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Патент USA US3089281

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May 14, 1963
(5., R. COPELAND
3,089,271
APPARATUS FOR SKYWRITING
Filed Dec. 23, 1960
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5 Sheets-Sheet 1
11'
May 14, 1963
3,089,271
G. R. COPELAND
APPARATUS FOR SKYWRITING
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Dec. 23, 1960
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May 14, 1963
G. R. COPELAND
3,089,271
APPARATUS FOR SKYWRITING
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
Filed Dec. 25, 1960
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May 14, 1963
G. R. COPELAND
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APPARATUS FOR SKYWRITING
Filed Dec. 23, 1960
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3,089,271
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United Statesv Patent 0
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3,089,271
Patented May 14, 1963
2
1
lar control pattern whereby to visually reproduce the
3,089,271
APR’ARATUS FOR SKYWRITING
Gordon R. Copeland, Park Ridge, 11]., assignor to
Dorothy B. Copeland, Park Ridge, 111.
Filed Dec. 23, 1960, Ser. No. 78,151
8 Claims. (Cl. 40-—213)
same in the air or sky.
A further object of the invention resides in providing
to the manifold line, means whereby it can be selectively
adjusted, moved or shifted to different slanting (oblique)
positions relatively to the carrying aircraft in order to
obtain better and more convenient readability or visibility
of its ?rmament effected presentations for observers di
This invention relates to the art of so-called skywrit
rectly or substantially directly therebelow.
ing, more especially, having for an object to provide an
The ‘foregoing, as well as other objects, advantages and
apparatus and method for and of effecting in the ?rrna 10
meritorious
teachings of my invention, will be in part
ment the formation and visual presentation of intelli
obvious and in part pointed out in the following described
gence, delineation and/ or combinations thereof.
disclosure thereof, when taken in conjunction with the
Another object of the invention is to provide an ap
paratus operable within or ‘from an airplane or other
type offiight effecting and sustaining vehicle whereby
accompanying drawings, it being understood that the
15 form of the invention presented herein is precise and What
is now considered to vbe the better mode of embodying
its principles, but that other and further modi?cations
and changes may be made in speci?c embodiment with
out departing from its essential features.
formed and presented in the sky for reading and view
The invention affords material advantages and im
20
ing, particularly, from below.
provements over the heretofore known and/or practiced
It is also an object of the invention to provide a sky
methods of “skywriting” in that by and with its usage,
writing apparatus of the character above stated which,
substantially any type of copy, design, intelligence, pic
by reason of its novel construction, will produce bene
ture, and/or combinations thereof, that can be produced
?cial, new and unexpected advantages and results, in
cluding the capacity to form and present, for viewing, in 25 by line drawings or formations, can be reproduced in the
air or ?rmament. Moreover, such reproductions can be
the ?rmament substantially any type of copy, design,
effected in periods of time much less than those required
drawing, intelligence, picture or symbol capable of being
advertisements (word, design and/or symbol) line draw
ings or pictures, messages, news and other intelligible and
kindred embodiments may be rapidly and effectively
produced by scanning lines, or combinations thereof, in
but a fraction of the time heretofore required by now
existing apparatus and methods, even where such pre
sentations capable of being effected thereby.
More speci?cally, an object of the invention is to pro
vide an apparatus for and a method of forming an aerial
for like sky written reproductions by prevalent methods.
Consequently, a sign, picture or symbol, or combina
tions thereof, having visual acuity in the air or ?rmament
can be elfected rapidly enough to be observed and/or
read in its entirety rather than requiring an objection
able length of time for it to be completed or spelled out.
Also, this rapid reproduction in the air or ?rmarnent,
“smoke” (vapor) emitted at properly pretimed intervals 35 permits display thereof in its entirety, rather than frag
mental or partial display, as by dissipation or partial
from a manifold line containing smoke producing ma
dissipation such as occurs and is objectionably experi
terial and automatically operated discharge or release
enced
"with said prevalent methods.
