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Патент USA US3089999

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May 14, 1963
J. A. RAVE, JR
3,089,989
POSITIONING DEVICE INCLUDING MEANS FOR mvxnms INTERVALS
_INTO PRESELEJCTED NUMBERS OF EQUAL PARTS
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Filed Sept. 14, 1959
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May 14, 1963
J. A. RAVE, JR
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POSITIONING DEVICE INCLUDI NG MEANS FOR DIVIDING INTERVALS
INTO PRESELECTED NUMBERS OF EQUAL PARTS
Filed Sept. 14, 1959
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May 14, 1963
3,089,989
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POSITIONING DEVICE INCLUDING MEANS FOR DIVIDING INTERVALS
INTO PRESELECTED NUMBERS OF EQUAL PARTS
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May 14, 1963
3,089,989
J.‘ A. RAVE, JR
POSITIONING DEVICE INCLUDI NG MEANS FOR DIVIDING INTERVALS
INTO PRESELEICTED NUMBERS 0F‘ EQUAL PARTS
Filed Sept. 14, 1959
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United States Patent 0 " 1C6
‘it
Patented May 14, 1%63
2
longer exists and each plate can be made with any
desired number of holes per circle quickly and ei?ciently.
3,03%,989
PUSITIQNING DEVIUE INQLUDI’NG MEAN§ F012.
DKVEDENG INTERVAIS INTO PRESELE'CTED
NUMBERS Gilt‘ EQUAL PARTS
Hence, it is an object of the present invention to pro
vide a new type of proportional divider for dividing a
linear function or dimension into any given number of
Joseph A. Rave, in, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor to The
equal parts.
Cincinnati Miiiiug Machine 630., (Iiucinnati, Ohio, a
corporation of (this
Another object of the invention is to provide a device
which is adapted to divide a linear function or dimension
Filed Sept. 14, 1%‘), Ser. No. 839,861
12 Ciaims. (Cl. 318-23)
into any given number of equal parts and then to supply
10 the parts one at a time until the function or dimension
The present invention relates to a proportional divider
or, more particularly, to a device for dividing a linear
is redintegrated.
function into any given number of equal parts and then
Another object of the invention is to provide a device
for dividing a Whole into any given number of equal parts
supplying these parts one at a time, seriatirn, or it may
be used to divide a dimension into any given number of
parts and then supply the parts one at a time until the
ing the same and stopping the operation of the device
after the whole has been redintegrated.
given dimension is redintegrated.
The device of the present invention utilizes a trans
former to provide the required division of the linear func
tion into a given number of equal parts. The system is
therefore essentially an analog system and division is ac
complished by applying a reference voltage across a pre
determined number of turns of the transformer winding.
The total number of turns across which the reference
voltage is thus applied represents the whole number of the
parts into which the function or dimension is to be di
and then to supply the parts one at a time while count
Another object of the invention is to provide a device
for applying a constant voltage across a selected number
of taps of a tapped toroidal transformer and then deriv
ing from the taps of the transformer an output voltage
which varies by equal increments from zero to the
input voltage, the number of increments being equal to
the number of taps selected.
Another object of the invention is to provide a system
for dividing a dimension into any selected number of
equal parts, the system including devices for applying a
vided. The equal parts are then derived electrically by
connecting taps on the transformer winding to the output
reference voltage across a selected number of taps of a
of the system in such a manner as to provide as many
former an output voltage which varies from zero to the
equal voltage increments as there are parts in the whole
function.
To obtain a high degree of accuracy in the division of
the whole into its parts, a high quality toroidal trans
input reference voltage by equal voltage increments cor
responding to the selected number of equal parts, and
former having a winding divided into a plurality of sec
tions each provided with a suitable number of equipoten- .
tial taps may be utilized. Such transformers are known
to be capable of producing accuracies of better than one
part in 100,000 when used as ratio dividers in an auto
tapped toroidal transformer, deriving from the trans
ranslating the equal voitage increments into correspond
ing increments of mechanical movement.
With these and other objects in view which will become
apparent from the following description, the invention
includes certain novel features of construction and com
binations of parts, the essential elements of which are
set forth in the appendant claims, and a preferred form
or embodiment of which will hereinafter be described
transformer arrangement. In other words, the accuracy
of voltage division obtainable from the taps of such a 40 with reference to the drawings which accompany and
form a part of this speci?cation.
transformer is better than 001%. For a 20 inch range of
In the drawings:
movement this represents an overall accuracy of better
than .0002 of an inch which is adequate for most pur
poses. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, step
ping switches are provided for changing the taps on the
transformer to effect incremental, equal changes in the
output voltage, each change representing a part of the
whole function or dimension. Means are also provided
to count the parts and to terminate the operation when
the function has been redintegrated. The voltage steps
produced by the system may be converted into equal
steps of mechanical movement by a servomechanisrn de
signed to suit the requirements of the system.
Although the proportional divider hereinafter to be
disclosed is susceptible of many diiferent uses, it will be
hereinafter described in connect-ion with a machine
FIG. 1 is a front elevation of a radial drill provided
with a rotary worktable which may be indexed to dif
ferent positions by the novel control equipment compris
ing the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a diagrarnatic view showing the dividing
transformer and the servomechanism controlled thereby
to effect positioning of the rotary table.
FIG. 3a is a wiring diagram of the switching circuit
for translating the input information and applying it to
the dividing transformer.
FIG. 3b is a wiring diagram of the circuits which op
erate the stepping switches in a counting sequence so as
to derive a “stairstep” output voltage from the dividing
transformer for controlling the servomechanism.
