tion tube 91 is disposed below the rectangular collar
its actuated upper position. Also, as illustrated in FIGS.
83 carried by the top of the casing 81 and the opposite
5 and 6, when the valve element 95a occupies its open
ends 92 thereof extend well outwardly beyond the collar 25 position with respect to the valve port 94, the bottom
83. Both of the ends 92 are open, and one of them
of the hood 93 is in open communication with the lower
is adapted to serve as ‘an air inlet opening into the suc
portion of the casing 81; and when the valve element 95a
tion tube 91, and the other of them is adapted to serve
occupies its closed position with respect to the valve port
‘as an air outlet opening from the suction tube 91. The
94, the communication between the bottom of the hood
intermediate section of the ‘suction tube 91 is disposed 30 93 and the interior of the casing 81 is cut-o?? or closed.
within the casing 81 and carries at the bottom thereof
Also, it will be understood that when the storage hopper
a communicating downwardly directed hood 93 terminat
41 contains granular material, the same ‘falls through the
ing at the bottom thereof in a valve port 94 positioned
bottom discharge outlet 51 into the casing 81 and accu
directly above the bottom discharge opening 87 into the
mulates upon the upper surfaces of the valve element 95a
35 and the diaphragm proper element 950; whereby the valve
casing 81.
Also a diaphragm ‘95 is arranged in the lower portion of
element 95a and the diaphragm proper element 950 are
the casing 81, and more particularly between the bottom
subject to the weight of granular material in the casing
of the casing 81 and the bottom cover 88. Speci?cally,
81 so long as there is granular material in the storage
the diaphragm 95 comprises a centrally disposed section
hopper 41, thereby to bias and to maintain the valve
95a constituting a valve element with respect to the asso 40 element 95a in its open position with respect to the valve
ciated valve port 94, an outer marginal section 95b con
port 94. As explained more fully hereinafter, the gran
stituting a gasket element disposed between the bottom of
ular material from the storage hopper 41 is unloaded
via the casing 81 of the outlet nozzle 71 through the
substantially annular intermediate section 950 constituting
suction tube 91, the granular material proceeding from
a ?exible diaphragm proper element interconnecting the 45 the casing 81 through the valve port 94, with the valve
sections 95a and 95b. More particularly, the diaphragm
element 95a in its open position, and thence through the
95 may be ‘formed of a suitable sheet of rubber, or the
hood 9?: into the suction tube 91. Of course, it will be
like, and is arranged in covering relation with respect to
understood that in this unloading operation, suction is
the ‘bottom discharge opening 87, the gasket element 95b
maintained in one end 92 of the suction tube 91 and con
50
thereof being clamped in place by the bottom cover 88
veying air is supplied at the other end 92 of the suction
upon the bottom of the casing 81 in surrounding relation
tube 91. After all of the granular material has been
with the bottom discharge opening 87. Also, a metal
unloaded from the storage hopper 41 and from the casing
reinforcing plate 96 is arranged below the lower side of
81 of the associated outlet nozzle 71, continued suction
the valve element 95a and the adjacent upper side of the
in the suction tube 91 causes the valve element 95a to be
bottom wall of the bottom cover ‘88; which metal rein 55 operated from its lower open position with respect to the
forcing plate 96 is securely adhered to the adjacent lower
valve port 94 into its upper closed position with respect
surface of the valve element 95a for the purpose of pre
to the valve port 94 by virtue of a Bernoulli effect that is
venting ballooning thereof into the bottom of the hood
produced in the lower portion of the casing 81 and be
93 through the valve port 94, when the valve element 95a
tween the valve element 95a and the bottom of the hood
occupies its closed position with respect to the valve port 60 93 in the immediate area of the valve port 94, as ex
94, as explained more fully hereinafter.
plained more fully below. Accordingly, it will be under—
Also, the diaphragm 96 cooperates with the bottom v88
stood that in response to suction in the suction tube 91
to de?ne a chamber 97 therebetween; which chamber 97
and the consequent suction in the lower portion of the
communicates with the lower portion of the casing 81
casing 81, after all of the granular material in the storage
adjacent to the bottom discharge opening 87 via a re 65 hopper 41 has been unloaded therefrom, the valve element
stricted passage formed through the diaphragm proper
95a is automatically operated by the diaphragm proper
element 950. As best illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 7, a hole
element 95c from its open position into its closed position
95d is formed through the diaphragm proper element 95c
with respect to the valve port 94, whereby the communi
and located well outwardly from both the valve port ~94
cation between the interior of the suction tube 91 and the
and the valve element 95a and positioned below the bot 70 interior of the casing 81 is cut-off or closed.
tom of the intermediate section of the suction tube 91 dis
More particularly, in the absence of suction in the
posed within the casing 81; and arranged within the hole
suction tube 91, concurrently with or without granular
95d is a button-like plug 98 formed of porous material
material in the lower portion of the casing 81, the upper
thereby to de?ne the previously mentioned restricted pas 75 side of the valve element 95a and the upper side of the
the casing 81 ‘and the top of the bottom cover ‘88, and a
3,088,777
_
V
8 .,
to facilitate the downwardislide of the granular material
diaphragm proper element 950 and the hole 95d in the
diaphragm proper element 95c are subject to atmospheric
from the storage hopper 41 through the casing 81 and re
gardless of whether pneumatic unloading or gravity un
pressure so that the chamber 97 disposed below the dia
loading of the granular material through the outlet nozzle
phragm 95 is also subject to atmospheric pressure, with
is employed.
