close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3090007

код для вставки
May 14, 1963
J. F. REUTHER
3,089,998
REGULATOR SYSTEM
Filed April 15, 1959
L74
Volts
"0
Reverse
P
/92
N
,94
10
I
Forward
P /96
B
.
F|g.2
Amperes
N
/98
‘Til 76 .
Fig.3
WITNESSES
%
*
W \R’WOML
INVENTOR
John F. Reuther
,YZM
ATTORNEY
United States Patent 0 ’ 1C6
3
3,0893%
REGULATGR Slt’?'i'El‘tl
John F. Reuther, Penn lliills, Pan, assignor to Westing
house Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa, a cor
Ex:
same assignee as the present application. Referring to
FIG. 2, the voltage-current characteristic or volt-ampere
of the diode '72 is shown. When the reverse voltage ap
plied to the diode '72 is gradually increased until it exceeds
a breakdown value, as indicated at VB in FIG. 2, a nega
tive resistance region, as indicated at 11% in FIG. 2, fol
lows until the voltage across the diode 72 decreases to a
minimum value, as indicated at VM in FIG. 2. In other
This invention relates to regulator systems and more
words, the diode '72 has a negative resistance region in
particularly to current regulator systems.
10 its reverse voltage-current characteristic between the
In many types of electrical control apparatus, such as
reakdown voltage VB and the minimum voltage VM,
voltage regulators, speed regulators and telemetering
after a voltage in excess of the breakdown voltage VB is
poration of l’eunsylvania
Filed Apr. l5, W59,
No. 306,7ill
11 (llamas. (Cl. 323-»22)
equipment, current regulators or references are often em
ployed. Conventional current regulators or references,
which are preferably of the static type, often require com
pensation for changes in environmental conditions, such
applied to the diode 72. Although the negative resistance
region of the voltage-current characteristic of the diode
72 is somewhat exaggerated in FIG. 2, it is assumed that
the slope of the negative resistance region of said char
as temperature. It is therefore desirable to provide a cur
rent regulator system or reference circuit which provides
a more stable output current with minimum variations
acteristic has a ?nite value. It has been found that a rather
stable breakdown current IB is associated with the oper
in said output current with changes in environmental con
dition, such as temperature.
of its voltage-current characteristic. In particular, if the
it is an object of this invention to provide a new and
improved current regulator system employing static de
ation of the diode 72 in the negative resistance region 11%
operating voltage across the diode 72 is maintained be
tween the breakdown voltage VB and the minimum volt
age VM, preferably approximately halfway between said
vices.
voltages as indicated at V0, the current flow through the
Another object of this invention is to provide a new and 25 diode '72 will be substantially equal to the current is or
improved current reference circuit for use with associated
substantially equal to a predetermined value. The auxili
electrical control apparatus.
ary regulator loop 20, which is shown in FIG. 1, ‘there
A more speci?c object of this invention is to provide
fore is provided in order to maintain the operating voltage
a current regulator system for maintaining the current
across the diode "72 at a value between the breakdown
supplied to a load circuit from a. source of unidirectional
voltage VB and the minimum voltage VM, after a voltage
current at substantially a predetermined value, said regula
in excess of the breakdown voltage VB has been applied
tor system including a semiconductor device having a neg
to the diode 72.
ative resistance region in its voltage-current characteristic.
In particular, the load '76 at the terminals 1% and ill?)
Other objects of the invention will, in part, be obvious
is connected in series circuit relation with the series resis
35 tor 62 and the diode '72, the series circuit being connected
and will, in part, appear hereinafter.
For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of
to or across a source of unidirectional or direct current
the invention, reference should be had to the following
24- at the terminals 1% and 12, which are the positive and
detailed description taken in connection with the accom~
negative terminals, respectively, of said source.
partying drawing, in which:
FZGURE 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a ?rst
embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a curve diagram relating to FIG. 1, and;
FIG. 3 is a partial schematic diagram of a second em
bodiment of the invention.