HQ. 4 is a diagrammatic vie-w showing a modified
for drilling holes in the index plates of dividing heads.
The manufacture of such plates requires that each of the
system for dividing a linear dimension into a selected
number of equal parts.
circles of a given plate be divided into a predetermined
number of equal parts and that this division be performed 60 PEG. 5 is a schematic view illustrating the type of
work performed by the system shown in FIG. 4.
with great accuracy. Also, the number of holes per circle
varies considerably and involves both even and odd num
bers of holes. For example, a standard index plate may
require circles containing 24-2-5-28-30-34-37~38-39-4l-42
Similar reference characters designate similar or iden
tical elements and portions throughout the specification
with follows, and throughout the different views of the
43 holes on one side, and 46-47-49-51-53-54-57-58-59-62
drawings.
66 holes on the other side. A high number index‘ plate on
In FIG. 1 is shown a radial drill 10 of conventional
design havinty a base 11, a column 12 and a rail 13 on
the other hand, may require circles ranging from 25 to
199 or more holes. Heretofore, the drilling of the circles
of holes required very precise masters and a large num
ber of such masters were needed to permit the manufac
ture of all of the different index plates offered for sale.
With the present invention, however, this requirement no
which is slidably mounted a head 14. The head carries
a spindle 15 which is rotated and fed into the work by
power supplied from a main drive motor 16. The spindle
has chucked therein a drill 17 which lies above a rotary
table 13 supported on the base 11. The workpiece to be
A
3
drilled, such as an index plate 19, is held in place on
the table by a clamping screw 26. A locating pin 21 in
the table engages in a hole in the plate 19 to properly
position the plate on the table and to constrain it to move
in unison with the table.
Rotation of the table is effected by a motor 25 which
drives a bevel gear 26 meshing with a ring gear 27
secured to the table. The motor 25 is part of a servo
158, 28S and 358 ‘when the switch 38 is closed to ener
gize lines 36 and 37.
Upon energization of lines 36 and 37, stepping switches
183, 255 and SSS (FIG. 3b) will step around until the
wipers and banks 188a, 255a and 358a (FIG. 3a) match
the settings of the selector switches. Thus, when the
wiper for the hundreds order stepping switch bank 1SSa
reaches the “3” stud, relay lCR will be energized through
the normally closed contacts 4CR-l thereby opening the
mechanism which will be further shown and described
hereinafter.
10 normally closed contacts lCR in FIG. 3b. This will
prevent any further stepping of the stepping switch 185
It will be assumed for the purpose of this description
through the interrupter break, or 1B, contacts 1SS-2.
of the invention that a circle of 375 equally spaced holes
is to be formed in the plate 19 and that the drill 10 is
Likewise, when the wiper for the tens order stepping
switch bank 258:: reaches the “7” stud, relay ZCR will
correctly set up for the job. The equipment for indexing
the rotary table 13 includes a control cabinet, not shown, 15 be energized through the normally closed contacts 4CR-3
thereby opening the normally closed contacts 20R (FIG.
containing three settable selector switches 18W, 28W and
3b). The circuit to the stepping switch 255 through the
38W (FIG. 3a). Each switch has a wiper settable to
13 contacts 2SS—2 is thus broken and further stepping of
ten diiferent positions which may be considered as being
the switch is prevented. A similar result occurs when
numbered from “0” to “9,” and the selected number of
holes, i.e., 375, is set up on the switches. The hundreds 20 the wiper for the units order stepping switch bank 3SSa
reaches the “5” stud. At this time, relay 3CR will be
digit “3” is set up on the switch 18W, the tens digit “7”
energized through the normally closed contacts 4CR-5
is set up on the switch 25W, and the units digit “5” is
and open the normally closed contacts 3CR (FIG. 3b).
set up on the switch 38W. The selector switches may, for
This will prevent further stepping of the switch 353
the purpose of the present disclosure, be considered to
be of the manually settable type, although they could
through the TB contacts 3SS—2. The 3 stepping switches
just as readily be considered to be stepping switches
which are automatically settable to the proper positions
1S3, 28S, and 338 are now set to positions corresponding
to those occupied by selector switches 18W, 25W and
under the control of a tape or card reader. It will be
noted from FIG. 3a that the ten studs of switch 18W are
each connected by wires 28 to a corresponding stud in
a bank 185a of a stepping switch 158 (FIG. 3b). This
switch is a S-bank rotary telephone type switch of conven
33W. Hence, the wipers of stepping switch banks 135d,
2380 and SSS]; (FIG. 2) will also be set at “375” as
will also the wipers of banks 158e, ZSSd and 3880 (FIG.
3b). The wipers of banks lSSd, 2358c and 3881) as thus
positioned will cause an AC. reference voltage in lines
39 and 4th, for example, 10 volts A.C., to be placed across
tional design which is commercially available from sup
pliers of automatic telephone equipment. Each bank of
a number of turns of the winding of a transformer 41
the switch includes a rotary wiper blade which is moved, 35 which is either equal to the selected number 375, or a
multiple thereof, depending upon the number of turns
always in the same direction, from one stud to the next
by a pawl and ratchet device. Upon energization of the
per tap in the units section of the transformer. The
transformer 41 is preferably an autotransformer of the
switch solenoid, a pawl is moved by an armature to pick
up the next tooth of a ratchet wheel moving with the
toroidal type which, due to its negligible ?ux leakage, is
wiper blades. This cocks a spring which, when the switch 40 readily capable of producing a ratio accuracy of better
solenoid is deenergized, restores the pawl and, in so doing,
than one part in 100,000.
advances each wiper blade to the next stud in the bank.
