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Патент USA US3089923

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May 14, 1953
w. GARTEN ETAL
3,089,913
BATTERY CELL
Filed Jan. 23, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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May 14, 1963
3,089,913
w. GARTEN ETAL
BATTERY CELL
Filed Jan. 23. 1959
2 Shuts-Shut 2
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United grates Patent.
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Patented May 14, 1963
2
in hermetically sealed condition Without building up harm
3,089,913
ful overpressure, as well as to provide a simple and
Wilhelm Garten, Hagen, Westphalia, Klaus Dehmelt and
economical method for achieving this objective.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention
BATTERY CELL
Hans von Dohren, Frankfurt am Main, and Freirnut
Peters, Hagen, Westphalia, Germany, assignors to
Varta Aktiengesellschait
Filed Jan. 23, 1959, Ser. No. 788,599
Claims priority, application Germany Jan. 25, 1958
11 Claims. (Cl. 136-6)
will become apparent from a further reading of the
description and the appended claims.
With the above and other objects in View, the present
invention contemplates an alkaline storage battery cell,
comprising in combination, a casing, means for hermeti
10 cally sealing the casing, at least one positive and one
The present invention relates to a battery cell and a
negative electrode located in the casing, separator means
method of forming the same. More particularly, the
between adjacent electrodes, and an electrolyte contact-ing
present invention relates to an alkaline storage battery
the electrodes, the positive electrode including positive
cell ‘which is hermetically sealed.
active mass and the negative electrode including nega
When such cells are connected in series, conditions of 15 tiveactive mass, the quantity of positive active mass of
deep discharge sometimes occur in one or the other of the
the positive electrode measured in electrochemical equiv
cells, and gas formation under such conditions must be
alents being at least equal to the quantity of the negative
avoided or at least kept to very low limits, in view of the
mass of the negative electrode, the ability of thetneg'i
hermetical sealing of the battery cells. Obviously, the
tive electrode to store electric energy upon charging of
formation and accumulation of substantial quantities of 20 the battery being greater than the corresponding ability
gas would lead otherwise to explosions or bursting of the
of the positive electrode so that the negative electrode
cells.
possesses a charge reserve and the positive electrode a
More speci?cally, the present invention is concerned
discharge reserve, the positive electrode being in electri
with permanently hermetically sealed alkaline batteries
cal contact with an antipolar mass, and the negative elec
or cells thereof in which the electrolyte is contained and
trode being in elect-ricalcontact with an antipolar mass,
substantially adhered in the pores of the electrodes and
the quantity of antipolar mass of the negative electrode
separators.
being such that upon deep-discharge of the battery cell
Previously it vhas been proposed to provide permanently
and reversal of polarity in the same, oxidation of the
hermetically sealed batteries ‘with negative electrodes of
negative electrode will terminate and oxygen formation
such dimensions that the same possess a greater capacity 30 thereon will start after oxidation of the antipolar mass at
to accept electric energy, measured in ampere hours, and
a stage at ‘which the antipolar mass in contact with the
to discharge the same, than the positive electrodes,
positive electrode is only partially reduced and thus does
not evolve hydrogen gas.
l ,
whereby, furthermore, the negative electrodes are to be
at the time of sealing of the battery in such electro
According to one embodiment, the present invention
chemical state that the same are capable of accepting a 35 comprises in a charged alkaline storage battery cell, a
larger quantity of electric energy than the positive elec
casing, means for hermetically sealing the casing, at least
trodes. In other words, at the time of sealing the battery
one negative and at least one positive electrode located in
and prior to forming or charging the same, the negative
the casing, separator means between adjacent electrodes,
electrodes were to possess a charge reserve. In this
an electrolyte contacting the electrodes, the positive elec
manner it is possible to prevent harmful over-pressure in 40 trode including positive active mass and the negative
the sealed battery during charging and super~charging of
electrode including negative active mass, the total amount
the same, however, upon deep-discharge, such as can
of electrochemical equivalents of the negative active
happen in one or the other of in series connected cells,
mass of the negative electrode being maximally as great
dangerous over-pressure will occur which might cause
as‘ the total amount of electrochemical equivalents of the
45 positive active mass of the positive electrode, the amount
destruction of the battery.