Referring now to the drawing and FIG. 1 in particular,
there is illustrated a current regulator system or reference
circuit 30 for maintaining the current supplied from a
source of unidirectional current, more speci?cally, the bat
tery 24, as illustrated, to a load circuit including a load
'70 at substantially a predetermined value. It is to be un
derstood that the source or battery 24- is representative or"
any source of unidirectional current which may include
The auxiliary regulator loop 29 for maintaining the
operating voltage across the diode '72 in the negative re
sistance region of the voltage-current characteristic of said
diode or between the breakdown voltage VB and the mini
mum voltage VM associated with said diode, comprises a
voltage or potential dividing resistance network including
the resistors 22 and 24 and the ?rst and second transistors
4d and 5x3‘, respectively. The resistors 22 and 24, which
comprise the voltage dividing resistance network, are con
nected in series circuit relationship, the series circuit be
ing connected across the source of direct current 24 at the
terminals it} and 12. The ?rst and second transistors 40
and 5d, respectively, include the base electrodes 42 and
52, the emitter electrodes 4.14 and 54 and the collector
a recti?ed alternating current. In general, the regulator
electrodes 46 and 56, respectively. As illustrated, the
system 3% comprises a semiconductor device, speci?cally
?rst transistor 46 is of the NPN type and the second
the semiconductor diode '72 having a negative resistance 55 transistor 50 is of the PNP type. The emitter 44 of the
region in its voltage-current characteristic, said semicon
?rst transistor all is connected to the common terminal 26
ductor device being connected in series with the load '70
between the resistors 22 and 24 and the base of said tran
and means for maintaining the current through the diode
sistor is connected to the common terminal 64 between
'72, which is substantially the same as the current through
the load 70, at substantially a predetermined value.
In particular, the current regulator system 3% includes
the semiconductor diode "i2 and an auxiliary regulator
the resistor 62 and the diode '72. The collector 46 of the
first transistor 46 is directly connected to the base 52 of
the second transistor 50 so that the current which ?ows
in the collector-emitter path of the ?rst transistor 4d is
loop 2t) for maintaining the operating voltage across the
diode '72 in the negative resistance region of its voltage
the same as the current which flows in the base '52 of the
second transistor 5d. The collector 56 of the second tran
current characteristic to thereby maintain current flow 65 sistor St’; is also connected to the common terminal 54
through said diode at substantially a predetermined value.
along with the base 42 of the transistor as. The emitter
5d of the second transistor 50 is connected to the upper
“The Dynistor Diode, a New Device for Power Control,”
end of the resistor 62 at the terminal N2 so that the cur
by A. P. Kruper, which was presented at the 21st Annual
rent which flows in the emitter-collector path of the tran
Machine Tool Electri?cation Forum in Bullalo, New 70 sistor 5d shunts or parallels the resistor 62.
The diode 72 may be of the type described in the paper
York, on April 24, 1957, and in U.S. Patent 2,953,693
?led February 27, 1957, by 1. Philips and assigned to the
The operation of the auxiliary regulator loop 29 in
maintaining the operating voltage across the diode ‘72
3,089,998
3
4
in the negative resistance region of its voltage-current
now be considered. In general, the ?rst transistor 49 func
tions as an error detector for comparing the voltage across
an increase in the current through the diode 72 resulting
from an increase in the ampli?ed current bypassed around
the resistor 62 by the transistor 50 will result in a lower
voltage across the diode 72, returning or restoring the
voltage across the diode 72 to substantially its original
the diode 72 with the voltage across the resistor 24 in
operating value.
order to obtain a net di?’erence output signal or current
which is a measure of the difference between the voltage
diode 72 tends to decrease below the value maintained by
characteristic or between the breakdown voltage VB and
the minimum voltage VM associated with said diode will
On the other hand, if the operating voltage across the
the auxiliary loop 29, which is preferably as indicated at
across the diode '72 and the resistor 24, respectively. The
second transistor 50 then operates as a directly coupled 10 V0 in FIG. 2, the voltage at the terminal 64- will be less
positive with respect to the voltage at the terminal 26
ampli?er to amplify the output difference signal from the
?rst transistor 4t) and to bypass or shunt sufficient cur-rent
around the series resistor 62 to maintain the operating
and the input current to the transistor 40 will be decreased.