The winding shown herein is in three sections each
The stepping switch also includes interrupter break con
having ten taps. The device of the present invention is
tacts (designated 18) which open when the coil is ener
not limited to a winding having the three sections, as
gized and close when it is deenergized. The switch also
shown, and more or fewer sections may be employed with
includes off normal make contacts (designated ONM)
out departing from the principle of the invention. The
which close when the wiper blades move out of home
number of turns between taps in each section is the same
position.
so that the voltages between taps in a given section are
The studs of ‘selector switch 28W are connected by
all equal. The ratio between the number of turns per
wires 29 to the corresponding studs of a bank ‘ZSSa of a
tap in the three sections is chosen to correspond to the
stepping switch ‘285, and the studs of switch 38W are
radix of the number system being employed. If the
connected by wires 3%? to the corresponding studs of a
decimal system is used, the ratio is, of course, 10‘. In
bank SSSa of a stepping switch 388. In addition, ‘ire
the binary system it would be 2, in the tertiary system, 3,
studs of switch 28W are connected by wires 31 to the cor
and so on. In the present description of the invention,
responding studs of a second bank ISSb of switch 188, 55 it will be assumed that the decimal system is employed.
‘and the studs of switch 38W are connected by wires 32 to
Hence, if it is assumed that there is one turn between
each tap in the units order section 42 of the transformer,
corresponding studs of banks i880 and 2855 of stepping
then there should be 10 turns between each tap in the
switches 18S and 258. The stepping switches 188, 283
tens order section 43, and 100 turns between each tap in
and 35S and relays lCR to 5CR, inclusive, and their
associated contacts, comprise an automatic translation 60 the hundreds order section 44. Hence, current entering
the section 44 from the line 4i!‘ will flow through 300‘ turns
or switching circuit which will be described in greater
between the “0” and “3” taps. It will then pass through
detail hereinafter.
a jumper 45 connecting the wipers 87 and 88 of banks
A source of energizing potential for the circuits shown
1850? and 2580 and ?ow through '70 turns in section 43,
i.e.,
from tap “7” to tap “0.” Sections 42 and 43 are
may be connected to the main power lines or any other
connected by a lead 46 so that current will enter the “0”
suitable source of energizing potential. The left hand
tap of the units section 42 where it will pass through 5
terminal is shown connected to a conductor 36 which
turns and then return to the line 39 through the “5" tap
constitutes one energizing line for the circuits, while the
and wiper 86. It will thus be seen that the current tra
right hand terminal is shown connected through a switch 70 verses 375 turns of the transformer winding. If two
38 to a conductor 37 which constitutes the other ener
turns per tap were provided in the units order winding
gizing line for the circuits.
instead of one, then the tens order taps would be spaced
With the switches 13W, 25W, and 38W set up as
20 turns apart and the hundreds order taps 200v turns
shown in PEG. 3a, the number represented by the setting
apart. In this case, the current would ?ow through 750
in FTGS. 3a and 3b is provided by terminals 35 which
of the switches will be transferred to the stepping switches
turns instead of 375 turns.
In the case of an arrange
8,089,989
5
In order to advance the workpiece 3/375 of a revolution
preparatory to drilling the second hole therein, an advance
ment utilizing 3 turns per tap in the units order section,
the number of turns per tap in the tens and hundreds
push button AS (FIG. 3b) is then depressed which ener
order sections would be 30‘ and 300, and so on. In any
gizes the stepping switch 65S through the normally
event, the member of turns energized would necessarily
be a multiple of 375, the term multiple being understood GI closed contacts 6CR~1 and 4CR~8 and a conductor 78.
When the push button is released, the stepping switch
to mean the number selected, i.e., “375,” multiplied by
will be deenergized and the wiper in bank 6SSb stepped
an integer, such as 1, 2, 3, etc.
to the “l” stud. A voltage equal to 1/375 of the reference
The output from the auto-transformer 41 is derived
voltage will now be applied to the input of the servo
from the wipers of stepping switch banks LiSSa, SSSZJ, and
6851) whose studs are connected to the same transformer 10 ampli?er and the servomotor will run until the feedback
taps as the studs of banks llSSd, 258C and SS-Sb, respec
voltage from the potentiometer 63 is also equal to V375
tively. The wipers of the banks dSSa, SSSb and 6881)
all start from “O” and step upwardly during the dividing
cycle. The wiper for bank 458a is connected to the input
of a servoampli?er 50 through the secondary winding 51 15
of the reference voltage. The table 13 will therefore be
turned through a corresponding fraction of one revolu
tion whereupon the drill may be operated to drill a hole
of a toroidal transformer 52.
This transformer has a
primary winding 53 which is bi?lar wound with the sec
ondary winding in order to reduce the ?ux leakage to a
point where a very nearly perfect 1 to 1 transformation
ratio is maintained between the primary and secondary
windings of the transformer.
The effect of this trans
former is to add the voltages derived from sections 42.
and 43 to the voltage derived from the section 44, the ends
in the second position. Each time the push button AS
is depressed, the table will advance a corresponding
amount until all of the 375 positions have been located
and drilled.
It will be noted from inspection of FIG. 3b of the
20 drawings that the stepping switches 68S, SSS and 4SS
are arranged to operate in a counting sequence.