'
valves; the manifold line and all equipment required for
The method and the apparatus for practicing the in
the formation of the sign being carried by an aircraft fly
vention also permit substantially unlimited changeability
ing a level and straight course at a predetermined speed
of reproduction copy, without the necessity of making
in the sky in a single pass, and capable of rapidly draw
major
adjustments or modi?cations, while an airplane
ing, printing, writing or depicting preprepared pattern
carrying the apparatus is in flight. Thereby, an original
guided visual matter in the air ‘by means of so-called
sign which is composed of incremental puffs or trails of
“skywriting” in a substantially vertical instead of a hori 45 copy can be repeated, or several ‘different copies can be
reproduced in the ?rmament during a single ?ight of the
zontal plane without regard to the style of drawing,
airplane.
printing or writing insolong as such can be effected by
Furthermore, because the sky written reproduction is
line smoke formations.
effected in a near or substantially vertical plane, instead
A further object of the invention is to provide an ap
paratus for presenting viewable matters in the air or 50 of a horizontal plane, as is the present practice, a greatly
improved observation or viewing from below and at a
sky, including letters, numerals, symbols, line drawings
distance, is assured.
or layouts, etc., by the forming of smoke or vapor trails
As heretofore stated, my invention includes, in addi
therein, these in accordance with preprepared patterns,
tion to the method for accomplishing the skywriting
using, in some instances, a chemical material (a liquid
technique, apparatus for its carrying out or performance.
or combinations of liquids) having an affinity for mois
The
apparatus shown and described may, of course, be
ture which when discharged into the air and supplied
with moisture will produce a visible vapor or “smoke,”
the discharge of said material being effected in pattern
precontrolled pulsings emitted from automatically oper
modi?ed in certain respects, though as herein presented,
it is capable of effective and satisfactory functioning.
Considered in its broad aspect, said apparatus, portable
in an aircraft or other ?ight attaining and sustaining ve
ated valves carried by and communicating with a mani 60 hicle, includes—
fold which in turn is carried by and depends or otherwise
(1) a preferably electrically operated multivalve mani
extends from a moving aircraft.
fold or boom which can be extended below or from the
Yet another object of the invention is to provide an
aircraft; a motor driven drum or means for storing the
apparatus, as above noted, having the valved chemical
manifold within the aircraft and for paying-out the same
matter carrying and discharging manifold so constructed 65 therefrom, and such plumbing as is required to pass a
that said matter is supplied thereby to the automatically
“smoke” or vapor producing chemical or matter from the
controlled and operated discharge valves at a constantly
aircraft source of supply or storage to the drum or means,
uniform and equalized pressure therethroughout, hence,
thence, to the manifold;
(2) a terminating weight connected to the manifold
70 having an aerodynamic envelope and means for stabilizing
its motion with respect to an airstream, plus means for
quence, assuring an accurate forming of the “smoke” or
rendering the same dirigible to the extent that the carry
vapor trail pulsings in faithful accordance with a particu
assuring its discharge from all of the valves into‘ the air
at an overall even or uniform pressure and in conse
3,089,271
3
4
ing envelope will have the ability, through controls, to
Suitable flooring Z is provided within the airplane
cause the manifold ‘to be slanted or de?ected either to
fuselage and at a suitable point thereon, receives and
the left or right of its normal vertical axis by shifting
of- its lower end, whereby to improve viewability of pro
?xedly supports vertical pillars or standards 3 having
bearings 3' on their upper ends rotatably supporting a
drum 4 transversely of the fuselage area, as shown in
FIGURES‘ 8 and 9 of the drawings. One end portion
duced skywriting' from below, and,
(3) a photo scanning means, i.e., a photoelectric read
out device which scans a moving tape, cooperatively
associated therewith, and sends out an electrical “open”
signal to the appropriate valve or valves of the manifold
into and without it and has an outward extension 5'
appearing on the tape, whereby controlled incremental
puffs or trails of “smoke” or vapor will be emitted by
an outlet way 7 in an end portion of the drum periphery,
for a purpose hereinafter described.
of the shaft 5 supporting the drum is hollow, opening
‘ provided on its free end with one element of a slip ?tting
on the basis of imprinted, inscribed or punched data 10 6, While the inner portion thereof communicates with
said valve or valves.