Gas-tight batteries also have been described in which
of charged electrochemical equivalents of the positive
the positive electrode possesses a greater capacity to ac
active mass of the positive electrode being greater than
cept electric energy measured in ampere hours and to
the amount of charged electrochemical equivalents of the
discharge the same, than the negative electrode and in
negative active mass of the negative electrode so that the
which a greater amount of electric energy measured in 50 negative electrode possesses a charge reserve while the
positive electrode possesses a discharge reserve, an anti
ampere hours is stored in the positive electrodes than in
the negative electrodes at the time of sealing of the bat
tery, so that the positive electrodes possess a discharge
reserve. In this manner, during deep-discharge of the
polar mass in electrical contact 2with the positive electrode,
and an an-t-ipolar mass in electrical contact with the nega
tive electrode, the quantity of antipolar mass in contact
battery and reversal of ‘the polarity of the same, the in 55 with the negative electrode being such that upon deep
crease in pressure is at ?rst reduced, however, upon pro
discharge of the battery cell and reversal of polarity in
longed reversal of polarity excessive over-pressure will oc
the same, oxidation of the negative electrode will termi
cur Within the cell and possibly lead to damage or destruc
nate and oxygen vformation thereon will startafter oxi
tion of the same.
dation of the antipolar mass at a stage at which the
It is therefore an object of the present invention to 60 antipolar mass in contact with the positive electrode is
overcome the above discussed shortcomings of prior art
only partially reduced and thus does not evolve hydrogen
batteries.
gas.
It is another object of the present invention to pro
‘ According to a preferred embodiment, the present in
vide a battery cell which can be operated in sealed condi
vention includes in an unformed alkaline storage battery
tion without forming excessive over-pressure under condi 65 cell, in combination, a casing, means for ‘hermetically seal
tions of super-charge and deep discharge.
ing the casing, at least one negative and at least one posi
It is a ‘further object of the present invention to pro
vide a method for forming a sealed storage battery which
will not be subject to the above described disadvantages.
tive electrode located’ in the casing, separator means be
tween adjacent electrodes, an electrolyte contact-ing the
electrodes, the positive electrode including positive active
It is yet another object of the present invention to pro 70 mass and the negative electrode including negative active
mass, the total amount of electrochemical equivalents of
nected in series, which storage battery can be operated
the negative active mass of the negative electrode being
vide a storage battery comprising a plurality of cells con
3,059,913
a)
A.
maximally as great as the total amount of electrochemical
discharge reserve, furthermore providing that the positive
equivalents of the positive active mass of the positive elec
trode, the negative electrode possessing a charge reserve
while the positive electrode possessing a discharge reserve,
electrode contains in addition to its regular active mass,
a sufficient quantity of antipolar mass, for instance
the negative active mass of the negative electrode being
substantially completely in uncharged state and either a
portion only of the positive active mass of the positive
Cd(OH)2 that upon deep-discharge and reversal of polar
ity the oxidation of the antipolar mass of the negative
electrode is completed and oxygen generation starts only
at a stage when the ‘antipolar mass forming part of or
electrode being in charged state so that, when the posi
being electrically connected with the positive electrode, is
tive and negative electrodes are charged together to the full
only partially reduced so that no hydrogen gas evolves at
the same.
chargeable capacity of the positive electrode, a portion of
In the case of a nickel-cadmium battery, taken as an
negative active mass of the negative electrode remains un~
example herein, the following will occur:
charged, an antipolar mass in electrical contact with the
In the case of deep-discharge of the storage battery cell
positive electrode, and an antipolar mass in electrical
with concurrent reversal of its polarity, the capacity of the
contact with the negative electrode, or alternatively the
antipolar mass in contact with the negative electrode con 15 battery will be limited by its negative electrode whereby
at ?rst the voltage will drop only slightly below 0 volt
sisting partly of Ni(OH)3, the latter being present in a
since the positive electrode, due to its discharge reserve,
quantity corresponding to the discharge reserve of the
maintains its original potential. During this period, the
positive electrode so that in both cases upon deep-dis
negative electrode whose polarity has been reversed does
charge of the battery cell and reversal of polarity in the
same, oxidation of the negative electrode will terminate 20 not yet evolve any oxygen since the antipolar mass which
according to the present invention is included in or con
and oxygen formation thereon will start after oxidation
nected with the negative electrode, consisting for instance
of the antipolar mass at a stage at which the antipolar
of Ni(OH)2, must first be charged, i.e. oxidized to
mass in contact with the positive electrode is only partially
Ni(OH)3. After exhaustion of the discharge reserve of
reduced and thus does not evolve hydrogen gas.
the positive electrode, the polarity of the same is reversed,
The part of the positive electrode which, as described
whereafter reduction of the antipolar mass of the positive
above, is in charged state may consist of pre-oxidized ma
electrode to metallic cadmium will start without produc
terial such as Ni(OH)3, or the negative active mass of the
ing hydrogen gas. The voltage is now ?nally reversed
negative electrode may include a portion which is oxidized
to a potential which corresponds inversely to the charge
beyond the state of oxidation obtained upon complete dis
potential of a nickel-cadmium cell.
charge of the cell, consisting for instance of cadmium per
Before all of the antipolar mass of the positive elec
oxide, :and corresponding to‘ the discharge reserve of the
trode, i.e. the Cd(OH)2, is reduced to Cd, oxygen gas
positive electrode.