That
is, upon advance of one of the stepping switches from
the “9” stud to the “0” stud, the next higher order step~
ping switch will be advanced one step. This function is
for the banks SSSb and 6SSb. The summed voltages are 25 performed by the banks 588a and 6SSa of stepping
switches SSS and 688 in which the “0” to “8” studs are
transmitted by a lead 54 to one input of the servoampli
left unconnected whereas the “9” stud is connected to the
?cr, the output of which is connected by leads 55 and 56
next higher order stepping switch. Thus, the “9” stud
with a transducer 57. The latter unit may, for example,
for the stepping switch 6S8 is connected by conductors
comprise an electrohydraulic valve which is connected by
suitable hydraulic lines 58 and 59‘ with the hydraulic 30 71 and 72 to the stepping switch SSS. Hence, when the
push button AS is depressed with the wiper on the “9”
servomotor 25.
stud in the bank 635a, current will flow both to stepping
As previously indicated, the servomotor drives bevel
switch 6S8 and also to stepping switch SSS and cause
gear 26 which meshes with the ring gear 27 secured to
both to advance one step when the push button is re
the rotary table 18 which carries the workpiece 19. Also
leased. Similarly, the “9” stud in bank SSSa is connected
meshing with the ring gear is a bevel gear at)‘ which, as
by conductors 73 and 74 with the stepping switch 4S5.
indicated by dotted line 61, is connected with the input
To return the stepping switches 68S and SSS to their
shaft of a position analogue unit 62. This unit may take
“0” positions, each bank dSSa and SSSa is provided with
various forms and, in the present embodiment of the
one or more studs 77 and 78 beyond the “9” position
invention, has been shown as a linear tapped potenti
ometer 63, the wiper arm of which is drivingly connected 40 which are connected to the line 36 through IB contacts
6SS—2 and 5SS~2 so that the stepping switches will auto
with the gear 60 by the connection 61. The potentiom
matically advance to the “0” stud. Since the latter stud is
eter may be either a single turn or a multiple turn type,
not connected, the switch will stop in the “0” position
it being assumed for the purposes of the present disclo
of the primary winding 53 being connected to the sliders
sure that it is a 10 turn potentiometer, i.e., one in which
the wiper turns through 3600-” in moving from one end
of the winding to the other. In this case, the gear 27
must have ten times the number of teeth of the gear 60
ready for the next impulse.
The automatic advance feature just described can be
used to cause the divider to skip over certain positions,
should this be found desirable. For example, in drilling
a circle of bolt holes, it might be desirable to skip every
?fth hole. By connecting the “4” and “9” studs in the
the potentiometer shaft.
The ends of the potentiometer winding are connected 50 bank éS-Sa to the stud 77, the stepping switch 6S5 will
be caused to step from the “3” stud to the “5” stud with
to the ends of a toroidal transformer winding 64 which
out stopping on the “4” stud, and from the “8” stud to
is tapped at intermediate points to provide voltage ratios
‘the “0” stud without stopping on the “9” stud. This
which correspond to those provided by the potentiometer
same idea can be extended to higher orders to cause skip
taps. These taps are then connected together as shown
in FIG. 2 to reduce error in the potentiometer caused by 55 ping of groups of 10 or 100 holes at a time, or, by utilizing
additional banks of contacts on the SSS and 48S stepping
loading. The ends of the potentiometer winding and
switches, and by connecting the wipers for these banks
toroidal transformer winding are connected between the
in series with a stud or studs in the lower order banks,
lines 39 and 44) so as to cause the reference voltage to be
individual holes such as the 26th, 87th, l23rd etc. could
applied across the windings. The feedback voltage de
rived from the potentiometer wiper is a linear function 60 be skipped.
Referring now to the stepping switch banks shown at
of the rotation of the table and this voltage is applied to
the
bottom of FIG. 3!’), it will be observed that the step
the second input of the servoampli?er by a lead 65. In
ping switch banks 1386, 25501 and 3580 will have the
the servoampli?er, the voltage output from the trans
wipers positioned on the “i3,” “7” and “5” studs respec
former 41 is compared with the voltage from the feed
tively, and that these wipers will remain in such positions
back unit 62. and the error voltage, if any, is ampli?ed
so that one turn of the table will result in ten turns of
and causes the servomotor to run until the error is reduced
throughout the dividing cycle. The wipers of stepping
switch banks dSSb, SSSc and dSSc, on the other hand,
all start at “6” and step up during the cycle in a regular
numerical progression as above described. As the cycle
tion and the output from the transformer 41 is zero. The 70 progresses, the wiper of bank 4S5!) will eventually reach
the “3” stud of this bank, the wiper of bank 5SSc will
servomotor 25 will rotate the table 18 until the wiper
thereafter come to the “7” stud of this bank, and ?nally,
of the feedback potentiometer 63‘ is at the bottom end
the wiper of bank dSSc will reach the “5” stud. At this
of the winding so that the feedback voltage is also zero.
time the cycle is completed and a circuit will be estab
The index plate will therefore be located in the “O” posi
tion and the ?rst hole in the plate is drilled in this position. 75 lished through the coil of relay dCR to energize the relay.
to zero.
At the beginning ‘of the dividing cycle, the wipers of
stepping switches 4S8, SSS and 688 are in their “0” posi
in
a’
The normally closed contacts éCR-l (FIG. 317) will then
open and disable the push button AS so that no further
stepping of the stepping switches can result from the
operation of this push button.