The ampli?ed current bypassed around the resistor 62 by
voltage across the diode 72 between the breakdown volt
the transistor 50, which is responsive to the output signal
tage VB and the minimum voltage VM.
or current of the transistor 49, will be correspondingly
In particular, under the initial equilibrium conditions
of the auxiliary regulator loop 20, the voltage across the
diode 72 is arranged to be slightly higher than the voltage
reduced and tend to decrease the current ?ow through
the diode 72. A decrease in current through the diode
72, which is operating in the negative resistance region of
its voltage-current characteristic, will cause an increase in
across the resistor 24-. ‘It is to be noted that the diode 72
is poled in the reverse direction with respect to the voltage 20 the voltage across said diode and return the voltage across
the diode 72 to its original operating value.
associated with the source 24 and that the voltage applied
The overall operation of the regulator system 30 de
to the diode 72 during operation is initially in excess of
the breakdown voltage VB associated with said diode.
Under the equilibrium conditions just described, when the
pends on the operation of the auxiliary regulator loop 20.
This is because by maintaining the operating voltage
voltage across the diode 72 is larger than the voltage
across the diode ‘72 in its negative resistance region, the
current through said diode is maintained at substantially
a predetermined value, as indicated at IB for the some
across the resistor 24-, the voltage at the terminal 64 is at
a positive polarity with respect to the voltage at the ter
minal 26. A small input signal or current is therefore
what exaggerated voltage-cu-rrent characteristic of the
diode 72 shown in FIG. 2. Since the current through
from the terminal 64 into the base 42 and out of the 30 the load 70 is substantially equal to the current flow
applied to the ?rst transistor 4% and a small current flows
emitter 44 of the transistor 40 to the terminal 26. The
latter input current is ampli?ed by the transistor 4%}, the
ampli?ed current ?owing in the collector-emitter path of
the transistor 40. In particular, the latter ampli?ed cur
through the diode 72, the current through the load 70
is also maintained at substantially a predetermined value
‘by the regulator system 30. It should be noted that the
current through the load 70, which is connected in series
rent flows from the load terminal 1oz into [the emitter 35 circuit relation with the diode 72, differs slightly from
54 and out of the base 52 of the transistor 5t}, into the
collector 46 and out of the emitter 44 of the transistor 4%)
the current through the diode 72, the di?erence in said
currents being equal to the relatively small current ?ow
to the terminal 26. The latter ampli?ed current serves
or functions as an input signal to the transistor 5t) and the
iary regulator loop 29 in response to changes in voltage
ing out of the emitter 44- of the transistor 40 in the auxil
input current or signal which flows from the emitter 54 4-0 across the diode 70.
-It should also be noted that the operating voltage across
to the base 52 of the transistor Sil is further ampli?ed by
the transistor 59, the further ampli?ed current ?owing
from the terminal 162 into the emitter 54 and out of
the collector 5'6 to the terminal 64 at the lower end of
the resistor 62. The ?nal ampli?ed current ?owing in
the emitter-collector path of the transistor 5% shunts or par
allels the current path through the resistor 62 and is re
sponsive to the di?erence between the voltage across the
the diode 72, which is maintained by the auxiliary regu
lator loop 29, varies somewhat with changes in the volt
age associated with the source 24 at the terminals 10 and
12. The variations in the current through the diode 72,
however, are extremely small for small variations in the
voltage at the terminals ill and 12. The variations in the
voltage at the terminals 10 and 12 will not substantially
effect the operation of the auxiliary regulator loop 20 and
diode 72 and the resistor 24, respectively.
In summary, under the initial equilibrium conditions, 50 the overall current regulator system 3%, as long as the
the voltage across the diode 72 is slightly higher than the,
voltage across the resistor '24 and corresponding operat
voltage across the resistor 24 and a small input current
ing voltage maintained across the diode 72 by the auxil
?ows in the transistor 46 which is responsive to said diiier
iary regulator loop 20 is in the negative resistance region
ence in voltages. The output diiierence signal of the tran
of the voltage~current characteristic of the diode 72, which
sistor 40 is ampli?ed by the transistor 5% and the ampli?ed 55 is approximately midway between the breakdown voltage
current is bypassed around the series resistor 62. Under
VB and the minimum voltage VM associated with said
equilibrium conditions, the current ?owing out of the emit
diode. It should be noted that in one respect the auxil
ter of the transistor 40 is relatively small and the current
iary regulator loop 20, in cooperation with the series re
through the ‘load 70 is substantially equal to the current
sistor 62, operates to provide an effective variable im
through the diode 72.