formation of the now oxidized antipolar mass of the
According to another embodiment of the present inven
negative electrode will start. The thus formed oxygen gas
tion, the alkaline electrolyte which is in contact with the
will oxidize the already formed metallic Cd surface areas
electrodes, will contain active oxygen, for instance in the
at the positive electrode and in this manner it is achieved
form of a per-oxy compound soluble in the electrolyte,
according to the present invention that upon deep-dis
in a quantity corresponding in electrochemical equivalents
charge of the cell an equilibrium will be established be
to the discharge reserve of the positive electrode. Upon
tween oxygen gas formation and consumption.
sealing and forming of the battery cell, the per-oxy com
In the case of super-charging, formation of hydrogen
pound will then react to create the above discharge re
gas will be prevented since the negative electrode possesses
serve.
a charge reserve. The oxygen gas generated at the positive
The present invention also comprises in a method of
electrode will be bound by the metallic cadmium mass
forming an alkaline storage ‘battery cell having at least
of the negative electrode in the form of an oxide or hy
one positive and at least one negative electrode, each of
the electrodes including regular and antipolar active mass, 45 droxide. Thus, equilibrium between oxygen gas forma
tion and consumption will be established already at a very
the quantity of ‘regular active mass of the positive elec
low oxygen gas pressure.
trode measured in electrochemical equivalents being at
By way of example only, the following relative dimen
least equal to the quantity of regular active mass of the
sions of a storage battery according to the present inven
negative electrode, the step of precharging a portion of
the regular active mass of the positive electrode, her-meti 50 tion are given.
cally sealing and thereafter charging the cell, so that when
Example I
the positive and the negative electrodes are charged to
Percent
gether to the full chargeable capacity of the positive elec
Capacity of the battery _______________________ -_ 100
trode, a portion of the regular active mass of the negative
Regular negative active mass of the negative elec
electrode remains uncharged.
trode, expressed in electrochemical equivalents-" 110
55
Thus, according to the present invention, it is possible to
Antipolar mass of the negative electrode, expressed
provide a hermetically sealed storage battery in which
in electrochemical equivalents _______________ __ 30
during charging as well as during super-charging and also
during discharging ‘and deep-discharge connected with re
Charge reserve of the negative electrode, expressed in
electrochemical equivalents ________________ __
10
versal of polarity, hydrogen gas formation will not occur 60 Regular positive active mass of the positive electrode,
and oxygen gas will evolve only within limits which will
expressed in electrochemical equivalents ______ __ 120
not cause harmful over-pressure within the hermetically
Antipolar mass of the positive electrode, expressed in
sealed cell. Thus, the storage battery according to the
present invention appears capable of safe and reliable
operation as a hermetically sealed battery under all pos 65
sible operating conditions.
The present invention accomplishes its objectives by
electrochemical equivalents _________________ a-
20
Discharge reserve of the positive electrode, expressed
in electrochemical equivalents _______________ __
20
The novel features which are considered as character
istic for the invention are set forth in particular in the
providing that the quantity of active mass forming part of
appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as
the positive electrode, measured in electrochemical equiv
to its construction and its method of operation, together
alents, is equal to or greater than the corresponding quan 70 with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best
tity of the active mass of the negative electrode, further
understood from the following description of speci?c
more that in any condition the negative electrode possesses
embodiments when read in connection with the accom
a greater ability for storing electric energy than the posi
panying drawings, in which:
tive electrode, so that the negative electrode possesses a
FIGS. 1 and 2 schematically illustrate the conditions
charge reserve and consequently the positive electrode a 75 prevailing in the hermetically sealed alkaline storage
3
3,089,913
battery ‘of the present invention during discharge and
deep-discharge of the same;
FIGS. 3 and 4 schematically illustrate the conditions
6
of the positive and/or negative electrodes are contained
in separate portions of the same spaced from the regular
active masses.
prevailing in the hermetically sealed alkaline storage
battery of the present invention during the last stage of
charging of the same, and, during subsequent super
charging of the battery.
It has been found to be particularly advantageous to
use in the storage battery according to the present inven
tion electrodes which include electrically conductive car
rier members, preferably sinter or press electrodes, and in
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to
which the regular and/or antipolar active masses are
FIG. 1, it will be seen that therein the electrochemical
formed by chemical and/or electrochemical methods.
equivalents of the negative and positive electrodes of the 10
The discharge reserve of the positive electrode which
battery cell are schematically illustrated. Hereby, refer
is provided according to the present invention can be ar
ence numeral 1 indicates the regular negative mass which
ranged by having the regular active mass of the positive
includes the mass of the charge reserve, in the drawing
electrode, prior to sealing of the battery, consisting, in a
particularly indicated by reference numeral 3. Reference
proportion corresponding to the discharge reserve of the
numeral 4 denotes the antipolar mass which has been 15 positive electrode, of pre-oxidized mass, for instance
added in the negative electrode.