To restore the circuit to its initial condition prepara
tory to the next dividing cycle, a reset push button RS
(FIG. 3a) is depressed and held momentarily until the
stepping switches 4S3, SSS, and éSS have returned to
their home positions. The return of the stepping switches
is effected by a relay 70R which is energized by depres
sion of the push button and thereupon closes its contacts
7CR~1 (FIG. 3b), 7CR~2 and 7CR-4. The contacts
8
section 43 will be selected by the wiper 88. Since switch
SSS was “homed,” wiper 86 will be at “0.” Hence, the
reference voltage will be placed across 750 turns of the
transformer rather than 75 turns.
Since contacts IiCR-‘Y (FIG. 3b) are now closed and
contacts ‘CR-8 are open, depression of push button AS
will not energize line 7%} but, instead, will energize lines
71 and 72 to energize stepping switch SSS instead of 653.
Hence, each time the push button is depressed and re
10 leased, the switch 588 Will advance one step and increase
the voltage in the output of transformer 41 by V75 of the
reference voltage. Transfer from stepping switch 588
7CR-1 when closed, establish a circuit to switch 4S8
to 45$ on each ten steps of switch SSS will occur as be
through 1B contacts 4SS—2 and ONM contacts 4SS~3.
fore to cause a progressive increase in the output voltage
Hence, the switch will step automatically to home or “0” 15 each time the push button is depressed and released until
position when the ONM contacts will open and stop fur
all 75 steps have been eifected.
ther stepping of the switch. In a similar manner, con
The cycle will be terminated in the same manner as
tacts 7CR~2 will establish a circuit to switch 588 through
before, i.e., wipers in bank iSSe, 288d and 3880 will be
13 contacts 5SS—2, conductor '76 and ONM contacts
positioned at “7,” “5” and “0” respectively, so that when
5SS—3 and cause “homing” of this switch. The contacts 20 the wipers of banks 43811 and ‘SSSc reach “75,” coin
7CR-4 will establish a circuit to switch 655 through IE
cidence will be established and relay 6GP. energized to
contacts 6SS-Z and ONM contacts éSS-S to cause “hom
terminate the cycle.
ing” of switch ass.
Assuming now that the number of parts selected was
If the function is to be divided into a number of equal
“5” instead of “75,” selector switches 13W and 23W will
parts which is less than ten, it is desirable that the hun
be at “0” while switch 3SW wil‘ be set at “5.” Relay
dreds section 44 of the transformer be used to accom
llCR will be energized as before and, in addition, a relay
plish the division rather than the units section 42. This is
SCR will be energized through a line 99. Energization
‘for obvious reason that if the reference voltage were
of relay EECR causes contacts 5CR~1 and 5CR~2 (FIG.
placed across say three taps of the unit section, the num
3a) to open and close, respectively, thereby connecting
ber of turns would be so few as to virtually short circuit
relay iCR to wiper 91 of bank 1880. At the same time,
the reference voltage source. For the same reason, when
contacts SCR-3 will open to disconnect wiper 83 of bank
the number selected lies between 10 and 99, it is desirable
QZSS-b
contacts SCR-d will close to connect the wiper
to use the hundreds and tens sections 44 and 43, respec
of bank 2555a with relay ZCR. Since the studs of bank
tively, of the transformer rather than the tens and units
iSSc are connected by wires 32. to the corresponding
sections 43 and 42, respectively.
To accomplish this result, a switching circuit such as
the one shown in FIG. 3a is provided so that the highest
studs of switch 33W, when the wiper M reaches the
“5” stud, relay lCR will be energized and prevent fur
ther stepping of switch ISS. The Wiper of bank ZSSa
signi?cant digit of the number set upon the selector
will stop at “0” since switch ZSW is set at “0” and the
switches is always set into the hundreds stepping switch
contacts ECR-d will cause relay ZCR to be energized
bank dSSd. Likewise, the next lower digit, if any, is 40 and prevent further stepping of switch 288 when it
always set into the tens stepping switch bank ZSSc. Sup
reaches “0.” Stepping switch 383 will be “horned,” as
pose, for example, that the number selected was “75”
before, to its “0” position. Hence, the wipers of banks
instead of “375.” The switch 18W would then be set
lSSd, 233C and 3SSb (FIG. 1) will stand at “5,” “O” and
to read “6” instead of “3” and the switches 28W and 35W
would be set as shown in FIG. 3a. When the lines 36
41 across the reference voltage provided by lines 39 and
and 37 are energized, relay 4CR will be energized through
{it}.
a conductor 8!) which is connected to the “O” stud on
“0” respectively so as to connect 500 turns of transformer
When the push button AS is depressed, only stepping
switch llS'W. Contacts 4CR—1 will open to disconnect
switch 4853 will respond since contacts 5CR—5 (FIG. 3b)
the wiper 81 and contacts KiCR~2 will close to connect
are closed and contacts SCR-? and 4CR—8 are open.
relay ICR with the wiper S2 for the bank 15S!) through
Hence, switch 455 will be pulsed while switches SSS and
tie normally closed contacts 5CR—1. Since the studs 50 68S will remain idle. When switch 458 has moved ?ve
or" bank 13511 are connected by wires 31 with the corre
steps, the wiper of bank 4881) will complete the circuit
to relay 6CR and terminate the cycle.
sponding studs of switch 25W, relay lCR will be ener
gized and stop stepping of switch 15s when tie wiper
The proportional divider heretofore described can be
82 reaches the “7” stud in bank lSSb. Energization of
used to provide equal linear displacements as well as
relay 4~CR will also open contacts dCR-S so as to disable
equal rotary displacements. A system for accomplishing
the wiper of bank ZSSa. It will also close contacts
4CR~4 and connect relay ZCR with the wiper $3 for
this type of division is shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 of the
drawings. Suppose, for example, that a selected number
of holes ltiti (HG. 5) including a ?rst hole lllll and a
bank 258]).