the result that the diaphragm proper element 950 is op UK 71Again
referring to FIGS. 1 and 3 of the drawings, it is
erated into its lower position moving the valve element
pointed out that the tapered rbottom structures of the
95a into its lower or open position with respect to the
storage hoppers 41 to- 46, inclusive, are reinforced by
valve port 94. On the other hand, suction in the suction
foot structures 101 and 102 respectively carried by the
tube 91, concurrently with the presence of granular ma
terial in the lo'wer'portion of the casing 81, subjects the
upper side of the valve element 95a and the upper side
of the diaphragm proper element 95c and the hole 95d
in the diaphragm proper element 950 to relatively low
air pressure (substantially below atmospheric pressure)
so that the chamber 97 is also subject to the relatively low
air pressure, with the result that the diaphragm proper
10
lower ends of the dividing walls 27 and‘ 28; which foot
structures are supported directly upon the upper surface
of the center sill‘ 11. Also, the tapered bottom structures
of the storage hopper-s 41 to 46, inclusive, are reinforced
by a plurality of substantially triangular gusset plates 103
that are secured‘ to the adjacent sides’ of the center sill
11, as best shown in FIG. 1'.
Further, the body 20‘ carries a ?rst laterally extending
tubular ?xture 110 disposed adjacent to the side wall 21
the valve element 95a into its lower or open position with
and below the tapered bottom structure of the storage
respect to the valve port 94. Still on the other hand,
hopper ‘42, a second laterally extending tubularv ?xture 120
suction in the suction tube 91, concurrently with the 20 disposed adjacent to the side wall 22 and below the
absence of granular material in the lower portion of the
tapered bottom structure of the storage hopper 44, a third
casing 81, subjects the upper side of the valve element
laterally extending tubular ?xture 1'30 disposed adjacent
95a to relatively low air pressure (substantially below
to the side wall 21 and below the tapered‘ bottom structure
atmospheric pressure), and subjects the upper side of the
of the storage hopper 43-, and a fourth laterally extending
diaphragm proper element 950 and the hole 95d in the
tubular ?xture’ 140~disposed adjacent to the side wall
diaphragm proper element 950 to relatively high air
22 and below the tapered bottom structure of the storage
element 950 is operated into its lower position moving
pressure (only slightly below atmospheric pressure), so
that the chamber 97 is also subject to the relatively high
hopper 45-.‘ The two tubular ?xtures 1-10and 130' are dis
sure mentioned by virtue of the Bernoulli effect as a con
as bestshown in FIGS. 1. and 3.
posed onv opposite sides of the lower portion of the divid
air pressure, with the result that the diaphragm proper
30 ing wail 28 and. well- above the center sill 11; and the
element 950 is operated into its upper position moving
two tubular ?xtures 120 and 140 are disposed on opposite
the valve element 95a into its upper or closed position
sides ‘of the lower portion of the dividing wall 27 and
with respect to the valveport 94. Under the last-men
well above the-center sill 21.. More speci?cally, the four
tioned conditions, the upper side of the valve element
tubular ?xtures 1'10, .120? 130 and 140‘ are located in an
95a 'is subjected to the relatively low air pressure men
upper substantially horizontal common plate disposed well
tioned, while the upper side of the diaphragm proper
above the. lower plane of the bottom discharge outlets 51
element 950 is subjected to the relatively high air pres
to 56,. inclusive, of the storage hoppers 41 to 46, inclusive,
sequence of the air rushing through the restricted ori?ce
The tubular ?xtures 110, ‘120', 130 and.1i40 are of identi
de?ned between the bottom of the hood 93 and the top 40 cal construction; and as best shown in FIG. 3, the tubular
side of the valve element 95a.
?xture 120‘ comprises a laterally extending casing 121,
Moreover, the arrangement of the diaphragm proper
the outer, end of which projects through the adjacent
element'95c not only constitutes mechanism for selectively
side wall 22 of the .car 10 and is provided with a hinged
actuating the valve element 95a between its open vand
cover '122 that is movable between closed and open. posi
closed positions with respect to the valve port 94, as
tions with respect thereto and that is readily accessible
45
described above, but the provision of the porous plug 98
from the exterior. The inner. endof the casing 121 is
in the hole 95d formed through the diaphragm proper
provided with an air inlet throat ‘123', in cooperating rela
element 950 serves as an air check valve preventing
tion with which there is arranged an. air inlet member or
sudden movements of the diaphragm proper element 950
valve 124 that is selectively movable into closed and open
between its upper and lower positions, thereby to prevent
positions with respect thereto. The air inlet valve 124
50
?utter of the valve element 95a between its closed and
is carried by an elongated laterally extending control rod
open positions with respect to the valve port 94.