pedance or resistance in series with the load 70 and the
Assuming that the operating voltage across the diode
diode 72 in response to changes in the voltage across the
72 at equilibrium conditions is approximately equal to V0,
diode 72, in order to maintain the operating voltage
as shown in FIG. 2, which is maintained across said diode
across said diode at substantially a desired predetermined
by the auxliary regulator loop 20, the diode 72 will be
operating in the negative resistance region of its voltage
value.
It is to be understood that other types of semicon
current characteristic, as indicated at 110 in FIG. 2. 'If
the voltage across the diode 72 should tend to increase
ductor devices having a negative resistance region in
their overall voltage-current characteristics, similar to
that of the semiconductor diode 72, may be incorporated
above the value of operating voltage maintained by the
auxiliary regulator loop 20, the voltage at the terminal 64
in a regulator system as disclosed. For example, a three
will become more positive with respect to the voltage 70 terminal semiconductor transistor switch, such as dis
at the terminal 26. The input current or signal applied to
closed in copending application Serial No. 649,038, ?led
the transistor 40 will therefore increase and the corre
by John Philips and assigned to the same assignee as the
sponding ampli?ed current bypassed around the resistor
present application, may be substituted for the semicon
62 by the transistor 50 will also tend to increase. Since
ductor diode 72 shown in FIG. 1. The latter semicon
the diode 72 is operating in its negative resistance region, 75 ductor device has a controllable reverse breakdown volt.
aosaaes
5
age and a negative resistance region in its voltage~current
characteristic. The reverse breakdown voltage of the
latter device is determined by a control voltage applied to
two of its three terminals.
The other terminal of said
device and a common terminal of said device would be
connected between the conductors 74 and 76, as shown
in FIG. 1 between the terminal 64 and the negative ter
minal 12 of the source 24.
Another example of a semiconductor device of the two
value, said diode being connected in series circuit relation
with said load, and means in circuit relation between said
diode and said source for maintaining the operation of
said diode in its negative resistance region to thereby
maintain the current supplied to said load at substantially
a predetermined value.
3. In a regulator system ‘for maintaining the current
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
at substantially a predetermined value, the combination
terminal type having a negative resistance region in its 10 comprising, a semiconductor device having a negative
voltage-current characteristic which may be substituted
resistance region in its reverse voltage-current character
for the semiconductor diode 72 is disclosed in United
istic between a breakdown voltage and a minimum volt
States Patent No. 2,855,524. The latter ‘device, which is
age after the voltage applied to said device exceeds said
described as a semiconductive switch, is shown generally
breakdown voltage, the current through said device in its
in FIG. 3 and would be connected between the conduc
negative resistance region being at substantially a pre
tors 74 and 76 in FIG. 1 in an alternate embodiment of
determined value, said device being connected in series
this invention. Brie?y, the device 126‘ shown in FIG. 3
with said load, and an auxiliary voltage regulator sys
comprises four zones 92, 94, 96 and 98 in succession,
tem connected in circuit relation with said source and
contiguous zones being of opposite conductivity type,
said device for maintaining the operating voltage of said
whereby there results the PNPN structure illustrated in
device in its negative resistance region between said break
FIG. 3. The latter device is described in US. Patent No.
down voltage and said minimum voltage.