The studs of this bank are connected by
wires 32. with corresponding studs of switch 38W. Hence,
last hole 1% are to be drilled equal distances apart in a
relay ZCR will be energized and stop stepping of switch 60 workpiece £83. In this example, it is assumed that the
285 when the wiper 33 reaches the “5” stud. Energiza
maximum linear distance to be divided is 100 inches
tion of relay dCR also opens contacts dCR-S thereby
and that the reference voltage used in the system is 10
disconnecting wiper 84 of bank 388a. At the same time
volts AC. Therefore 10 volts equals the whole range of
it will open contacts li-CR-d (FIG. 3b) to prevent auto
movement, or 106 inches. The distance to be divided
matic stepping of switch 358. Since line St) is now en
ergized, a line 85 connected thereto will also be energized.
This line is connected through the ONM contacts 3SS-3
into a selected number or” equal parts may be any distance
up to 100 inches with the arrangement shown and the
group of holes may be located in any desired location
(FIG. 3b) with the stepping switch ‘SSS through the 1B
along the length of the workpiece. For this purpose,
contacts 3SS~2. Hence, the stepping switch SSS will be 70 the system is zeroed at a ?rst datum point 194 and the
“homed” thereby moving the wiper 86 of bank 3SSb
distance from this point to the ?rst hole 101 of the group.
(FIG. 1) to its “0” position. It will now be seen that
the transformer sections 43 and 44- are utilized instead
of sections 42 and 43 and that the “7” tap of section 44
will be selected by the wiper S7, and the tap “5” of
is assumed to be 13.750 inches. In the example shown
in PEG. 5, the selected number of holes are to occupy
a distance of 61.875 inches. Therefore the distance from
‘ the last hole ‘102 to a second datum point 105, which
3,089,989
9
10
represents the end of the maximum range of the system,
is 24.375 inches.
As shown in FIG. 4 the workpiece ms is mounted on
a slide or table 1% which is guided for rectilinear sliding
movement by ways 1&7. The table is arranged to be
driven by a pinion ltltl which meshes with a rack Hi9
fastened to the table. The pinion is driven by a servo~
motor 116 through gears ill and 112. The servomotor
for translating the voltage increments derived from the
individual taps by the slider into equal steps of me
chanical movement, said steps being proportional to the
magnitude of the voltage increments derived from the
toroidal transformer winding 113 in the same manner
and for the same purpose as previously described in
connection with the system shown in FIG. 2.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS.
energized by said reference voltage.
4 and 5, the toroidal transformer 119 which is utilized
to accomplish the proportional division may be identical
with the previously described transformer (if (FIG. 2).
However, the transformer is supplied with only 6.1875
transformer having a winding with a plurality of equally
spaced voltage taps thereon, switch means ‘for selectively
successive taps on the transformer, said servornechanism
including a feedback unit, and means for driving the feed
back unit in accordance with the mechanical movement
produced by the servomechanism to provide a feedback
voltage which is linearly related to the mechanical move
also drives a gear 113 which is arranged to rotate the
wiper arm 114 of a tapped linear potentiometer M5 10 ment and which is equal to the reference voltage when
the mechanical movement is equal to the whole of the
which is supplied with the 10 volts A.C. reference voltage
linear function.
by a pair of conductors 116 and 1117. The taps on the
2. The device of claim 1 wherein said feedback unit is
potentiometer are connected to corresponding taps on a
volts instead of the full reference voltage so as to reduce
the distance to be divided from 100‘ inches to 61.875
3. In a device for dividing the movement of an element
through a predetermined distance into any selected num
ber of equal parts, the combination of a toroidal auto
connecting a reference voltage across a number of taps
on the transformer Winding equal to the number of parts
selected, a slider movable from one tap to the next seria
tim, and a servomechanism for moving said element
inches. If the bottom end of potentiometer H5 is as
through distances proportional to the voltages derived
sumed to correspond to the ?rst datum point M4, and 25 from the taps on the transformer by the slider, said
the upper end to correspond to the second datum point
servomechanism including a feedback unit energized by
N5, then the lower end of transformer ‘if? must be
said reference voltage, means for driving the feedback
supplied with ‘1.3750 volts in order to move the slide to
unit in accordance with the movement of said element to
the location for the ?rst hole fill, and wiper 12%‘ at the
provide a feedback voltage which is linearly related to
upper end of the transformer must be supplied with
the movement of the element and which is equal to the
7.5625 volts in order to locate the last hole 24.375 inches
reference voltage when the element moves through said
from the second datum point 105. These voltages may
predetermined distance, and a servoampli?er for com
be supplied, for example, from toroidal transformers H5
and 126 each having 160,000 turns and tapped every turn
to provide the necessary resolution of the reference volt
paring the voltage derived from said taps with the feed
back voltage and for amplifying the difference, if any
between said voltages.
age. A more convenient method would be to utilize the
4. In a device for dividing a circle into any selected
number of equal parts, the combination of a rotatable
element, a transformer having a winding with a plurality
type of unit described in US. patent application Serial
No. 620,145, ?led November 2, 1956, by R. E. Spencer,
R. A. Cail and F. C. Wolfendale for Converters for Con
verting Digital Information into Analogue Information.