125 that is mounted for rotation in a ?xture 126 that is
Also, it will be understood that the granular material in
carried by the side 'wall 22, the extreme outer end of the
the storage hopper 41 may be directly unloaded by gravity
control rod 126 carrying a manually operable handwheel
through the bottom discharge opening ‘87 in the casing 81
127. The extreme inner end of the control rod 125 is
by the removal of the bottom cover 8-8 from its normal 55 threaded, as indicated at 125a and cooperates with an
closed position with respect to the bottom discharge outlet
associated nut'125b that is carried by the inner end of
v87. More particularly, the bottom cover 88 may be re
the casing 121. Accordingly, it will be understood that
moved from covering relation with respect to the bottom
upon selective rotation of the handwheel ‘1'27, correspond
discharge pening 87 by removal of one of the nuts 90
mg rotation may be imparted to the control rod 125;
60
from the associated one of the threaded studs 89 and by
whereby the valve element 124 may be selectively moved
loosening of the other of the nuts 91} with respect to the
into open and closed positions with respect to the asso
associated other threaded stud 89‘, the Ibottom cover 88
ciated air inlet throat 123. Also, the tubular ?xture 120
being rotated about the retaining one of the threaded
comprises an air inlet tube 128 that projects from the ex
studs 89 from its covering position with respect to the
65 terior through the side of the casing 121; which tube
bottom discharge opening ‘87. Of course, this gravity un
128 terminates in an air inlet throat 129 disposed in
Wardly with respect to the hinged cover 122 and com
loading of the storage hopper 41 through the casing 81
municating with the exterior of the casing 121.
of the outlet nozzle 71, with the bottom cover 88 in its
In view of the foregoing, it will ‘be understood that the
open position, is altogether independent of the pneumatic
tubular ?xture 140 is provided with the hinged cover 142
unloading thereof utilizing the suction tube 91 in the man—
disposed exteriorly of the side walls 22, while the tubular
ner previously explained. At this point, it is noted that
?xtures 1110 and 130‘ are respectively provided with the
the crest of the intermediate portion of the suction tube
hinged covers 112 and 132 disposed exteriorly of the side
91 extending longitudinally through the casing 81 of the
wall 21. Also, the handwheel 147 for selectively operat
outlet nozzle 71 is provided with a general pyramidal
ing the
inlet valve 144 of the tubular ?xture 140‘ is
con?guration in lateral section, as indicated at 910, so as
8,088,777
disposed adjacent to the side wall 21, while the hand
wheels 117 and 137 for selectively operating the respec
tive air inlet valves 114 and 134 of the respective tubular
?xtures 110 and 1'30 are disposed adjacent to the side
wall 22. The Zlaterally extending control rods 1'45, 115
and 135 respectively connecting the handwheels 147, 117
,
10
and consequently via the ?rst conduit system mentioned
back to the tubular ?xture 110. Also at this time, or
dinarily several of the hatch covers 68 are removed from
the associated hatches 67 so as to admit conveying air
into the top of the storage hoppers 42, etc. The suction
condition mentioned eifects the ?ow of conveying air
and 137 and the inlet valve elements 144, ‘114 and 134
from the exterior through the inlet throat member 113
are illustrated in FIG. 2; and likewise, the tubular ?x
with the associated inlet valve 114 in its open position
tures 140, 110 and 130 respectively comprise the air inlet
and thence into the casing 111 ‘of the tubular member
tubes 148, 118 and 138, as shown in FIG. 2.
110. The conveying air then ?ows through the outlet
Further, as best shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the car 10
throat element 129 through the outlet tube 118 and
comprises a ?rst conduit system interconnecting the
thence via the ?rst mentioned conduit system into the
tubular ?xtures 110 and 120 via the outlet nozzles 72,
outlet tube 128 and ultimately through the outlet throat
71 and 74 in series relation, and a second conduit system
member 129 into the connected suction conduit. The
interconnecting the tubular ?xtures 130 and 1140 via the 15 ?rst mentioned conveying system through which the suc
outlet nozzles 73, 76 and 75 in series relation. Speci?
tion condition is maintained, as described above, includes
cally, the outlet tube 118 of the tubular ?xture 110 is
the three outlet nozzles 72, 71 and 74 in series relation,
connected via a conduit section 151 to one end of the
as well as the series connected conduit sections ‘151, 152,
suction tube of the outlet nozzle 72; the other end of the
153 and 154. This suction in the ?rst conduit system men
suction tube of the outlet nozzle 72 is connected via a
tioned e?ects unloading of the storage hoppers 42, 41
conduit section 152 to one end of the suction tube of the
outlet nozzle 71; the other end of the suction tube of the
outlet nozzle 71 is connected via a conduit section 153
to one end of the suction tube of the outlet nozzle 74;
and 44 through the respective bottom discharge outlets
52, ‘51 and 54 and through the respective outlet nozzles
72, 71 and 74, ‘since the valve element in each of the
outlet nozzles 71, etc., occupies its open position at this
and the other end of the suction tube of the outlet noz 25 time, as previously explained. Accordingly, the three
zle 74 is connected via a conduit section 154 to the out
storage hoppers 42, 41 and 44 are simultaneously un
let tube 128 of the tubular ?xture 120. Similarly, the
loaded through the ?rst conduit system mentioned into
outlet tube 138 of the tubular ?xture 130 is connected
the tubular ?xture 1120 and thence into the connected
via a conduit section 161 to one end of the suction tube
suction conduit, not shown.