The periphery of the drum 4 is formed throughout its
In the drawings:
width with a spirally laid groove or way 8 beginning
FIGURE 1 is a view showing a sky written sign effected 15 adjacent the outlet way 7, the length of which substan
by the usage of my invention, the aircraft carrying the
tially coincides with that of the apparatus manifold 13,
producing apparatus being shown in association there
also hereinafter described, whereby to wholly receive
with.
the same.
FIGURE 2 is a detail in perspective showing increments
Rotary motion is transmitted to the drum ‘from an
or puffs of smoke as emitted from the skywriting mani 20 electric motor 9 by means of a belt 10 engaged with
fold or boom, illustrating the steps of expansion thereof
and about pulleys ‘111 and 12 mounted, respectively, on
until they merge into a homogeneous body.
the motor and drum shaft.
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary side elevation, partly in
To guide the manifold or boom 13 onto and effect its
longitudinal section, showing a portion of the apparatus
spiral winding in a single layer about and along the drum
carrying aircraft, the skywriting manifold or boom and 25 4 in the spiral way 8, a screw-threaded shaft 14, parallel
the'dirigible weight, of aerodynamic design, connected
to the drum- periphery and driven from the motor 9
through gearing 15, is journalled in appropriate bear
to and carried by the lower end of the manifold.
ings 16. Relatively spaced guide roller carrying bracket
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged fragmentary detail in longi
tudinal section of a port-ion of the skywri-ting manifold
arms 17 having internally screw-threaded sleeves ‘are
showing the smoke or vapor producing chemical carry 30 threadedly engaged with the shaft and have the mani
fold threaded therebetween (see FIGURE 9).
ing hose, one of the pressure equalizing cylinders ?xedly
secured thereto, an eleotromagnetically actuated ejection
valve and nozzle, and the ?exible form retaining en
Thus,
with collective rotation of the drum and the shaft, the
guide rollers will traverse the width of the drum in paral~
velope encasing the assembly.
lelism thereto and direct or guide said manifold onto or
FIGURE 5 is a transverse section taken on the line 35 from the drum.
Other and ?xedly mounted relatively spaced guide rol
5-5 of FIGURE 4, looking in the direction in which
lers 18 are positioned on the fuselage bottom below
the arrows point.
the ?oor positioned rollers and on the opposite sides of
an opening in said bottom whereby the manifold 13
FIGURE ‘6 is a like section taken on the line 6—6 of
FIGURE 4, looking in the direction in which the arrows
points.
FIGURE 7 is a similar sectional view taken on the line
7—7 of FIGURE 4, looking in the direction in which
the arrows point.
40
will be satisfactorily guided during its “paying-out” from
or winding-in onto the drum 4.
The manifold or boom 13 is of a single length (two
hundred feet more or less) and includes in its assembly
or construction, a ?exible conduit or hose 19, a plurality
FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary vertical cross-sectional
view through the fuselage of the apparatus carrying air 45 or series of relatively equi-spaced cylinders 20 ?xedly
secured to the conduit throughout its length and com
craft showing the positioning and mounting of the mani
fold winding or receiving drum therein.
FIGURE 9 is an enlarged fragmental vertical section
rnunicable therewith, ?exible electrical cables 21 com
prising relatively insulated conductors or wiring, and a
?exible form retaining envelope or casing 22 of suitable
through the fuselage of the aircraft showing the mani
fold receiving and winding drum in elevation together 50 aerodynamic design receiving and housing the hose, cylin
ders and cables. If required, ?exible steel cables 23* may
with the manifold level laying means and the smoke or
be received and anchored within the envelope throughout
vapor producing chemical storage and plumbing.
its length for improving its tensile strength.