With the system therein disclosed, digital information
of equally spaced voltage taps thereon, switch means for
selectively connecting a reference voltage across a num
ber of taps on the transformer winding equal to the num
taken from a tape or card reader can be converted into
‘ber of parts selected, a slider movable from one tap to
the analog voltages required by the present system as an
the next, seriatim, and a servomechanism for rotating
input for the transformer 11‘) supplied via lines 127 and
said element through arcs proportional to the voltages
128. Alternatively, any other convenient means for pro
derived from the taps on the transformer by the slider,
viding an alternating current voltage analogue of a dimen~
said servomechanism including a feedback unit energized
sional quantity with the required accuracy might be used
by said reference voltage, means for driving the feed
in place of the toroidal transformers 125 and 126» shown
back unit in accordance with the rotation of said ele
herein.
ment to produce a feedback voltage which is linearly
The output of the dividing transformer H9 is trans
related to the rotation of said element and which is equal
50
mitted by a conductor 129‘ to the input of a servoam
to the reference voltage when the element has been ro
pli?er 13ft where it is compared with a second input
tated exactly 360 degrees, and a servoampli?er for com
voltage obtained from the feedback unit through a con
paring the voltage derived from said taps with the feed
ductor Hi. The difference between the two voltages
back voltage and for amplifying the difference, if any,
is ampli?ed and applied to a transducer 132 which con
between said voltages.
trols the servomotor and causes it to run until the voltages
5. In a device for dividing any given dimension on a
are equal.
Having thus described the invention in connection with
one possible form of a rotary dividing apparatus and also
of a linear dividing apparatus, and having used certain
speci?c terms and language in describing the particular
apparatus disclosed, it is to be understood that the present
description is illustrative rather than restrictive and that
changes and modi?cations may be resorted to without
departing from the spirit of the invention as de?ned by
65
the claims which follow.
I claim:
1. In a device for dividing a linear function into a
selected number of equal parts, the combination of a
piece of work into any selected number of equal parts,
the combination of a source of reference voltage, a first
unit energized by said reference voltage for providing a
?rst preselected voltage which is representative of the
distance between a ?rst datum point and one end of said
dimension, a second unit energized by said reference
voltage for providing a second preselected voltage which
is representative of the distance between a second datum
point and the other end of said dimension, a transformer
having a winding with a plurality of equally spaced volt
age taps thereon, switch means for selectively connecting
said preselected voltages across a number of taps on the
transformer winding equal to the number of parts se
transformer having a winding with a plurality of equally
lected, a slider movable from one tap to the next seriatim,
70
spaced voltage taps thereon, switch means for selectively
and a servomechanism for moving the workpiece through
connectiong a reference voltage across a number of taps
distances proportional to the voltages derived from said
on the transformer winding equal to the number of parts
units and from said taps by the slider, said servomecha
in the linear ‘function to be divided, a slider movable
nism including a feedback unit energized from said source,
'rom one tap to the next seriatim, and a servomechanism 75 means for driving the feedback unit in accordance with
li
the movement of the workpiece to provide a feedback
voltage which is linearly related to the movement of the
workpiece and which is equal to the reference voltage
when the workpiece moves from said ?rst datum point
to said second datum point.
6. In a device for dividing a linear function into a
given number of equal parts, the combination of a trans
former having a multisection tapped winding thereon,
the taps in each section being spaced equal numbers of
turns apart so as to provide equal voltages between taps
and the number of turns between taps in the di?erent
sections being related in accordance with the radix of a
selected number system, a set of selector switches for
setting into the device the number of parts into which
settable to positions corresponding to the digits of the
selected number of equal parts, and means for connecting
a reference voltage across a number of turns on the
transformer winding corresponding to a multiple of the
selected number of equal parts, said means including a
plurality of control relays, means for selectively ener
gizing said relays in accordance with the location of the
highest signi?cant digit of the selected number of equal
parts, and means controlled by said relays for transfer
ring the setting of the selector switch containing the high
est signi?cant digit of the selected number to the highest
order section of the transformer winding, the setting
of the selector switch containing the next highest signi?
cant digit, if any, to the next highest order section, and
the function is to be divided, there being as many switches 15 so on, to thereby cause the reference voltage to be con
provided as there are numerical orders in the number
nected across the greatest possible number of turns of the
representing the maximum capacity of the device, means
transformer winding.
for connecting a reference voltage across a number of
9. in a device for dividing an interval into a pre
selected number of equal parts, the combination of a
turns on the transformer winding corresponding to a
multiple of the number of parts into which the function 20 transformer having a multisection tapped winding there
is to be divided, said means including an automatic
on, the taps in each section being spaced equal numbers
switching circuit for connecting across the reference volt
of turns apart so as to provide equal voltages between
age a number of turns in the highest order section of the
taps and the number of turns between taps in the several
transformer winding corresponding to the highest sig
sections being related in accordance with the radix of a
ni?cant digit of the number set up on said switches and
selected number system, ‘switch means for selectively con
for connecting in series therewith appropriate numbers
necting a reference voltage across a number of turns on
of turns in each of the descending orders of the trans
the transformer winding corresponding to a multiple of
former winding sections down to the section correspond
the selected number of parts into which the interval
ing to the least significant digit of the number set up on
is to be divided, a slider cooperating with the taps of
said switches so as to energize a number of turns corre
sponding to a multiple of the number set up on the
switches, a slider cooperating with the taps on each sec
tion of the transformer winding, an output circuit, and
means for stepping said sliders from tap to tap in the
energized sections of the transformer winding sections
in a regular numerical progression to provide a voltage
in the output circuit varying by increments equal to the
voltage between taps in the lowest order active section
of the transformer winding.