of the outlet nozzle 73; the other end of the suction tube 30
When any one of the three storage hoppers 42, 41 or
of the outlet nozzle 73 is connected via a conduit section
44 is completely unloaded, the valve element in the asso
162 to one end of the suction tube of the outlet nozzle
ciated outlet nozzle 72, 71 or 74 is operated into its closed
'76; the other end of the suction tube of the outlet nozzle
position with respect to the valve port in the associated
76 is connected via a conduit section 163 to one end of
suction tube, in the manner previously explained, thereby
the suction tube of the outlet nozzle 75; and the other 35 to cut-off the communication between the empty storage
end of the suction tube of the outlet nozzle 76 is con
hopper 42, etc., and the associated ?rst conduit system,
nected via a conduit section 164 to the outlet tube 148
of the tubular ?xture 140.
In the arrangement, the conduit sections 151, etc., may
so that the granular material in the other two of the
three storage hoppers noted may be subsequently com
pletely unloaded. When all three of the storage hoppers
be formed of any suitable material, such, for example, 40 42, 41 and 44 connected to the ?rst conduit system men
as steel tubing. Also, the conduit sections 151, etc.,
tioned are unloaded, all three of the valve elements in
where required, are suitably braced with respect to the
corporated in the three outlet nozzles 72, etc., are oper
underframe of the car 10. For example, as illustrated
ated into their closed positions with respect to the valve
in FIG. 3, the conduit section 153 is suitably secured to
ports in the associated suction tubes incorporated in the
the center sill 111 employing a pair of plates 171 respec
outlet nozzles 72, etc.; whereby the suction machine, not
tively Welded to two laterally spaced-apart lower por
shown, may be shut-down and the suction conduit, not
tions of the center sill 11 and respectively welded to two
shown, may be disconnected from the outlet throat mem
laterally spaced-apart upper portions of the conduit sec
ber 129 incorporated in the tubular ?xture 120. At this
tion 153.
time, the hinged cover 122 is returned back into its closed
Considering now the pneumatic unloading of the gran 50 position and the handwheel 117 is manipulated so as to
ular material from the storage hoppers 42, 41 and 44,
return the valve element 114 back into its closed posi
it is noted that this unloading may be eifected from either
tion with respect to the throat member 113 incorporated
side of the car 10 utilizing the appropriate one of the
in the tubular ?xture 110.
tubular ?xtures 110 or 120. Likewise, the granular ma
In view of the foregoing description of the unloading
terial may be pneumatically unloaded from the storage
of the three storage hoppers 42, 41 and 44 from the
hoppers 43, 46 and 45 utilizing the appropriate one of the
tubular ?xture 120 disposed adjacent to the side wall 22
tubular ?xtures 136 or 140. Assuming that the unload
of the car 10, it will be understood that these three storage
ing mentioned is to take place with respect to the storage ‘
hoppers may be unloaded in a substantially identical man
hoppers 42, 41 and ‘44, and is to be carried out from the
ner from the tubular ?xture 110 disposed adjacent to the
side of the car 1% adjacent to the side wall 22, the tubular
side wall 21 of the car 10. In this case, the suction con
?xture 120 is employed. More particularly, the hinged
duit, not shown, is operatively connected to the outlet
cover 122 carried by the outer end of the tubular ?xture
throat member 119 incorporated in the tubular ?xture
120 is operated in its open position; and a suction con
110 and the manual valve 127 is manipulated to operate
duit, not shown, is connected to the outlet throat 129
the
inlet valve element 124 into its open position with
that is adapted detachably to receive the same. Also, the 65
respect to the inlet throat member 123 incorporated in
handwheel 117 disposed on the side of the car 10 adja
the tubular ?xture 120.
cent to the side wall 22 is manipulated so as to operate
Moreover, it will be appreciated that the unloading
the air inlet valve 114 into its open position with respect
of the three storage hoppers 43, 46 and 45 may be carried
to the associated inlet throat member 113 provided at the
inner end of the tubular ?xture 110, so as to accommo 70 out in a substantially identical manner from either side
of the car '10 utilizing the appropriate one of the tubular
date the admission of conveying air into the tubular ?x
?xtures 130 or 140, in the manner explained above.
ture 110. When the suction machine, not shown, is op
Furthermore, it will be appreciated that the two groups
erated to produce suction in the suction conduit, not
of storage hoppers may be simultaneously unloaded from
shown, that is connected to the tubular ?xture .120, a
suction condition is effected in the tubular member =12!) 75 either side of the car 10 by the connection of two of the
3,088,777’
114
‘l2
.
295a is imperforate by virtue of’ the imperforate con
struction of the metal valve element 295a.