Ni( OH) 3, subsequent sealing of the battery and charging
The regular active mass of the positive electrode is
or forming of the same in sealed condition.
identi?ed by reference numeral 2 and the antipolar mass
Finally, it is possible, according to the present inven
added to the positive electrode by reference numeral 5.
tion, to obtain in the battery a condition corresponding
FIG. 2 illustrates the time curve of pressure and elec 20 to the desired discharge reserve of the positive electrode,
tric potential during discharge and deep-discharge with
by including during the assembly of the battery and prior
reversal of polarity. t indicates the time, p the pressure
to sealing of the same, in the alkaline electrolyte active
oxygen, for instance in the form of per-oxy compounds
and V the voltage. Time extends along the abscissa, and
pressure and voltage along the ordinate. The full line
which are soluble in the alkaline electrolyte, such as per
starting at the left upper portion of the ?gure somewhat 25 borates or percarbonates. The thus introduced active
above +1 v. and extending towards the right lower por
oxygen must then correspond in electrochemical equiva
tion somewhat below -——1 v. represents the potential at the
lents to the desired discharge reserve of the positive elec
terminals of the cell, the line indicated by a series of plus
trode. Thereafter, the cell or battery is sealed, and
signs represents the potential of the positive electrode
formed by being charged in sealed condition.
measured against an auxiliary electrode, the broken line
The novel features which are considered as character
similarly represents the potential of the negative elec
istic for the invention are set forth in particular in the
trode. The dotted line [2 illustrates the pressure develop—
appended claims. The invention itself, however, both
ment in the sealed cell.
In similar manner, FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate schemati
as to its construction and its method of operation, to
gether with additional objects and advantages thereof, will
cally the conditions prevailing in the storage battery cell 35 be best understood from the following description of
according to the present invention during the last stages
speci?c embodiments when read in connection with the
of charging of the same and during super-charging.
accompanying further drawings, in which:
Reference numerals 1, Z and 3 represent the same ele
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view of a button-shaped
ments as are represented by these numerals in FIG. 1, the
battery according to the present invention and com_
full line extending towards the right of FIG. 4 and start 40 prising a single pair of electrodes;
ing in the left upper portion of the ?gure somewhat above
+1 v. represents the terminal voltage of the battery, and
dotted line p schematically illustrates the development of
limited pressure during super-charging of the cell.
FIG. 6 is an elevational view in cross section of a
battery according to the present invention and having
a rectangular horizontal cross section;
‘FIG. 7 is a plan view in cross section of the battery
It must be noted that the present invention is not to
illustrated in FIG. 6; and
be considered limited to the speci?c conditions described 45
FIG. 8 is a cross sectional view of a ?exible electrode
as illustrative only of the present invention, but that the
arrangement which may be wound to form a roll suitable
present invention encompasses all types of hermetically
for insertion into a cartridge-like, cylindrical housing.
sealed alkaline storage batteries which include the essen
Referring now to the drawings and particularly to FIG.
tial features of the present invention, such as batteries
. 5, the upper portion 1 and the lower portion 2 of the
having active masses consisting of iron and cobalt and 50 housing are shown, preferably made of metal. In the
their oxides and hydroxides.
, areas where housing portions 1 and 2 overlap each other,
It is a surprising and highly advantageous result of the
present invention that even upon deep-discharge beyond
an insulating intermediate layer 3 is provided, consisting
reversal of polarity, as well as upon super-charging the
The electrode pair 6 and 7 is arranged within the hous
of rubber or of a synthetic material such as a polyamide.
cell or battery, the formation of hydrogen gas is prevented 55 ing and separated by interposed separator 8. Advanta
so that safe and reliable operation of the storage battery
geously, electrodes 6 and 7 as well as separator 8 are
under all possible conditions of charge and discharge is
formed with ?ne pores. Separator 8 may also consist
assured. The foregoing is particularly advantageous when
a plurality of cells are combined in one battery and re
of a densely woven or otherwise produced fabric, or
of a ?lter paper-like material made of natural or syn
versal of polarity occurs, since after reversal of polarity 60 thetic fibers, or of a semi-permeable foil of regenerated
of the negative electrode for some time no gas at all is
cellulose, of a micro-porous synthetic membrane or the
developed and thus no harmful pressure is produced.
like, or of a combination of several layers of the above
Later occurring oxygen gas formation at the negative
materials. Electrodes 6 and 7 possess large surface areas
electrode starts so slowly, due to the added antipolar mass
which are in contact with the gas space within the bat
such as nickel hydroxide, that an equilibrium between 65 tery. These areas are indicated in FIG. 5 by reference
oxygen formation at the originally negative electrode and
oxygen consumption at the, in the meantime, partially
reduced antipolar mass at the originally positive electrode
will be established, and thus formation of harmful pres
sure within the affected cell cannot occur.