FIGURE 10 is a detail in perspective of ‘the photo
The hose 19, of desired cross-sectional area, shape and
electric scanning device, showing the relationship of the
photoelectric cell housings, the light source housing and 55 length, is preferably positioned adjacent the normally lead
ing edge of the envelope 22, while the equi-spaced cylin~
the copy carrying sheet or tape in scanning relation
ders 20 are positioned rearwardly thereof in ?xed juxta
thereto.
'
posed relation, as shown in FIGURE 4 of the drawings.
FIGURE '11 is an enlarged and fragmentary horizontal
Said cylinders are of complemental construction and
section taken on the line 11-11 of FIGURE 12, looking
60 form, each consisting of a form sustaining though ?exible
in the direction in which the arrows point.
FIGURE 12 is a section taken on the line 12—12 of
FIGURE 11, looking in the direction in which the arrows
point, and,
compartmented body. The normally upper compartment
communicates with the hose 19’ by way of a sleeve 24
therein, one end of which is ?ared, at 24’, to provide a
valve seat ‘arranged within the cylinder. A coniform
FIGURE 13 is an enlarged detail showing the con
struction and/ or design of the slide guiding head of one 65 valve 25 is engageable on the seat under urge or pres
sure exerted thereon by a coiled spring 26, the tension
of the photoelectric cell containers.
of which is selectively adjustable or variable by a co
Referring in detail to the accompanying drawings
axially disposed screw 26' threadedly engaged in and
through the outer wall of the cylinder with its outer end
tion, the numeral 1 indicates, generally, ‘an airplane hav 70 kerfed and exposed to facilitate its screw adjustment.
ing su?icient load area and lift ef?ciency, employed to
The cylinder lower compartment, of less area than the
carry and practice the same, though it will be understood
upper, receives an outwardly and laterally discharging
that other types of aircraft (?ight e?ecting and sustain
valved jet nozzle 27 whose inner end opens into and
ing vehicles) may be substituted therefor, such as condi-'
communicates with the lower end of the upper compart
tions or preference may dictate.
ment chamber. Suitable electromagnetic operating means
wherein I have shown the aforesaid form of my inven
3,089,271
5
6
28 are received and retained within the compartment and
are connected to the nozzle valve for automatically ac
tuating the same to open and/or closed positions, it be
ing noted in this connection that whereas the jet nozzle
discharges outwardly of and from the envelope, it pref
horizontally movable or slideable through channelled
guide strips 46' ?xed to the end walls of the housing
in spaced cooperative relation to the lower ends of the
scanners. Rollers 47, mounted in housing wall attached
brackets 47' ?atly engage and direct the sheet in such
erably, does not protrude therefrom, for obvious reasons.
movement.
In order that electrical energy can be selectively sup
plied to the electromagnetic valve operating means, con
ductors ‘29 are extended from the cable 21 within and
extending throughout the length of the envelope 22 and
are connected thereto.
The copy or pattern sheet 46, it should be noted, is as
wide as the photoelectric scanning unit will receptively
permit. It can be of any desired length and is fed or
moved through the unit by means of relatively juxtaposed
and suitable supported driver rolls 48, one of which is
connected to and rotated by a likewise supported electric
motor 49, and between which the pattern sheet is threaded
and frictionally engaged. Spools 50‘ are employed .to
A terminating weight device 30 having an envelope of
aerodynamic design is connected to the free and, at times,
lower end of the manifold, serving to retain it as nearly
perpendicular as is practical, when extended. Airfoils 31 15 receive the sheet and to assure its effective passage to and
and paravanes 32 are provided to the device and function,
respectively, to stabilize its motion with respect to an
airstream and to effect a controlled slanting or obliquiug
thereof either to the left or the right from its extended
by the scanning unit, being appropriately rotatably sup
ported in aligned relation to the feed rollers 47. Thus,
as the copy or pattern sheet passes between the light
source (lamps 42) and the photoelectric cells, from one
substantially vertical position whereby to improve the 20 spool 50 to the other, as shown in FIGURE 10 of the
viewability of produced skywriting from below. Selective
operation of the paravanes, it will be understood, will be
effected from within the equipped aircraft by suitable
controls (not shown), such for example as the standard
drawings, the copy thereon interrupts the light entering
said cells. Thereby, the various individual electrical cir
cuits including the photoelectric cells and the electro
.magnetically operated valved jet nozzles 27 are respon
‘sively activated with resultant opening and closing of the
type of Servo controls.
latter.