30 each section of the transformer winding, an output cir
cuit, and means to step said sliders from tap to tap in a
regular numerical progression to provide a voltage in the
output circuit varying by increments equal to the voltage
between taps in the units order section of the transformer
winding.
10. In a device for dividing an interval into a pre
selected number of equal parts, the combination of a
transformer having a multisection tapped winding thereon,
the taps in each section being spaced equal numbers of
7. In a device for dividing a linear function into a 40 turns apart so as to provide equal voltages between taps
given number of equal parts, the combination of a toroi
dal autotransformer having a three-section tapped wind~
ing thereon, the taps in each section being spaced equal
and the number of turns between taps in the several sec
tions being related in accordance with the radix of a
selected number system, switch means for selectively
numbers of turns apart so as to provide equal voltages
connecting a reference voltage across a number of turns
between taps and the number of turns in the several 45 on the transformer winding corresponding to a multiple
sections being related in a 10 to 1 ratio to provide a
of the selected number of parts into which the interval
10040-1 relation between the sections, means for con
is to be divided, an output circuit, a multibank stepping
necting a reference voltage across a number of turns
switch associated with each section of said transformer
on the transformer winding corresponding to a multiple
winding, each switch having one of its banks electrically
of the selected number of equal parts, said means includ
connected to the taps of its associated section of the
ing a stepping switch associated with each ‘section of
transformer winding with the slider of said one bank
said transformer winding for connecting across the refer
electrically connected to said output circuit, and a count
ence voltage a number of taps in the hundreds section
ing circuit for stepping said sliders from tap to tap in a
equal to the value of the highest signi?cant digit of the
regular numerical progression to provide a voltage in
selected number of equal parts, a number of taps in
the output circuit varying by increments equal to the
the tens section equal to the value of the next highest
voltage between taps in the units order section of the
signi?cant digit, if any, and a number of taps in the
transformer winding, said circuit including additional
unit section equal to the value of the least signi?cant
banks of the stepping switches so connected with one
digit, if any, so as to energize a number of turns equal
another as to provide a carry impulse from a lower
to a multiple of the selected number of equal parts, and 60 order ‘stepping switch to a higher order stepping switch
a stepping switch associated with each section of said
each time the slider of the lower order stepping switch
transformer winding for stepping from tap to tap in the
energized sections of the transformer winding in a regu
lar numerical progression to provide an output voltage
reaches home position.
11. In a device for dividing an interval into a prese
lected number of equal parts, the combination of a trans~
varying by increments equal to the voltages between taps 65 former having a multisection tapped winding thereon, the
in the lowest order section of the transformer winding
taps in each section being spaced equal numbers of turns
that is energized.
apart so as to provide equal voltages between taps and
8. In a device for dividing a linear function into a
selected number of equal parts, the combination of a
the number of turns between taps in the several sections
being related in accordance with the radix of a selected
transformer having a multisection tapped winding thereon, 70 number system, ‘a plurality of multibank selector switches
the taps in each section being spaced equal numbers of
for selectively connecting a reference voltage across a
turns apart so as to provide equal voltages between taps
number of turns on the transformer winding correspond
and the number of turns between taps in the several
ing to a multiple of the selected number of parts into
sections being related in accordance with the radix of a
which the interval is to be ‘divided, an output circuit, a
selected number system, a plurality of selector switches
multibanlt stepping switch associated with each section
8,089,989
13
of said transformer winding, each switch having one
of its banks electrically connected to the taps of its
‘associated section of the transformer winding and the
slider of said one bank electrically connected to said out
put circuit, a counting circuit vfor stepping said sliders
from tap to tap in a regular numerical progression to pro
14
cooperating with the taps on said winding for selectively
connecting a reference voltage across a number of turns
equal to a multiple of the number of parts selected, means
to derive a number of incremental voltages from the trans
former equal to the number of parts selected, said means
including a slider movable from one tap on the trans
former winding to the next seriatim, and means for trans
lating the voltages so derived into equal steps of move
equal to the voltage between taps in the units order sec
ment of said element, said steps being proportional to
tion of the transformer winding, and means for prevent
ing further stepping of said sliders when the voltage in 10 the magnitude of the voltages derived from the taps by
said slider.
the output circuit becomes equal to the reference voltage,
said preventing means including banks of said stepping
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
switches connected in circuit with banks of said selector
switches, said circuit being completed when the settings
UNITED STATES PATENTS
of the stepping switches and selector switches coincide.
vide a voltage in theo utput circuit varying by increments
12. in a device for dividing the movement of an ele
ment through a predetermined distance into any selected
number of equal parts, the combination of an autotrans
former having a tapped winding thereon, said winding hav
ing a number of turns equal to a ‘multiple of the maximum 20
number of parts capable of being selected, switch means
2,654,999
2,715,703
2,736,006
Berge _______________ __ Oct. 13, 1953
Shuck ______________ __ Aug. 16, 1955
Langevin et a1. _______ __ Feb. 21, 1956
2,775,754
2,826,726
2,833,979
Sink _________________ __ Dec. 25, 1956
Mitchell ____________ __ Mar. 11, 1958
Scott _________________ __ May 6, 1958
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