numerals 9 and 110 denoting opposite faces of electrodes
6 and 7, respectively, which serve for the electro-chemical
reaction of the gases. To maintain the electrode faces
9 and 10 spaced from the inner walls of housing portions
70 1 and 2t, spaces 4 and 5 are provided formed as a frame
According to a preferred embodiment of the present
work with relatively large open intermediate spaces. It
invention, the antipolar masses of the positive and nega
is necessary to maintain the electrodes spaced from the
tive electrodes are admixed to the regular active masses
housing in order to provide suf?cient contact area be
of the respective electrodes. According to another em
tween the gases formed during the operation of the bat
bodiment of the present invention, the antipolar masses 75 tery and the electrodes. Spaces 4 and 5 preferably con
3,089,913
7
sist of metal so as to form conductive connections be
tween the respective electrodes and housing portions. At
least one of spaces 4 and 5 possesses a certain degree of
resiliency. No special connections to the terminals of the
8
may be made without departing in any way from the
spirit of the present invention.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully
reveal the gist of the present invention that others can
battery are needed due to the metallic spaces 4 and 5.
The gas space includes in addition to the areas between
by applying current knowledge readily adapt it for various
electrode face 10 and housing portion 1, and electrode
point of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics
applications without omitting features that, from the stanr -
of the generic or speci?c aspects of this invention and,
face 9 and housing portion 2, also the areas indicated by
therefore, such adaptation should and are intended to be
reference numerals 11 and 12, which, however are of
lesser size and effectiveness than the areas between the 10 comprehended within the meaning and range of equiv
electrodes and the housing.
The battery illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7 is basically
constructed in a manner somewhat similar to the battery
illustrated in FIG. 5.
Housing 13 is closed by bottom plate 14 and cover
member 15. Elements 13, 14 and 15 are preferably
made of metal. Terminals 16 and 17 penetrate through
cover member 15 and are insulated against the same.
Terminals 16 and 17 are in contact with the positive
and negative electrodes within the cell by means of elec
trical conduits 18 and IQ. Terminal 16 is thus connected
with electrodes 20 and 22, and terminal 17 with elec
trodes 21, 23 and 24. Electrodes 20 and 22 form elec
trode pairs, respectively, and similarly electrodes 23
and 24 form pairs, while electrodes 21 outwardly delimit
alence of the following claims.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by
Letters Patent is:
1. An alkaline storage battery cell, comprising, in com
bination, a casing; means for hermetically sealing said
casing; at least one positive and one negative electrode
located in said casing; separator means between adjacent
electrodes; and an electrolyte contacting said electrodes,
said positive electrode including positive active mass and
said negative electrode including negative active mass, the
entire quantity of positive active mass of said positive
electrode measured in electro-chemical equivalents being
at least equal to the entire quantity of said negative mass
of said negative electrode, said negative electrode being
capable upon charging to accept a greater amount of
the set of electrode plates. Spaces 25 are located be
electric energy than said positive electrode so that said
tween electrodes 20 and 22, as well as between electrodes
negative electrode possesses a charge reserve and said
23 and 24. Spaces 25 are provided between the walls
positive electrode a discharge reserve, said positive elec
of housing 13 and outermost electrodes 21. Spaces 25
trode being in electrical contact with an antipolar mass,
and 26 preferably consist of metal and serve for elec 30 and said negative electrode being in electrical contact
trically connecting the split positive and negative elec
with an antipolar mass, the quantity of antipolar mass of
trodes, respectively, as well as the housing. Due to the
said negative electrode being such that upon deep dis
placing of spaces 25 and 26 between electrodes 20 and
charge of said battery cell and reversal of polarity in
22, 23 and 24, and between housing 13 and electrodes
the same, oxidation of said negative electrode will termi
21, a gas accessible area is formed within the battery.
nate and oxygen formation thereon will start after oxida~
Thus, electrode faces 28, 29, 3t), 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35
tion of its antipolar mass at a stage at which the antipolar
serve for electro-chemically disposing of the gases formed
mass in contact with said positive electrode is only partial
during operation of the battery. These free electrode
ly reduced and thus does not evolve hydrogen gas.
faces must be covered by a thin ?lm of electrolyte. Be
2. In a hermetically sealed alkaline storage battery cell,
tween electrodes of opposite polarity such as between
a hermetically sealed casing; at least one positive and
electrodes 21 and 20, 22 and 23, 24 and 20, and 2t) and
one negative electrode located in said casing; separator
22, separators 27 are arranged.
means between adjacent electrodes; and an electrolyte con~
However, the battery arrangement according to FIGS.