The photoelectric readout or scanning unit of the in
Smoke or vapor producing material such as titanium
vention comprises a housing 33 of rectangular form, the
tetrachloride (TiCl4), employed for forming the sky
upstanding walls of which are intermediately inwardly
writing characters or ?gures, is stored in tanks 51 suitably
shouldered, as at 33’, while the bottom and top there
of are open. A cap-‘like flat or plane support 34, of 30 arranged and supported within the aircraft fuselage 1 and
is maintained under pressure by pressurized dry air in
shape and size as will permit its snug though removable
tanks 52 also arranged and supported within the aircraft
engagement over the inwardly offset upper portions of
fuselage and connected to the ?rst mentioned tanks by
the housing walls, is positioned over the open upper end
valved conduits 53. The tanks 51 intercommunicate and
of the housing, as shown in FIGURE 12 of the drawings,
and has a plurality of equi-spaced relatively parallel ways 35 one thereof has a valved out?ow pipe 54 connected there
to, the outer end of which is provided with a slip ?tting
35, of corresponding lengths, formed in and transversely
.6’ companionate to and joinable with the hereinbefore
thereof. An in-line series of vertically disposed containers
described drum shaft equipped slip ?tting ‘6. In conse
36, each housing a photoelectric cell (not shown) are
quence, it will be seen that as and when required, TiClr
received and movably supported by the caplike support.
or other vapor producing material will be supplied to the
The number of containers and cells corresponds to the
hose 19 of the manifold 13.
number of cylinders 20 and electromagnetically operated
In order that electrical connections will be made be
jet nozzles 27 of the manifold. To effect such support,
tween the photoelectric scanning unit and the electric
each container has a vertically positioned screw-threaded
wiring to and including the electromagnetically operated
shank 37 ?xedly and centrally connected to its upper end,
immovably receiving a ribbed nut 38 thereon. Follow 45 jet valves within the cables 21 carried by the manifold
13, following its lowering to a skywriting position, a
ing prepositioning or adjustment of the ribbed nut on
quick disconnect plug 55, suitably electrically connected
their shanks, the upper extended portions- of the shanks
by wiring 56 to the photoelectric cells of the scanning
are individually engaged through the ways 35, as shown
unit, is plugged into a companionate ?tting 55' and is
in FIGURE 13, and relatively slidably adjusted ‘and ar
ranged in the manner shown in FIGURE 11 of the draw 50 disconnected therefrom before the manifold is raised or
rewound on the drum 4.
ings. Thereupon, lock washers 39* and knurled lock nuts
In practicing the method and operation of the apparatus
40 are turned onto the extended upper ends of the shanks,
embodying my invention, it is preferable, but not neces
positively locking their respective photoelectric cell con
sary, that a copy or pattern sheet 46 depicting, illustrating
tainers 36 in a particularly effected line relationing and
or bearing that which is to be sky written be ?rst produced.
against turning movement.
The sheet can be made from translucent paper, translu
Electrical conductors, indicated by the numeral 41, are
cent or transparent plastic, etc. The copy preparation
connected to the terminals of each container held photo
(intelligence, designs, drawings or symbols and/or com
electric cell, extending to a suitable source of electrical
bina-tions thereof) is done on the ‘sheet with an opaque or
energy (not shown) and to the electrical conductors
passed through the manifold electric cables 21 to the in 60 semieopaque material, as for example, ink. With com
pletion, the copy sheet is preferably wound on one of
dividual electromagnetic operating means 28 for the jet
the spools 50'.
nozzles 27.