The fundamental principle of operation of the outlet
suction conduits, not shown, to- the two corresponding
tubular ?xtures 110, 130 or 120, 140 in an obvious man
ner; and‘ at this'point, it is notedtha-tit is common prac
‘(ice at an unloading station to provide a plurality of suc
tion 'uloading machines and a corresponding plurality
nozzle 271 is the same as that previously described in
conjunction with the outlet nozzle 71, since the Bernoulli
effect that is produced in the lower portion of the casing
281 after unloading of all of the granular material there
of suction conduits; whereby simultaneous unloading of
the ‘two groups of storage hoppers incorporated in the
"from and as a consequence of the inrush of the air into
car'ltl may be readilyv carried out.
the valve port 294 at this time Will subject the diaphragm
out that each of the outlet‘nozzles' 71, etc. is self-regulat 10 proper element 2950 to a relatively high air pressure
simultaneously without subjecting the valve element 295a
ing'with respect to the rate of supply of the granular ma
to
a relatively low air pressure. Of course, when the
terial from the associated storage hopper 41, etc. into the
diaphragm proper element 29‘5c is subjected to the rela
?rst conveying system. This action may be readily un
tively high air pressure mentioned, the chamber 297 is
derstood in conjunction with the mode of operation of the
subjected to the relatively high air pressure mentioned
15
outlet nozzle 71, assuming that the granular material is
by virtue of the microp‘orous character of the material
being unloaded via the tubular ?xture 120 from the three
of the diaphragm proper element 2950. Accordingly, in
storage hoppers 42, 41 and 44. In this case, the ?ow of
the
outlet nozzle 271, the diaphragm proper element 2950
the-granular material through the suction tube 91 is from
constitutes mechanism for selectively operating the valve
the- right-hand end 92 thereof toward the left-hand end
Again referringto FIGS. 4 to 6, inclusive, it is pointed
92 thereof, as shown in FIG. 5; and in the event substan
20 element 295a between open and closed positions with re
spect to the associated valve port 294 and prevents ?utter
tial‘ granular material is being supplied into the ?rst con
of the valve element 295a between its open and closed
veying system from . the preceding storage hopper 42,
there will be substantial movement of the granular mate
rial through the suction tube 91 from the right-hand end
92'thereof toward the left-hand end 92 thereof, with the
positions mentioned, all in the manner previously de
scribed.
- Referring now to FIG. 9, another modi?ed form of the
outlet nozzle 371 is there illustrated that is substantially
identical to the above described outlet nozzle 71 illus
granular material over the top of the hood 93 so that the
trated in FIGS. 4 to 7, inclusive; however, in this case,
suction» effected through the hood 93 into the lower por
the restricted passage that is formed between the lower
tion of the casing 81 of the outlet nozzle 71 is correspond
ingly reduced; This. reduction ‘of the suction in the hood 30 portion of the casing 381 and the chamber 397 that is
de?ned between the diaphragm‘ 395 and the bottom cover
93- correspondingly reduces the rate at which granular
388 is formed entirely independently of the diaphragm
material is added into the ?rst conveying system from the
395. More particularly in this case, two passages 391a
storage hopper 41 through the casing 81 of the outlet
and 388:: are respectively formed in the bottom portion
nozzle 71. ‘Accordingly, the arrangement renders the
outlet nozzle 71 self‘regulating with respect to the rate of 35 of the suction tube 391 and in the top portion of the bot
result that there will be substantial movement of the ,
supply of granular material from the storage hopper 41
into'the ?rst conveying system. This same regulation
takes place in each of the other outlet nozzles 72 and 74
connected to the ?rst conduit system, thereby preventing
unloading of the ?rst conduit system and consequently 40
of the suction conduit connected to the tubular ?xture
120-in the present example. Of course, the same regula
tion takes place in the outlet nozzles 73, 76 and 75 that
are connected, to the second conduit system.
Referring now to FIG. 8, a modi?ed form of the out
let nozzle 271 is there illustrated that is substantially
identical to the above-described outlet nozzle 71 illus
tratedin FIGS. 4 to 7, inclusive; however, in this case,
45.>
the diaphragm 295 is ‘disposed. directly adjacent to the
tom cover 388; which passages 391a and 388:: communi
cate with each other through a hole 395d formed in the
gasket element 395a of the diaphragm 395. The outer
end of the passage 391a communicates with the lower
portion of the casing 381 and receives a porous plug 398
of the character previously described; While the outer
end of the passage 388a communicates directly with the
chamber 397 disposed between the diaphragm 395 and
the bottom cover 388. Hence, the lower portion of the
casing 381 is in communication with the chamber 397
via the porous plug 398 and the passages 391a and 388a
and the hole 395d.
It will be understood that the mode of operation of
the outlet nozzle 371 is the same as that of the outlet
nozzle 71 as previously described; and, of course, in this
case the diaphragm 395 is formed of imperforate ?exible
material.
295a that directly cooperates with the associated valve
Referring now to FIG. 10, there is illustrated‘ a modi
port 294. The valve element 295a is for-med of a suit
?ed form of the porous plug 498 that is incorporated in
able. piece of metal and is directly adhered to the upper
the hole 395d that is provided in the diaphragm proper
surface of the central portion of the diaphragm 295 utiliz
element 495a that may be incorporated in the outlet
ing a suitable cement. Also in the outlet nozzle 271, a
nozzle 71, as illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 6, inclusive. More
threaded opening 288a is provided in the central portion
particularly, in this construction the porous plug 498 is
of the bottom cover 288; which threaded opening 288a
formed of porous material of the character previously
receives a removable threaded plug 2885). This arrange
60 described and is arranged internally ‘of an associated metal
ment renders the chamber 297 disposed between the dia
grommet 498a that, in turn, is secured in place in the
phragm 295 and the bottom cover 288 accessible from
hole 495d formed in the diaphragm proper element 495c.
the. exterior, upon removal of the threaded plug 2881?.
This arrangement is very advantageous by virtue of the
In this construction, the diaphragm 295 is formed es
sentially of ?exible microporous plastic material, such, 65 fact that the preformed porous plug 498 and the asso
ciated grommet 498a may ‘be readily snapped in place
for. example, as the polyvinyl chloride ‘sheet material dis
in the preformed hole 495d provided through the dia
closed in US. Patent No. 2,542,527, granted on February
phragm proper element 495:: in a ready and simple
20, 1951, to Eric M. 0. Honey and Charles R. Hardy,
bottomcover 288v and carries adjacent to the central por
‘tion of the. upper. side. thereof a separate valve element
and sold commercially by The Electric Storage Battery
Company. Accordingly, the diaphragm proper element 70
295C constitutes a restricted passage between the lower
portion of the casing 281 and the chamber 297 de?ned
manner.
Of course, the
71 incorporating
498, as shown in
described.
In view of the
mode of operation of the outlet nozzle
the modi?ed form of the porous plug
FIG. 10, is the same as that previously
between the diaphragm 295 and the bottom cover 288.
foregoing, it is apparent that there has
Of course, it will be understood that the central portion
of the diaphragm 295 that is covered by the valve element 75 been provided. in apparatus for storing granular material,
‘3,088,777
13
14
an outlet nozzle of improved construction and arrange
chamber, the upper side of said valve element and the
upper side of said diaphragm also being subject to the
weight of granular material in the lower portion of said
ment incorporating an automatically operated valve for
selectively controlling the communication between the
casing thereof and the suction tube thereof in response
to respective loaded and unloaded conditions of the con- .
nected storage hopper. Also, there has been provided
in a railway hopper car, an improved and simpli?ed
combination gravity unloading and pneumatic unloading
vsystem, wherein each of the plurality of storage hoppers
casing so long as there is granular material in said storage
hopper to be unloaded therefrom, and means de?ning a
restricted passage between the lower portion of said casing
and said chamber, the opening into said passage in the
lower portion of said casing being located well outward
ly from said valve port and said valve element, whereby
incorporated therein may be individually unloaded on a 10 the absence of suction in the tube concurrently with or
without granular material in the lower portion of said
casing subjects the upper side of said valve element and
loaded on a pneumatic basis. In the system, when the
the upper side of said diaphragm and said opening into
pneumatic unloading arrangement is employed, all of the
said passage to relatively high air pressure so that said
gravity basis, and wherein each of the plurality of storage
hoppers incorporated therein may be simultaneously un
storage hoppers may be simultaneously unloaded from 15 chamber is subject to relatively high air pressure with
either side of the railway car, utilizing the corresponding
the result that said diaphragm is operated into its lower
two of the four tubular ?xtures respectively disposed on
position, and whereby suction in said tube concurrently
the opposite sides of the car body.
with the presence of granular material in the lower por
While there has been described what is at present con
tion of said casing subjects the upper side of said valve
sidered to be the preferred embodiment of the invention, 20 element and the upper side of said diaphragm and said
it will be understood that various modi?cations may be
opening into said passage to relatively low air pressure
made therein, and it is intended to cover in the appended
claims all such modi?cations as fall Within the true spirit
and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
25
l. vIn apparatus for storing granular material including
so that said chamber is subject to relatively low air pres
sure with the result that said diaphragm is operated into
its lower position, and whereby suction in said tube con
currently with the absence of granular material in the
lower portion of said casing subjects the upper side of said
valve element to relatively low air pressure and subjects
the upper side of said diaphragm and said opening into
casing carried by said storage hopper and disposed below
said passage to relatively high air pressure so that said
said bottom outlet and communicating therewith, a suction 30 chamber is subject to relatively high air pressure with
tube extending through the lower portion of said casing
the result that said diaphragm is operated into its upper
for unloading the granular material from said storage
position.
hopper through said casing, one end of said tube provid
2. The apparatus for storing granular material set forth
ing an air inlet opening thereinto and the other end of
in claim 1, wherein said restricted passage between the
said tube providing an air outlet opening therefrom, the 35 lower portion of said casing and said chamber is de?ned
intermediate section of said tube being disposed within
through said diaphragm.
said casing and having a valve port provided in the
3. The apparatus for storing granular material set forth
bottom thereof, a valve element arranged in the lower
in claim 1, wherein said restricted passage between the
portion of said casing below said valve port and cooperat
lower portion of said casing and said chamber is de?ned
ing therewith, whereby the interior of said tube is in com 4:0 through said diaphragm and is positioned below the sec—
munication with the lower portion of said casing when
tion of said tube disposed within said casing.
said valve element occupies its open position with respect
4. The apparatus for storing granular material set forth
to said valve port and the interior of said tube is cut
in claim 1, wherein said restricted passage between the
oif from communication with the lower portion of said
lower portion of said casing and said chamber is de?ned
structure de?ning a storage hopper provided with a
bottom discharge outlet; an outlet nozzle comprising a
casing when said valve element occupies its closed posi 45 outwardly from said diaphragm and independently there
tion with respect to said valve port, a ?xture communi
cating with said other end of said tube and adapted to be
of.