2,855,524 in greater detail. It is also to be understood
4. In a regulator system for maintaining the current
that additional transistor ampli?ers may be added to or
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
cascaded with the transistors shown in FIG. 1 in order
at substantially a predetermined value, the combination
to provide closer regulation by the overall current regu
comprising, a semiconductor diode having a negative re
lator system 30, shown in FIG. 1. :It should be noted
sistance region in its reverse voltage-current character
that, in a particular application, the load '70 may be con
istic between a breakdown voltage and a minimum volt
nected directly in series with the diode 72 between the
age after the voltage applied to said diode exceeds said
terminal 64 and the conductor 76 with another resistor
breakdown voltage, the current through said diode in the
connected between the terminals 100 and 102 and with 30
negative resistance region ‘being at substantially a pre
a suitable change in the resistors 22 and 24.
regulator system or reference circuit as disclosed, the
regulated current or current reference is more stable with
determined value, said diode being connected in series
with said load, and a voltage regulator system for main
taining the operating voltage of said diode in its negative
resistance region between said breakdown voltage and
respect to changes in environmental conditions, such as
temperature, and therefore, the requirements for compen~
sating for changes in environmental conditions are re
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
The apparatus embodying the teachings of this inven
tion has several advantages. For example, in a current
said minimum voltage.
5. In a regulator systemv for maintaining the current
at substantially a predetermined value, the combination
duced. In addition, a current regulator system or refer
ence circuit as disclosed employs only static devices and 40 comprising, a semiconductor diode having a negative re
sistance region in its reverse voltage-current character
therefore requires only a minimum of maintenance. It
istic between a breakdown voltage and a minimum volt
should be noted that a current regulator system or refer
age after the voltage applied to said diode exceeds said
ence circuit, as disclosed, employing semiconductor de
breakdown
voltage, an impedance, said diode and said
vices would also have additional advantages over similar
impedance being connected in series with said load, first
regulator systems, such as those of the magnetic ampli?er
type, in particular applications, such as in aircraft, with 45 means connected in circuit relation with said source and
said diode for comparing the voltage across said diode
respect to size and weight.
with at least a portion of the voltage across said source
Since numerous changes may be made in the above
to obtain a difference signal, and second means connected
described apparatus and circuits, and di?ierent embodi
between
said ?rst means and said impedance for varying
ents of the invention may be made without departing
the current 'l'low through said impedance in response to
from the spirit and scope thereof, it is intended that all
said difference signal to maintain the operatiing voltage
the matter contained in the foregoing description or
across said diode in its negative resistance region between
shown in the accompanying drawing, shall be interpreted
said breakdown voltage and said minimum voltage at a
‘as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1 claim as my invention:
1. In a regulator system vfor maintaining the current 55
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
value substantially midway therebetween.
6. In a regulator system for maintaining the current
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
at substantially a predetermined value, the combination
comprising, a semiconductor diode having a negative re
sistance region in its reverse voltage-current character
sistance region in its reverse volt-ampere characteristic,
the current through said device in its negative resistance 60 istic, the current through said diode in the negative re
at substantially a predetermined value, the combination
comprising, a semiconductor device having a negative re
region being at substantially a predetermined value, said
device being connected in series circuit relation with
said load, and means connected in circuit relation between
said source and said device for maintaining the operation
of said device in its negative resistance region to main
tain the current through said load at substantially said
sistance region being at substantially a predetermined
value, an impedance, said diode and said impedance being
connected in series with said load, ?rst means connected
in circuit relation with said source and said diode for
comparing the voltage across said diode with at least a
portion of the voltage across said source to obtain a
difference signal, and amplifying means connected be
tween said ?rst means and said impedance for varying the
current ?ow through said impedance in response to said
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a
load at substantially a predetermined value, the combina 70 .ditference signal to ‘maintain the operating voltage across
said diode in its negative resistance region.
tion comprising, a semiconductor diode having a nega
7. In a regulator system for maintaining the current
tive resistance region in its reverse volt-ampere character
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a
istic, the current through said diode in its negative re“
sistance region being at substantially a predetermined 75 load at substantially a predetermined value, the combina
tion comprising, a semiconductor diode having a nega
predetermined value.