Assuming that an apparatus equipped aircraft, includ
As a light source for the photoelectric means of the
ing smoke or vapor producing material, is airborne, the
scanning unit, a plurality of linear electric lamps 42
v(?orescent or other) and electrical energy supplied con 65 copy provided spool 50 is properly positioned with rela
tion to the photoelectric scanning unit with a receiving
tact brackets therefor are mounted in a tray-like receptacle
spool 50 also properly positioned to receive the sheet as
43 received in the lower portion of the housing 33 below
it passes from said unit.
said scanning means and the shouldered portion 33’ of
The drum 4 is now rotated in a direction to pay-out the
A translucent or transparent shelf 44 is received and 70 manifold 13 to its full and ‘extended length below the air
craft. When so paid-out, the manifold, because of its
horizontally supported in channelled strips 45 secured to
?exibility, weight and the wind resistance it encounters
the walls of the housing below its shouldered portion 33'
passing through the air, will assume or take a curvature
spaced from the lower ends of the photoelectric scanners,
substantially like that shown in FIGURE 1 of the draw
permitting the passage of a copy or layout supplied pat
tern sheet 46 between it and said scanners. The sheet is 75 ings. Therefore, to assure and effect vertical presentation
the housing.
3,089,271
7
8
of the later-1y produced‘ increments or trails of smoke in
the sky, the individual photoelectric cell containers 36
a plurality of not yet merged “smoke” increments or puffs,
are moved to and adjusted in their respective transverse
Ways 35 in the support 34 to relative positions where they
will conform to the'curvature of the manifold. In conse
quence, the top and upper of said laterly jet nozzle pro
duced smoke trails will precede the lower ones to such
an extent that when the lower ones are effected by the
lower jet nozzles on the curved manifold, ‘all thereof will
be vertical. Of course, when this curvature adjustment 10
has been established or matched as between the manifold
and the numeral six is shown as being a solid or homoge
neous body such as will be formed as and when said in
crements or puffs are expanded and merged.
Because a “smoke” constituted display or presentation
effected by and with my invention will be written rapidly,
dissipation of the fore part thereof, before it is completed,
will be prevented. Therefore, a longer sign may be ef
fected in its entirety without the need of an observer Wait
ing an objectionable length of time for it to be completed
or spelled out-animus dissipation-as is the case with
now prevalent forms or methods of skywriting. Also, it
and the adjusted containers 36, it will remain constant for
will be understood and appreciated that the data or lay
all other and subsequently sky written signs, irrespective
out provided to a copy or pattern carrying sheet, such as
of their compositions. Also, further enhancement of
the sky written signs and their viewability from below 15 indicated at 46, may be in form of printing, script or hand
writing prepared during the actual ?ight of an equipped
will be eifected by causing the manifold to be shifted
aircraft, as when a message or the like should be trans
either to the left or right of the aircraft by operating the
servo control therein to adjust the paravanes 32 on the
envelope of the weight device 30 to positions whereby said
mitted by radio or other methods of communication to
the equipped aircraft and then prepared, as above ex
manifold will be slanted or obliqued to or at an angle to 20
plained, for skywriting thereby.
its normal vertical axis, i.e., 30° or 40° from the vertical.
With the manifold 13 and aerodynamic weight member
30 in extended positions below the aircraft ready for pat
tern controlled ejection of the TiCl4 ‘from its nozzles 27,
electrical connection is made between the ?ttings 55‘—55' 25
trails of the smoke producing material (TiCl4) ejected by
the hereinbefore described jet nozzles with predetermined
electrically interconnecting the nozzles, via the electrical
wiring in the manifold contained cables 21 and the con
In the practicing of my invention in arid areas, i.e., in
air having a materially reduced moisture content, it may
become necessary to supplement the increments, puffs or
quantities of moisture in order to assure its rapid and ef
fectual “smoke” conversion. To such end, it will be un
derstood that the manifold 13‘ may be constructed to in
ductors 56 with the photoelectric cells individually housed
clude a suitable form of liquid supplied hose appropriately
in the containers 36. TiCL, is supplied to the manifold
hose 19 from the now opened supply 51 under ‘air pres 30 valved to cooperate with the smoke producing jet nozzles.