5. The apparatus for storing ‘granular material set forth
connected to a suction conduit, whereby conveying air
in claim 1, wherein said diaphragm is formed essentially
may be supplied through said air inlet opening into said
of ?exible microporous plastic material thereby to de?ne
tube and then through said .air outlet opening into the
50 therethrough said restricted passage between the lower
suction conduit connected to said ?xture with the result
portion of said casing and said chamber.
that the granular material in said storage hopper is un
6. The apparatus for storing granular material set forth
loaded therefrom into said casing and proceeds therefrom
in claim 1, wherein said restricted passage between the
through said valve port with said valve element in its
‘lower portion of said casing and said chamber is de?ned
open position and into said tube and is thus conveyed 55 essentially by a porous plug arranged in a hole provided
with the conveying air in said tube into the suction con
through said diaphragm.
duit connected to said ?xture, and mechanism for selec
7. In apparatus for storing granular material including
tively actuating said valve element between its open and
structure de?ning a storage hopper provided with a bot
closed positions with respect to said valve port; said
tom discharge outlet; an outlet nozzle comprising a casing
mechanism comprising a diaphragm arranged in the lower
carried by said storage hopper and disposed below said
portion of said casing in supporting and surrounding 60 bottom outlet and communicating therewith, said casing
relation with said valve element, the inner perimeter of
having a bottom opening therein, a bottom cover remov
said diaphragm being sealed to said valve element and
ably carried by said casing and normally closing said bot
the outer perimeter of said diaphragm being sealed to
tom opening, .a suction tube extending through the lower
said casing thereby to de?ne a chamber below said valve
portion of said casing for unloading the granular material
element and said diaphragm and above the bottom of 65 from said storage hopper through said casing, one end of
said casing, said diaphragm having a lower position
said tube providing an air inlet opening thereinto and the
actuating said valve element into its open position with
other end of said tube providing an air outlet opening
respect to said valve port and an upper position actuating
therefrom, the intermediate section of said tube being dis
said valve element into its closed position with respect to
posed within said casing and having a valve port provided
said valve port, the upper side of said valve element and
in the bottom thereof, a sheet-like member arranged in
the upper side of said diaphragm being subject to the air
covering relation with said bot-tom opening and adjacent
pressure in the lower portion of said casing and the
to the upper side of said ‘bottom cover, said member in
lower side of said valve element and the lower side of
cluding a central portion disposed below said valve port
said diaphragm being subject to the air pressure in said 75 and constituting a valve element cooperating therewith,
‘3,088,777
15
:said member also including wanwouter boundary portion
‘disposed between the bottom of said casing and the outer
‘portion of said bottom cover and constituting a sealing
gasket with respect thereto, said member ‘further includ
ing an intermediate portion disposed between said central
portion and said outer boundary portion and constituting
a diaphragm accommodating selective movements of said
valve element into open and closed'positions with respect
‘to said valve port, whereby the interior of said tube is in
icomrmunication with the lower portion of said casing \
its
structure de?ning ‘a storage'hopper provided vwith a bot
tom dis-charge outlet; an outlet'nozz‘le comprising a casing
‘carried by said storage hopper’and disposed below said
bottom outlet and communicating therewith, said casing
having a bottom opening therein, a bottom cover remov
ably carried by said casing and normally closing said bot
tom opening, a suction‘tube extending through the lower
portion of said casing for unloading the granular material
from said storage hopper through said casing, one end of
said tube providing an air inlet-opening thereinto and the
other end of said tube providing an air outlet opening
‘therefrom, the intermediate section of said tube being
disposed within said casing and having a valve port pro
vided in the bottom thereof, a sheet-like member arranged
iwhen'said valve element occupies its open position with
‘respect to said valve port and the interior of said tube is
lcut-oft ?rom communication with the lower portion of
1said "casing when said valve element occupies its ‘closed
L;po'sition with respect to said valve port, a ?xture communi 15 in covering relation with said bottom opening and adja
cent to the upper side of said bottom cover, said member
“cating with said other end of said tube and adapted to be
including a central portion disposed below said valve
‘connected to a suction conduit, whereby conveying air
port and constituting a valve element cooperating there
may be supplied through said air inlet opening into said
with, ‘said member also including anfouter‘boundary por
tube and then through said air-outlet opening into the
suction conduit connected to said ?xture with the result 20 tion disposed between ‘the bottom‘o‘f saidc‘a's'in'g and'the
outer portion of said bottom cover and constituting a
that the granular material in said storage hopper is un
sealing gasket with respect thereto, ‘said ‘member further
loaded therefrom into said casing ‘and proceeds there
including an intermediate portion disposed between said
from through said valve port with said valve element in
central portion and said outer boundary ‘portion and con‘
its open position and into said tube and is thus conveyed
stituting a diaphragm accommodating selective move
with the conveying air in said tube into the suction con
ments of said valve element into open and closed positions
duit connected to said ?xture, said member cooperating
with respect to said valve port, whereby the interior of
with said bottom cover to de?ne a chamber therebetween,
said tube is in communication with the lower portion of
said diaphragm having a lower position actuating said