2. In a regulator system for maintaining the current
3,089,998
8
7
10. A regulator vsystem for maintaining the current
tive resistance region in its reverse voltage-current char
acteristic, the current through said diode in its negative
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
resistance region being at substantially a predetermined
at substantially a predetermined value, comprising a semi
conductor diode having a negative resistance region hav~
value, an impedance, said diode and said impedance being
connected in series with said load, ?rst means connected
in circuit relation with said source and said diode for
comparing the voltage across said diode with at least a
portion of the voltage across said source to obtain a dif
ference signal, said ?rst means comprising a transistor,
and amplifying means connected between said ?rst means 10
and said impedance for varying the current ?ow around
said impedance in response to said difference signal to
maintain the operating voltage across said diode in its
negative resistance region, said second means comprising
at least one transistor.
ing a slope of ?nite value in its reverse voltage-current
characteristic for applied voltages above a breakdown
voltage, the current through said diode in its negative
resistance region being at substantially a predetermined
value for applied voltages between said breakdown volt
age and a minimum voltage after said breakdown voltage
is exceeded, a ?rst resistor connected in series with said
load and said diode, the latter series circuit being con
nected across said source, second and third resistors con
nected in series across said source, a ?rst transistor con
15 netcted in circuit relation with said third resistor and said
diode to provide an output signal which varies with the
difference between the voltage across said third resistor
and the voltage across said diode, and a second transistor
load at substantially a predetermined value, the com
connected in circuit relation between said ?rst transistor
bination comprising, a semiconductor device having a
negative resistance region in its reverse voltage-current 20 and said ?rst resistor to amplify said output signal and to
shunt su?icient current around said ?rst resistor to main
characteristic, the current through said device in its nega
tain said diode in its negative resistance region.
tive resistance region being at substantially a predeter
11. A regulator system ‘for maintaining the current
mined value, a ?rst resistor, said ?rst resistor and diode
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
being connected in series with said load across said
source, a voltage dividing resistance network connected 25 at substantially a predetermined value, comprising a semi
8. In a regulator system for maintaining the current
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a
across said source, a ?rst transistor connected in circuit
relation with said network and said device to be respon
sive to the difference between the voltage across said
device and the voltage across a portion of said network
and a second transistor connected in circuit relation with
said ?rst resistor and said ?rst transistor to vary the volt
age across said resistor in acocrdance with the difference
voltage and to maintain the operating voltage across said
device in the negative resistance region.
9. In a regulator system for maintaining the current
conductor diode having a negative resistance region hav
ing a slope of ?nite value in its reverse voltage-current
characteristic for applied voltages above a breakdown
voltage, the current through said diode in its negative re
sistance region being at substantially a predetermined
value for applied voltages between said breakdown volt
age and a minimum voltage after said breakdown voltage
is exceded, a ?rst resistor connected in series with said
load and said diode, the latter series circuit being con
nected across said source, second and third resistors con
supplied from a source of unidirectional current to a load
nected in series across said source, a ?rst transistor con
at substantially a predetermined value, the combination
nected in circuit relation with said third resistor and said
diode to provide an output signal which varies with the
difference between the voltage across said third resistor
and the voltage across said diode, and a second transistor
connected in circuit relation ‘between said ?rst transistor
comprising, a semiconductor diode having a negative re
sistance region in its reverse voltage-current character
istic between a breakdown voltage and a minimum volt
age after the voltage applied to said diode exceeds said
breakdown voltage, the current through said diode in the
negative resistance region being at substantially a pre
determined value, a ?rst resistor, said ?rst resistor and
diode being connected in series with said load across said
source, a voltage dividing resistance network connected
across said source, a ?rst transistor connected in circuit
and said ?rst resistor to amplify said output signal and to
shunt sufficient current around said ?rst resistor to main
tain the voltage across said diode between said break
down voltage and said minimum voltage in its negative
resistance region, the emitter-collector path of said second
transistor being connected in parallel with said ?rst re
sistor.
relation with said network and said diode to be responsive
to the difference between the voltage across said diode 50
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
and the voltage across a portion of said network and a
second transistor connected in circuit relation with said
UNITED STATES PATENTS
?rst resistor and said ?rst transistor to vary the voltage
2,751,549
Chase _______________ __ June 19, 1956
across said resistor in accordance with the difference
Jensen ________________ __ Jan. 1, 1957
voltage and to maintain the operating voltage across said 55 2,776,382
diode in the negative resistance region between said break
down voltage and said minimum voltage.
2,855,524
Shockley _____________ __ Oct. 7, 1958
2,965,772
Swartout ____________ .__. Dec. 20, 1960
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
805 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа