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Патент USA US3090019

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May 14, 1963
c. T. ZAVALES
3,090,010
DROOP COMFENSATING CIRCUIT FOR HARD TUBE MODULATOR SYSTEMS
Filed Sept. 29, 1961
PRIOR ART
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United States Patent 0
1
3,090,010
Patented May 14, 1963
2
with the result that the “triggered power output” 01, 02
which is connected to the usual electronic discharge tube,
receives discharged energy from the capacitor 5 and im
mediately upon cessation of the “trigger input” to isola
tion transformer 9, the negative bias is again restored
to the grid of the switching tube 6, returning it to its
normal non¥conducting state.
By connecting the energy storage capacitor 5 on the
3,090,010
DROOP COMPENSATING CIRCUIT FOR HARD
TUBE MODULATOR SYSTEMS
Charles T. Zavales, New York, N.Y., assignor to FXR, a
Division of Amphenol-Borg Electronic Corp, Wood
side, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware
Filed Sept. 29, 1961, Ser. No. 141,818
5 Claims. (Cl. 328-67)
power supply side of the switching tube 6 as shown in
The present invention relates to a droop compensat
10 FIG. 1, and eliminating the use of a charging diode as
ing circuit for pulse generators as used to supply pulsed
heretofore used in the art, the shunt capacitance effect of
energy for modulators which energize magnetrons, am
the energy storage capacitor 5 across the output terminals
pli?ers or klystrons, in radar systems and the like.
01, 02 is eliminated. This absence of shunt capacitance
It is well known that in electrical discharge devices such
effect in turn eliminates the “slow down” in the rate of
as these “hard tube” magnetrons, ampli?ers and klystrons, 15 rise and fall of the voltage across the output terminals
. the electrical discharge current ?owing through the device
which would otherwise necessitate the power supply fur
even during the in?nitesimal‘ly short period of the pulse
nishing additional power to charge the shunt capacitor 5.
duration will decrease very rapidly as the voltage “droops”
Moreover, in the circuit arrangement as shown in FIG. 1
or falls off. Also, since the substantially instantaneous
the requirement for additional current from the power
high power pulse of radio frequency energy is custom 20 supply during the time that the switching tube 6 is con
arily supplied from an energy storage device forming a
ductive to energize the load is entirely obviated. Despite
the foregoing advantages of FIG. 1 it inherently possesses
part of the supply system such energy must build up very
rapidly to the required voltage and the current to thus
the objection that during the energy pulse, when the
supply the necessary radio frequency energy for the next
switching tube 6 is conductive, the energy storage ca
succeeding pulse delivered to the modulator tube.
25 pacitor 5 is nevertheless subject to a loss of voltage or
The primary object of the present invention is the pro
“droop,” which heretofore has been reduced by increas
vision of a droop compensating circuit for pulse generators
ing the size of capacitor 5 but this has practical limita
wherein the effect of voltage loss in the energy storage
tions since the greater the decrease of “droop” the larger
the capacitor.
device, during transmission of the high power pulse of
radio frequency energy to the modulator tube load, is en
tirely cancelled out by complete compensation for such
effect.
Such compensation is accomplished in accordance with
30
In accordance with the present invention this “droop”
or fall in voltage during the energy pulse to the load is
entirely eliminated without the necessity of providing
large capacity energy storage capacitors by the circuit ar
rangement as shown in FIG. 2. This “droop” compen
ergy storage device with electrical ‘energy of opposite 35 sated hard tube modulator system, -as shown in this latter
?gure, com-prises a “Power Input” of high power radio
sign during the actual discharge thereof to produce the
high power pulse in the modulator tube load.
frequency energy ‘E31 connected directly to a pair of
serially connected capacitors C1 and C2 and grounded at
For a better understanding of the present invention
_ the present invention by simultaneously charging the en
’ reference may be had to the accompanying drawing where
in:
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a conventional
G.