-6 and 7 may also be changed in such a manner that for
tacting said electrodes, said positive electrode including
positive active mass and said negative electrode including
instance, the positive electrode is formed as a single 45 negative active mass, the entire quantity of positive active
electrode and that consequently the negative electrode
mass of said positive electrode measured in electro-chem
in the interior of the set of electrodes is split into two
ical
equivalents being greater than the entire quantity of
parts while the outer negative electrodes are separated
said
negative mass of said negative electrode, said nega
by spaces from the battery housing.
tive electrode being capable upon charging to accept a
The electrode arrangement according to FIG. 8, is
greater amount of electric energy than said positive elec
formed in such a manner that the extremely thin elec
trodes as well as the interposed separators and the metal
lic netlike spaces having wider openings, are ?exible.
Consequently, the entire electrode arrangement can be
trode so that said negative electrode possesses a charge
reserve and said positive electrode a discharge reserve,
said positive electrode also including an antipolar mass,
spirally wound into a roll and can be inserted in such 55 and said negative electrode also including an antipolar
mass, the quantity of antipolar mass of said negative
shape into a cylindrical housing. In this manner, cylin
electrode being such that upon deep discharge of said
drical batteries can be formed. The electrode arrange
battery cell and reversal of polarity in the same, oxidation
ment as illustrated in FIG. 8 comprises an electrode 40,
of said negative electrode will terminate and oxygen for
and electrode 41 of a polarity opposite to the polarity
mation thereon will start after oxidation of its antipolar
of electrode 40. A netlike wide-mesh metallic structure
60
42 and a similar structure 43, made for instance of lath
or wire mesh are placed on the electrodes for the purpose
of making one face of each electrode accessible to gas.
The faces of the electrodes which will thus come in con
tact with gas and serve for electro-chemically reacting
65
the same are indicated by reference numerals 45 and 46.
The arrangement furthermore includes separators 44.
It will be understood that each of the elements de
scribed above, or two or more together, may also ?nd a.
mass at a stage at which the antipolar mass in contact
with said positive electrode is only partially reduced and
thus does not evolve hydrogen gas.
3. In a hermetically sealed alkaline storage battery cell,
a hermetically sealed casing; at least one positive and
one negative electrode located in said casing; separator
means between adjacent electrodes; and an electrolyte
contacting said electrodes, said positive electrode includ
ing positive active mass and said negative electrode in
useful application in other types of storage batteries dif 70 cluding negative active mass, the entire quantity of posi
tive active mass of said positive electrode measured in
fering from the types described above.
electro-chemical equivalents being greater than the entire
While the invention has been illustrated and described
quantity of said negative mass of said negative electrode,
as embodied in a hermetically sealed alkaline storage
said negative electrode being capable upon charging to
battery, it is not intended to be limited to the details
shown, since various modi?cations and structural changes 75 accept a greater amount of electric energy than said posi
8,089,913
It)
tive electrode so that said negative electrode possesses a
charge reserve and said positive electrode a discharge
reserve; antipolar mass in electrical contact with and
spaced from said positive electrode; and an antipolar mass
in electrical contact with and spaced from said negative
electrode, the quantity of antipolar mass of said negative
electrode being such that upon deep discharge of said
battery cell and reversal of polarity in the same, oxida
6. An unformed alkaline storage battery cell, co'hi-‘
prising, in combination, a casing; means for hermetically
sealing said casing; at least one negative and at least
one positive electrode located in said casing; separator
means between adjacent electrodes; an electrolyte con
tacting said electrodes, said positive electrode including
positive acting mass and said negative electrode includ
ing negative active mass, the total amount of said nega
tion of said negative electrode will terminate and oxygen
tive active mass of said negative electrode expressed in
formation thereon will start after oxidation of its anti 10 electrochemical equivalents being maximally as great as
polar mass at a stage at which the antipolar mass in con
the total amount of said positive active mass of said
tact with said positive electrode is only partially reduced
positive electrode expressed in electrochemical equiva
and thus does not evolve hydrogen gas.