‘said casing when said valve element occupies its open
valve element into its open position with respect to said
valve port and ‘an upper position actuating said valve ele 30 position with respect to said'valve port and the interior
of said tube is cut-‘otf from communication with the lower
ment into its closed position with respect to said valve
portion of vsaid casing when said valve element occupies
port, the upper side of said valve element and the upper
its closed position with respect to said valve port, a ?xture
side of said diaphragm being subject to the air pressure
communicating with said other end of said tube and
in the lower portion of said casing and the lower side of
adapted to be connected to a suction conduit, whereby
said valve element and the lower side of said diaphragm
conveying air may be supplied through said air inlet open
being subject to the air pressure in said chamber, the up
ing into said tube and then through said‘ air, outlet o‘p'en
}per side of said valve element and the upper side of said
ing into the suction conduit connected to said ?xture with
diaphragm also being subject to the weight of granular
the result that the granular material in said storage hop‘
‘material in the lower portion of said casing so long as
per is unloaded therefrom into said casing and proceeds
there is granular material in said storage hopper to be un
therefrom through said valve port with said valve element
loaded therefrom, and means de?ning a restricted passage
in its open position and into said tube and isthus con
between the lower portion of said casing and said cham
veyed with the conveying air in said tube into the suction
ber, the opening into said passage in the lower portion
conduit connected to said ?xture, said member cooperat
of said casing being located well outwardly from said
valve port and said valve element, whereby the absence 45 ing with said bottom cover to de?ne a chamber therebe
tween, said diaphragm having a lower position actuating
of suction in said tube concurrently with or without
said valve element into its open position with respect to
ranular material in the lower portion of said casing
said valve port and an upper position actuating said valve
subjects the upper side ‘of said valve element and the upper
element into its closed position with respect to said valve
side of said diaphragm and said opening into said passage
to relatively high air pressure so that said chamber is sub
50 port, the upper side of said valve element and the upper
side of said diaphragm being subject to the air pressure
ject to relatively high air pressure with the result that
in the lower portion of said casingand the lower side of
said diaphragm is operated into its lower position, and
said valve element and the lower side of said diaphragm
whereby suction in said tube concurrently with the pres
being subject to the air pressure in said chamber, the
ence of granular material in the lower portion of said
casing subjects the upper side of said valve element and 55 upper side of said valve element and the upper side of
‘said diaphragm also being subject to the weight of granu
the upper side of said diaphragm and said opening into
lar material in the lower portion of said casing so long
said passage to relatively low air pressure so that said
chamber is subject to relatively low air pressure with the
result that said diaphragm is operated into its lower posi
tion, ‘and whereby suction in said tube concurrently with
the absence of granular material in the lower portion of
said casing subjects the upper side of said valve element
as there is granular material in said storage hopper to be
unloaded therefrom, said diaphragm having a hole therein
that is located well outwardly from said valve port and
said valve element, and means including a porous plug
arranged in said hole for de?ning a restricted passage be
tween the lower portion of said casing and said chamber,
to relatively low air pressure and subjects the upper side
whereby the absence of suction in said tube concurrently
of said diaphragm and said opening into said passage to
relatively high air pressure so that said chamber is sub 65 with or without granular material in the lower portion of
said casing subjects the upper side of said valve element
ject to relatively high air pressure with the result that said
and the upper side of said diaphragm and said plug to
diaphargm is operated into its upper position.
relative high air pressure so that said chamber is subject
8. The apparatus for storing granular material set (forth
to relatively high air pressure with the result that said
in claim 7, and (further comprising .a rigid plate secured
to said valve element and movable therewith so as to rein 70 diaphragm is operated into its lower position, and where
by suction in said tube concurrently with the presence of
force the same in order to prevent distention of said valve
granular material in the lower portion of said casing sub=
element through said valve port into said tube when said
jects the upper side of said valve element and the upper
valve element occupies its closed position with respect to
side of said diaphragm and said plug to relatively low air
said valve port.
9. L1 apparatus for storing granular material including 75 pressure so that said chamber is subject to relatively low
17
3,088,’???
air pressure with the result that said diaphragm is oper
ated into its lower position, and whereby suction in said
tube concurrently with the absence of granular material
in the lower portion of said casing subjects the upper side
of said valve element to relatively low air pressure and
subjects the upper side of said diaphragm and said plug
to relatively high air pressure so that said chamber is
subject to relatively high air pressure with the result that
said diaphragm is operated into its upper position.
10. The apparatus for storing granular material set
18
forth in claim 9, wherein said porous plug has the general
form of a grommet removably secured in place in the hole
in said diaphragm.
11. The apparatus for storing ‘granular material set
forth in claim 9, wherein said porous plug is formed of a
material selected from the class consisting of ceramic
materials, plastic materials, and sintered metal oxide
materials.
No references cited.
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