A resistance divider assembly comprising resistors
40 R1 and R2 is connected in shunt with capacitors C1 and
C2 in order to insure proper ‘voltage division between
these series connected energy storage capacitors. .Again
as in FIG. 1, the pulsed discharge of high power radio
‘frequency energy from the capacitors C1 and C2 is sup
pensating circuit for high power pulsed radio frequency 45 plied to the triggered output klystron load 10 when a
energization of a modulator tube load in accordance with
switching tube V1 becomes conductive as previously de
the present invention.
scribed relative to the switching tube 6 of FIG. 1, with the
Referring now to the drawing in ‘detail the “hard tube”
flow of current being in the direction indicated by the
pulse generating system ‘for ‘almodulator tube or the like,
and
FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of the droop com
modulator circuit as shown in FIG. 1 comprises a high
light arrows in FIG. 2.
'
power'radio frequency power supply source, or “Power 50
This switching tube V1 also has its thermionic cathode
supplied with low voltage heating energy from a trans
Input” L1, L2, which is connected directly to a capacitor
5 with one side thereof grounded ‘at G. The discharge
former 1-2 and a negative biasing voltage is normally
applied to the grid thereof by a battery 13 so as to render
circuit or “triggered power output” 01, 02 from the ca
pacitor 5 for energizing the customary magnetron, am
this switching tube V1 non-conducting during charging
pli?er or klystron tube load includes a switching tube 6. 55 of the capacitors C1 and C2. Also upon the imposition
of a positive signal through an isolation pulsed coupling
This switching tube 6 has its cathode and anode con
nected to the capacitor 5 and load 01, 02 so that the
transformer .14, which has its primary winding connected
load is energized whenever such switching tube becomes
' conductive.
The thermionic cathode of the switching
to a “triggered input” supply source, such switching tube
V1 becomes conductive to cause discharge of capacitors
tube 6 receives heating energy from a low-voltage trans
60 C1 and 02 with attendant energization of the klystron
former 7 and a negative biasing voltage is normally ap
load 10 as above mentioned. The circuitry of FIG. 2
thus far described differs very little from that previously
described relative to FIG. 1. However, in order to com
plied to the grid of the switching tube 6 by a battery or
the like 8 so as to make this switching tube non-conduct
ing during charging of the capacitor 5.
When it is desired to make the switching tube 6 con
pensate for the “droop" otherwise occurring in the volt
65 age across the capacitors Cl and C2 an additional switch
ing tube V2 is provided which operates simultaneously
ductive, so as to cause the capacitor 5 to discharge and
energize the load, a positive signal is fed to the control
with switching tube V1. In other words, V2 is likewise
grid of the switching tube through an insulation pulse
normally non-conductive since a negative biasing voltage
transformer 9 which has its primary winding connected
is supplied to its control grid by a battery 15 but be
to a “trigger input” source of supply T1, T2. Accord 70 comes conductive simultaneously with V1 becoming con
ingly, forthe duration of the pulse impressed upon the
ductive, because V2 receives a positive signal from. an
isolation transformer 9, the switching tube 6 is conductive
isolation coupling transformer 16 when its primary is
3,090,010
A
to render it normally non-conductive, and a trigger input
source of pulsed energy simultaneously applicable to both
3
energized from the same “trigger input” supply source
as that of isolation transformer 14.
As shown in FIG. 2 the thermionic cathode of switch
ing tube V2 receives heating energy from a low voltage
heating transformer 17 and the screen grid of such tube
is supplied from a “screen power supply” 18 having a
said switching tubes to cause said ?rst mentioned tube
to become conductive with‘lattendant discharge of said
energy storage means through said electronic tube load
to energize the latter fora time period corresponding to
the duration of the puse from said trigger input source,
and said trigger input source causing said second switch
smoothing capacitor C3 in shunt therewith. It will also
be noted from FIG. 2 that capacitor C2 is arranged to
be charged from a constant current “droop” compensat
ing tube to become conductive with attendant simulta
period and by charging capacitor C2 from the constant
said second switching tube being operable upon the appli
current source E32 with a current twice the value of the
klystron load current, the voltage “droop” across ca
thereto to cause said second switching tube to become
pacitor C1 is thus indirectly compensated for along with.
conductive with attendant simultaneous charging of said
ing source comprising a “droop compensating input” 10 neous charging of said energy storage means during the
entire pulse period of energization of said electronic tube
source Egg and a shunt connected capacitor C4 which
load to compensate for the droop in the energy of said
charges the capacitor C2 in a direction as shown by the
energy storage means which would otherwise result from
heavy arrow in FIG. 2 and thus opposite to the ?ow
the
discharge thereof through said load.
