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Патент USA US3089211

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May 14, 1963
3,089,201
'|_. HELFMAN
METHOD OF MAKING BUILDING STRUCTURES
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed Aug. 28, 1961
1' _ EINVENTOR.
LEROY HELFMAN
BY
ATTORNEYS
May ‘14, 1963
L. HELFMAN
3,089,201
METHOD OF‘ MAKING BUILDING STRUCTURES
Filed Aug. 28, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
LEROY HELFMAN
BYGLMW
45m
ATTORNEYS
ted States Patent
1
3,089,201
METHOD OF MAKING BUILDHNG STRUiZTURES
Leroy Helfman, Detroit, Mich.
Filed Aug. 2s, 1961, Ser. No. 134,186
2 Claims. (Cl. 20-.5)
3,089,201
,
1C6
Patented May 14, 1963
2
joists 17 with the ceiling joists bearing at their ends on
the vertical walls 11 and 12.
While the joists 16 are here referred to as ceiling joists,
it is common in the trade to refer to them as ‘attic joists
and the two terms will be considered synonymous in this
description.
abandoned), relates to building structures and more par
The house in its original built form has a low level
attic 21 with a ridge 22 and roof rafters 23 hearing at
their ends on the upper edges of the lower ?oor walls
height.
used as normal living room.
This application, a continuation in part of my prior
application Ser. No. 711,306‘ ?led January 27, 1958 (now
ticularly to a building structure characterized by the in 10 ‘Ill-'12.
Because of family expansion or for other reasons, it is
clusion of a dormer as part of a remodeling operation.
often desirable to expand such a house. We now disclose
Throughout the country and particularly in recent years,
a method of and a structure resulting from a modi?cation
there have been built many dwelling structures having low
of such house by building 1a dormer in the attic.
level attics, namely attics whose maximum height is be
The ?rst step in the modi?cation is to cut in the roof
low the minimum height needed so that the attic can be
a large rectangular opening 30 (FIGS. 3-4) extending
used as living room. This application particularly relates
across ridge 22. In such opening there is built a dormer
to a structure wherein such structure is remodeled after
32 (FIGS. 5-6‘) having four walls 33-36, and a roof 37.
the build-ing has been completed, particularly in response
Dormer 32 and its roof 37 also extend across ridge 22 and
to family expansion, to provide living room in an attic
hitherto useless as living room because of insuf?cient 20 the roof height is su?‘lcient to enable dormer 32 to be
More speci?cally, the invention provides a building
structure comprising a modi?ed old residence enlarged by
For supporting a ?oor 38 of dormer 32 and also its
four walls 33-36 and dormer roof 37 as well, there are
provided dormer joists 40. It is particularly and signif
fact that both during the remodeling operation and after 25 icantly noted that dormer joists '40 are of a greater vertical
dimension than the existing ceiling or attic joists 17. For
the building is remodeled, shocks, loads and impacts aris
the ‘addition of a ‘dormer in the attic, characterized by the
ing during the building of the dormer and in the use of
the dormer are in no way transmitted or absorbed by the
example, if we use 2 X 6’s for the ceiling or attic joists,
the ‘dormer joists are here ‘2 x S’s. The ends of dormer
joists 40 bear on hearing blocks 40a (FIGS. 7-8) on
lower ?oor ceiling joists, commonly called attic joists, and
Ehus in no way transmitted to the ceiling of the lower 30 walls 11—12 and dormer joists 40 are interspersed among
roof rafters 23 and ceiling joists 17.
our.
The four walls 33-36 of dormer 32 are noted as being
More speci?cally does this application disclose a build
within the projected area of the four walls 11-14 of
ing structure in which the ‘dormer ?oor is spaced above
the ceiling or lat-tic joists to insulate these joists and the
suspended ceiling from shocks, loads and impacts arising
from the building of and the use of the dormer.
More speci?cally, this application discloses a construc
tion in which the dormer is of four wall ‘form extending
across the ridge of the attic, with all four walls set in
from the lower ?oor walls, with all four walls supported
by the lower ?oor walls independently of the ceiling or
attic joists, and with all four walls surrounded, at least
at their lower parts, namely, at the dormer floor, by dead
air space of the attic so that the perimeter of the dormer
?oor is insulated from the outside by the attic around the
entire perimeter of the dormer ?oor.
Still further objects of the present invention and as
pects of the same will best ‘be understood upon reference
to the appended speci?cation and drawings.
In these drawings:
lower ?oor 15 and are noted as supported on dormer
joists 40. These dormer joists 40 have their lower edges
above the lower edges of the ceiling joists 117 and thus
these ?oor joists 40 are free of and clear of the ceiling
‘K16 and do not hear on the ceiling or on the ceiling joists
17 and thus the load of the dormer walls 33-36 and of
roof 37 is not loaded in any way upon ceiling joists 17
or ceiling ‘16 of the lower ?oor 15.
‘ Since the lower edges of dormer ?oor joists 40 (FIGS.
7-8) are raised above ceiling 16 by being supported on
bearing blocss 40a, these joists do not load the ceiling 16
‘and loads on joists v4t) do not affect the ceiling I16 or ceil
ing joists 117.