lents, said negative electrode possessing a charge reserve
4. A charged alkaline storage ‘battery cell, comprising,
while said positive electrode possessing a discharge re
in combination, a casing; means for hermetically sealing 15 serve, said negative active mass of said negative electrode
said casing; at least one negative and at least one positive
being substantially completely in uncharged state and a
electrode located in said casing; separator means between
portion only of said positive active mass of said posi
adjacent electrodes; an electrolyte contacting said elec
tive electrode being in chemically preoxidized charged
trodes, said positive electrode including positive active
state, said portion consisting essentially of Ni(OH)3 so
mass and said negative electrode including negative active 20 that, when said positive and negative electrodes are
mass, the total amount of said negative active mass of
charged together to the full chargeable capacity of said
said negative electrode expressed in electrochemical equiv
positive electrode, a portion of negative active mass of
alents being maximally as great as the total amount of
said negative electrode remains uncharged; an antipolar
said positive active mass of said positive electrode ex
mass in electrical contact with said positive electrode;
pressed in electrochemical equivalents, the amount of 555 and an antipolar mass in electrical contact with said
charged positive active mass of said positive electrode
negative electrode, the quantity of antipolar mass in
expressed in electrochemical equivalents being greater
contact With said negative electrode being such that upon
than the amount of charged negative active mass of said
deep discharge of said 1battery cell and reversal of polarity
negative electrode expressed in electrochemical equiva
in the same, oxidation of said negative electrode will
lents so that said negative electrode possesses a charge .30 terminate and oxygen formation thereon will start after
reserve while said positive electrode possesses a discharge
the oxidation of the antipolar mass at a stage at which
reserve; an antipolar mass in electrical contact with said
its antipolar mass in contact with said positive electrode
is only partially reduced and thus does not evolve hy
drogen gas.
polar mass in contact with said negative electrode being 35
7. An unformed alkaline storage battery cell, com
such that upon deep discharge of said battery cell and
prising, in combination, a casing; means for hermetically
positive electrode; and an antipolar mass in electrical
contact with said negative electrode, the quantity of anti
reversal of polarity in the same, oxidation of said nega
tive electrode will terminate and oxygen formation there
sealing said casing; at least one negative and at least
one positive electrode located in said casing; separator
on will start after the oxidation of its antipolar mass at
means between adjacent electrodes; an electrolyte con
40
a stage at which the antipolar mass in contact with said
tacting said electrodes, said positive electrode including
positive electrode is only partially reduced and thus does
positive active mass and said negative electrode includ
not evolve hydrogen gas.
ing negative active mass, the total amount of said nega
5. An unformed alkaline storage battery cell, com
tive active mass of said negative electrode expressed in
electrochemical equivalents being maximally as great
prising, in combination, a casing; means for hermetically
sealing said casing; at least one negative and at least one 45 as the total amount of said positive active mass of said
positive electrode located in said casing; separator means
positive electrode expressed in electrochemical equiv~
between adjacent electrodes; an electrolyte contacting said
alents, said negative electrode possessing a charge reserve
while said positive electrode possessing a discharge re
electrodes, said positive electrode including positive active
mass and said negative electrode including negative active
serve, said negative active mass of said negative electrode
mass, the total amount of said negative active mass of
said negative electrode expressed in electrochemical
equivalents being maximally as great as the total amount
of electrochemical equivalents of said positive active mass
being substantially completely in uncharged state and said
positive active mass of said positive electrode being also
substantially in uncharged state; an antipolar mass in
electrical contact with said positive electrode; and an
antipolar mass in electrical contact with said negative
sessing a charge reserve while said positive electrode 55 electrode, said antipolar mass in contact with said nega
possessing a discharge reserve, said negative active mass
tive electrode consisting partly of Ni(OH)3 the latter
of said positive electrode, said negative electrode pos
of said negative electrode being substantially completely
being present in a quantity corresponding to the discharge
in uncharged state and a portion only of said positive
reserve of the positive electrode so that, when said posi
tive and negative electrodes are charged together to the
active mass of said positive electrode being in charged
full chargeable capacity of said positive electrode, a por
state so that, when said positive and negative electrodes
are charged together to the full chargeable capacity of
tion of negative active mass of said negative electrode
remains uncharged, and so that upon deep discharge of
said positive electrode, a portion of negative active mass
of said negative electrode remains uncharged; an anti
said battery cell and reversal of polarity in the same,
oxidation of said negative electrode will terminate and
polar mass in electrical contact with said positive elec~
trode; and an antipolar mass in electrical contact with said 65 oxygen formation thereon will start after oxidation of
its antipolar mass at a stage at which the antipolar mass
negative electrode, the quantity of antipolar mass in con
in contact with said positive electrode is only partially
tact with said negative electrode being such that upon
reduced and thus does not evolve hydrogen gas.
deep discharge of said battery cell and reversal of polarity
8. An unformed alkaline storage battery cell, com
in the same, oxidation of said negative electrode will
terminate and oxygen formation thereon will start after 70 prising; in combination; a casing; means for hermetically
the oxidation of its antipolar mass at a stage at which the
antipolar mass in contact with said positive electrode is
only partially reduced and thus does not evolve hydrogen
gas.