With completion of a skywriting operation, such as
sure from the tanks 52 and passes therefrom into the
above, it will be understood that the scanning unit is dis
equi-spaced cylinders 201 by the previously spring pressure
connected from the manifold drum 4 by disengaging the
adjusted supply regulating valves 25. Thereby, the pres
sure of the smoke producing material is maintained rela
quick detachable electrical connection 55 from its com
tively constant and substantially uniform within said cy 35 panionate element 55' and, ‘of course, discontinuing the
supply of smoke producing mate-rial to the manifold hose
linders, from the top to the bottom of the manifold, each
119. Concurrently, the scanning unit is rendered inoper
of which has a head of compressible air, indicated at 57,
ative by breaking its connection with its source of electri
trapped in its upper end (see FIGURE 4 of the drawings).
cal supply. Thereupon, the manifold winding drum is
The photoelectric cells of the scanning unit are now
rotated in a direction to coil said manifold in a single layer
energized and the prepared copy or pattern carrying sheet 40 therealong by the “laying” action of the guide rollers 17
is fed or passed by the driver rolls 48 between said cells
moving over and along the screw-threaded shaft 14 which,
and the light source 42, rolling from one spool 50 onto
along with the drum 4, is driven by the motor 9. There
the other, as shown in FIGURE 10 of the drawings.
by, the weight member 30 will be juxtapositioned with
Thus, as the scanning unit accepts the copy carrying sheet,
relation to the underside of the aircraft fuselage.
the opaque or semi-opaque layout of the to be sky written 45
To assure safety, the weight member 30 may be and
display thereon will interrupt the light entering the cells.
preferably is provided with a suitable type of ?asher sig
In so doing, these e?ected changes of light intensity de
nal light ‘60 having electrical energy supplied thereto from
tected by the cells will cause the sending of electrical
a suitable source (not shown).
“open” signals to the electromagnetic operating means 28
I claim:
‘
whereby to open the appropriate valves and cause the 50
1. An apparatus for forming smoke constituted ‘char
responsive jet nozzles to emit increments or puffs of smoke
acters in the air including, amongst others, letters, nu
producing material into the air on the basis of the copy
merals, pictures or symbols or combinations thereof, com
or pattern carrying sheet and effect its production in the
prising a manifold carried by and extendible from a ve
?rmament, as shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 of the draw
hicle, a plurality of relatively longitudinally spaced valved
ings and indicated at 58. In this connection, it will be 55 discharge nozzles on and communicating with the mani
borne in mind that the number of photoelectric cells in
fold, electrically operated means for opening and closing
the scanning unit equal the number of electromagnetically
the nozzle valves, and a plurality of relatively adjustable
operated valve jet nozzles and, of course, equal the num
guide pattern scanning photoelectric cells individually
ber of increments, pu?s or trails 58 that will make up the
connected to the individual electrically operated means
60 for activating the same.
“smoke” written sky display or presentation.
2. An apparatus for forming smoke constituted char
The prepared copy or pattern carrying sheet 46 may be
acters in the air including, amongst others, letters, nu
rerun through the scanning unit to effect repeated repro
merals, pictures or symbols or combinations thereof, com
duction of the sky written display, or said sheet may be
prising a vehicle carried and extendible manifold, a plu
provided with duplicates thereof for continuous or con
rality of valved discharge nozzles along and communicat
secutive passing through the scanning unit. By the same
ing with the manifold, ?rst means for opening and closing
token, the sheet may have a plurality of different lay
the nozzle valves, a housing within the vehicle having a
outs thereon whereby different smoke written or e?ected
displays may be reproduced in the sky from the equipped
plurality of relatively parallel and transversely disposed
ways formed in the top thereof, and a plurality of guide
lane.