More signi?cant is the fact that during the building of
the dormer, because ‘dormer joists 40 are laid ?rst after
the roof opening 30 is made, many shocks, impacts and
loads due to the building operation thereafter are not
transmitted to attic joists 17 and thus are not transmitted
FIG. 1 is a front elevation diagrammatic cutaway view
to ceiling 116 suspended from such attic joists ‘17, the ceil
of an existing house structure to be remodeled according
ing being not suspended from dormer joists 40. In this
to the invention.
way, danger of cracking of the ceiling during the major
FIG. 2 is an end view of the same on line 2-2, FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a view like FIG. 1 but showing the house at 55 part of the building operation as well as during the use of
the dormer is minimized.
an intermediate stage of the remodeling process.
There is an air space in the attic now between ceiling
FIG. 4 is a section view as if on line 4—4 of FIG. 3.
16 and dormer ?oor 38 resting on dormer joists '40‘ and
FIG. 5 is a front view like FIG. 3 but illustrating the
this dead air space is higher than the dead air space that
addition of a dormer to an existing house.
FIG. 6 is a cross section view as if on line 6—6 of
FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary View showing a detail of con
would exist if dormer floor -38 rested directly on ceiling
joists 17. Such dead air space is of value in uniformly
transmitting heat from lower floor 15 to dormer 33.
It is also signi?cant that dormer walls 33-36 are set
inside lower ?oor walls 11-14; hence the dead air space
FIG. 8 is a section on line 8-8 of FIG. 7.
Referring to the drawings, it will be observed that FIGS. 65 of the attic surrounds the entire perimeter of dormer ?oor
38, shielding such perimeter and lower parts of dormer
1 and 2 show a simple one ?oor, low level attic, dwelling
walls 33-36 from the outside.
known to the trade as a Cape Cod design, characterized
In remodeling a house, the method employed is this:
by having four vertical walls, two of which 11 ‘and 12 are
a
rectangular
opening, ‘across the ridge, and smaller than
the front rear walls and two of which 13 and 14 are the
end walls. The four walls 11 and ‘14 de?ne a lower floor 70 the area encompassed by lower ?oor walls Ill-'14 is ?rst
struction.
15 of normal living height. The lower floor is completed
by the provision of a ceiling 16 suspended from ceiling
cut; then dormer joists 40 are laid down, using bearing
blocks as necessary; then dormer ?oor 38, former walls
3,089,201
3
33-36, and dormer roof 37 are framed and built. Be
cause dormer joists 40 ‘are ?rst laid down, many shocks
for normal living activities in the ‘attic; said method com
prising the steps of
(a) cutting a rectangular opening of room dimension
in said roof at and through the ridge inwardly of the
and impacts and loads due to walking, dropping of lumber,
tools, etc, laying and nailing of ?oor boards, wall frame
studs, etc, roof rafters, etc, are taken by dormer studs
40 and not by ceiling studs 17.
Now having described the structure ‘and method herein
disclosed, reference should be had to the claims which
follow.
I claim:
1. A method for modifying ‘an existing single story
dwelling having an attic bottomed with ceiling joists for
the ceiling below said attic ‘and having a low pitched roof
side and end walls of the dwelling;
(b) thereafter laying down end bearing blocks on the
upper edges of the lower floor walls and between the
ceiling joists, with such blocks having their upper sur
faces above the upper surface of the ceiling;
10
Whose ridge is so low as to provide insufficient head room
for normal living ‘activities in the attic; said method com
prising the steps of
(at) cutting a rectangular opening of room. dimension
in saidroof at and through the ridge inwardly of the
side ‘and end walls of the dwelling;
(b) thereafter laying down end bearing blocks on the
upper edges of the lower floor walls and between the
ceiling joists, with such blocks having their upper sur
faces above the upper surface of the ceiling;
' (c) thereafter laying down ?oor joists under said roof
opening and on such blocks and between the ceiling 25
joists, with such ?oor joists having their lower edges
above and free of the ceiling and having their upper
edges above the upper edges of the ceiling joists;
(d) thereafter building room walls bearing on said
?oor joists and paralleling the dwelling walls and 30
‘ bounding said roof opening and extending above the
ridge;
1
i
(c) thereafter laying down ?oor joists under said roof
opening and on such blocks and between the ceiling
joists, with such ?oor joists having their lower edges
above and free of the ceiling and having their upper
edges above the upper edges of the ceiling joists;
(,c') thereafter laying on said ?oor joists a temporary
?ooring;
(d) thereafter building room walls bearing on said ?oor
joists and paralleling the dwelling walls and bounding
saidv roof opening and extending above the ridge;
(e) and ?nally constructing a roof on the upper edges
of the room walls.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
73,806
Hervey ____ .._ _________ __ Jan. 28, 1868
249,645
442,875
1,404,963
1,421,763
Love ________________ __ Nov. 15, 1881
Fitch ________________ __ Dec. K16, 1890
1,465,899
2,604,670
1922
1922
1923
1952
FOREIGN PATENTS
(e) and ?nally constructing ‘a roof on the upper edges
of the room walls.
Hyde ________________ __ Jan. 31,
Caldwell ______________ __ July 4,
Flagg _______________ __ Aug. 21,
Horowitz _____________ __ July 29,
910,918
France ______________ __ Feb. 18, 1946
2. A method for modifying an existing single story 35
dwelling having an attic bottomed with ceiling joists for
the ceiling below said attic and having ‘a low pitched roof
American Builder, pp. 80-83, Mar. 1955.
whose ridge is so low as to provide insu?'lcient head room
American Builder, July 1959, pp. 90 and 91.
OTHER REFERENCES
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