sealing said casing; at least one negative and a least one
positive electrode located in said casing; separator means
between adjacent electrodes; an electrolyte contacting said
electrodes, said positive electrode including positive ac
75 tive mass and said negative electrode including negative
3,089,913
11
12
active mass, the total amount of said negative active
mass of said negative electrode expressed in electro
chemical equivalents being maximally as great as the
total amount of said positive active mass of said positive
positive electrode is only partially reduced and thus does
electrode expressed in electrochemical equivalents, said
quantity corresponding in electrochemical equivalents to
negative electrode possessing a charge reserve While said
positive electrode possesses a discharge reserve, said
negative active mass of said negative electrode being sub
when said positive and negative electrodes are charged
together to the full chargeable capacity of said positive
not evolve hydrogen gas, said electrolyte in contact with
said electrodes containing active oxygen in the form of a
per-oxy compound soluble in said electrolyte and in a
said discharge reserve of said positive electrode, so that
electrode, a portion of negative active mass of said nega
stantially completely in uncharged state and said positive
active mass of said positive electrode being substantially 10 tive electrode remains uncharged due to the initial pres
tact with said positive electrode; and an antipolar mass
in electrical contact with said negative electrode, the
quantity of antipolar mass in contact with said negative
once of said peroxy compound in said electrolyte.
10. In a method of forming a hermetically sealed
alkaline storage battery cell having at least one positive
and at least one negative electrode, each of said elec
electrode being such that upon deep discharge of said
battery cell and reversal of polarity in the same, oxidation
of said negative electrode will terminate and oxygen
trodes including regular and antipolar active mass, the
quantity of regular active mass of said positive electrode
measured in electrochemical equivalent being at least
in uncharged state; an antipolar mass in electrical con
formation will start after oxidation of its antipolar mass
at a stage at which the antipolar mass in contact with said
positive electrode is only partially reduced and thus does
not evolve hydrogen gas, said electrolyte in contact with
said electrodes containing active oxygen in a quantity
corresponding in electrochemical equivalents to said dis
charge reserve of said positive electrode, so that when
said positive and negative electrodes are charged together
to the full chargeable capacity of said positive electrode,
equal to the quantity of regular active mass of said nega
tive electrode, the steps of chemically preoxidizing a
portion of said regular active mass of said positive elec
trode while said cell is in unsealed condition; sealing said
cell; and thereafter charging said cell, so that when said
positive and said negative electrodes are charged together
to the full chargeable capacity of said positive electrode,
a portion of the regular active mass of said negative elec
trode remains uncharged.
11. In a method of forming a hermetically alkaline
a portion of negative active mass of said negative elec
storage battery cell having at least one positive and at
trode remains uncharged due to the initial presence of
least one negative electrode, each of said electrodes in
said active oxygen in the electrolyte.
9. An unformed alkaline storage battery cell, com 30 mass of said negative electrode while said cell is in un
cluding regular and antipolar active mass, the quantity
prising; in combination; a casing; means for hermetically
of regular active mass of said positive electrode measured
sealing said casing; at least one negative and at least one
in electrochemical equivalents being at least equal to
positive electrode located in said casing; separator means
the quantity of regular active mass of said negative elec
between adjacent electrodes; an electrolyte contacting said
electrodes, said positive electrode including positive ac
tive mass and said negative electrode including negative
trode, the steps of chemically preoxidizing said antipolar
sealed condition; sealing said cell; and thereafter charg
active mass, the total amount of said negative active mass
ing said cell, so that when said positive and said negative
electrodes are charged together to the full chargeable
of said negative electrode expressed in electrochemical
equivalents being maximally as great as the total amount
of said positive active mass of said positive electrode ex
pressed in electrochemical equivalents, said negative elec
trode possessing a charge reserve while said positive
electrode possesses a discharge reserve, said negative ac
tive mass of said negative electrode being substantially
completely in uncharged state and said positive active
mass of said positive electrode being substantially in un
charged state; an antipolar mass in electrical contact with
said positive electrode; and an antipolar mass in electrical
contact with said negative electrode, the quantity of anti
polar mass in contact with said negative electrode being
such that upon deep discharge of said battery cell and
reversal of polarity in the same, oxidation of said nega
tive electrode will terminate and oxygen formation there
on will start after oxidation of its antipolar mass at a 55
stage at which the antipolar mass in contact with said
capacity of said positive electrode a portion of the regular
active mass of said negative electrode remains uncharged.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,571,927
2,646,455
2,842,607
Neumann et a1. _______ __ Oct. 16, 1951
Jeannin _____________ __ July 21, 1953
Germershausen et al ____ __ July 8, 1958
2,857,447
Lindstrom ___________ _._ Oct. 21, 1958
2,934,581
Dassler _____________ __ Apr. 26, 1960
165,982
741,345
769,784
Australia ____________ __ Nov. 14, 1955
Great Britain _________ __ Nov. 30, 1955
Great Britain ________ __ Mar. 13, 1957
782,394
Great Britain _________ __ Sept. 4, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
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