P The nozzle ejected increments or puffs 58 of smoke 70 pattern scanning photoelectric cells individually supported
producing material will expand and merge, following
their ejection, and form homogeneous bodies, such as in
Within the housing from the top thereof adjustable along
said ways and connected to the [?rst means for activating
the same.
dicated at 59. Thus, the resulting transition will resem
3. An apparatus for forming smoke constituted char
ble that which is illustrated by FIGURE 1 of the draw
ings, wherein the numeral one is shown as consisting of 75 acters in the air including, amongst others, letters, numer
3,089,271
als, pictures or symbols or combinations thereof, com
prising a manifold carried by and extendible from a ve
ihicle, a plurality of spaced valved discharge nozzles along
and communicating with the manifold, electrically oper
ated means for opening and closing the nozzle valves, a
housing within the vehicle having a guide pattern receiv
ing way therethrough, and a plurality of guide pattern
scanning photoelectric cells individually supported within
the housing adjustable to different positions transversely
10
communication between the same and the manifold, valved
discharge nozzles within and communicating with each
of the cylinders, electrically operated means for open
ing and closing the nozzle valves, and a plurality of rela
tively adjustable guide pattern scanning photoelectric
cells individually connected to the individual electrically
operated means for activating the same.
7. An apparatus for forming smoke constituted char
acters in the air including, amongst others, letters, nu
of the same and in parallel relation cooperatively posi 10 merals, pictures or symbols or combinations thereof,
comprising a manifold carried by and extendible from
tioned with relation to said way, said cells being indi
a vehicle, a plurality of chambered cylinders along and
vidually electrically connected to the individual electri
communicable with the manifold, pressure responsive
cally operated means for activating the same.
valves controlling communication between the cylinders
4. An apparatus for forming smoke constituted char
acters in the air including, amongst others, letters, numer 15 and the manifold, valved discharge nozzles on the com
municating with the cylinders, electrically operated means
als, pictures or symbols or combinations thereof, com
within the cylinders for opening and closing the nozzle
prising a manifold carried by and extendible from a ve
valves, a housing within the vehicle having a guide pattern
hicle, an aerodynamically designed weight carried on the
receiving way therethrough, and a plurality of guide pat
free end of said manifold, means on said weight for
causing the same, when in motion, to be moved laterally 20 tern scanning photoelectric cells individually and adjust
whereby to slant said manifold at an angle to the perpen
dicular, a plurality of valved discharge nozzles along and
communicating with the manifold, ?rst means for open
ably supported within said housing in cooperative relation
to said way adjustable thereon in parallel relation and in
dividually connected to the individual electrically oper
ated means for activating the same.
ing and closing the nozzle valves, and photoelectric guide
8. In combination with a vehicle, a manifold extend
pattern scanning means cooperatively associated with said 25
ing therefrom, photoelectric scannnig means carried by
?rst means for operating the same.
the vehicle including a plurality of relatively independ
5. An apparatus for forming smoke constituted char
acters in the air including, amongst others, letters, numer
als, pictures or symbols or combinations thereof, com
ently adjustable photoelectric cells, a light source in co
operative relation thereto and spaced therefrom to pro~
prising a manifold carried by and extendible from a ve 30 vide a way therebetween, means for moving a sheet
hicle, a plurality of chambered cylinders along and com
municable with the manifold, pressure actuated adjust
able valves within the cylinders controlling communi
cation between the same and the manifold, valved dis
through the way, said sheet having copy matter thereon
to be reproduced, a plurality of valved nozzles along and
communicating with the manifold individually electrically
connected to individual photoelectric cells and operable
charged nozzles within each of the cylinders, means for 35 thereby, and means on the manifold for selectively chang
opening and closing the nozzle valves, and photoelectric
guide pattern scanning means cooperatively associated
with said last mentioned means for activating the same.
6. An apparatus for forming smoke constituted char
acters in the air including, amongst others, letters, nu 40
merals, pictures or symbols or combinations thereof,
comprising a manifold carried by and extendible from
a vehicle, a plurality of chambered cylinders along and
communicable with the manifold, pressure responsive and
activated valve means within the cylinders controlling
ing the angular positioning thereof with relation to the
vehicle.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,716,794
1,986,942
2,065,024
Remey ______________ __ June 11, 1929
Remey ______________ __ Jan. 8, 1935
Remey ______________ __ Dec. 22, 1936
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