I
of discharge current to the klystron load 10, as indicated
2. A droop compensating circuit for electronic tube
by the previously mentioned light-lined arrows. More 15
modulator systems comprising energy storage means, a
over, since both switching tubes V1 and V2 simultaneous
source of high power radio frequency energy for charg
ly become conductive, as previously described, during the
ing said energy storage means, a switching tube interposed
instant of the pulse when the klystron load 10 is ener
in the circuit between said energy storage means and the
gized by the discharge current from the series connected
capacitors C1 and C2, the capacitor C2 is being charged 20 electronic tube load and operable to control energiza
tion of the latter, a source of biasing energy connected
with compensating current which thus prevents the
to said switching tube and operable to render it normally
“droop” in voltage otherwise occurring in the klystron
non-conductive, a constant current droop compensator
load circuit as the stored energy is dissipated by the ca
input source, a second switching tube interposed between
pacitors.
It will also be noted that inasmuch as the capacitors 25 said droop compensator input source and said energy stor
age means and operable to control charging of the latter
O1 and C2 are of substantially equal value the “droop”
at a predetermined period of time, a source of biasing
in voltage of the klystron load circuit would be equally
energy connected to said second switching tube to render
divided across these two capacitors and if only the volt
it normally non-conductive, and a trigger input source
age “droop” in capacitor C2 was compensated for by its
simultaneous charging in an opposite direction, then com 30 of pulsed energy simultaneously applicable to both said
switching tubes to cause said ?rst mentioned tube to be
plete‘ compensation of the klystron load circuit is not
come conductive with attendant discharge of said energy
achieved. Accordingly, to accomplish complete com
storage means through said electronic tube load to ener
pensation in accordance with the present invention the
gize the latter for a time period corresponding to the
two switching tubes V1 and V2 are simultaneously closed
duration of the pulse from said trigger input source, and
(made conductive) for the duration of the entire pulse
cation of a pulse of energy from said trigger input source
direct compensation of capacitor C2, so that the total 40 energy storage'rneans in a direction opposite to that of
voltage “droop” across the series connected capacitors
C1 and C2 is zero resulting in complete compensation
the discharge thereof during the entire pulse period of
energization of said electronic tube load, to compensate
of the tube modulator circuit.
From the foregoing it should thus become obvious to
those skilled in the art that a “droop” compensating sys
tem is provided by the present invention for hard tube
modulator circuits which fully compensates for the loss
of energy from the energy storage capacitor bank without
the necessity for a capacitor of in?nite size. By causing
for the droop in the energy of said energy storage means
which would otherwise result from the discharge thereof
through said load.
3. A droop compensating circuit for electronic tube
modulator systems comprising a bank of capacitors, a
source of high power ‘radio frequency energy for charging
said capacitor bank, a switching tube interposed in the
the addition of energy to at least one of the energy stor 50 circuit between said capacitor bank and the electronic
tube load and operable to control energization of the
age capacitors of the :bank at discrete rates to compen
sate for the loss of energy due to loading, the voltage
and current across such capacitor bank is stabilized at a
latter, a source of biasing energy connected to said switch
ing tube and operable to render it normally non-conduc
substantially uniform value during the pulse energization
tve, a constant current droop compensator input source,
a second switching‘ tube interposed between said droop
compensator input source and said capacitor bank and
operable to control charging of the latter at a predeter
of the modulator tube load.
Although a speci?c embodiment of the present inven
tion has been herein shown and described, it is to be un
derstood that still further modi?cations thereof may be
made without departing from the spirit and scope of the
appended claims.
I claim:
1. A droop compensating circuit for electronic tube
modulator systems comprising energy storage means, a
source of high power radio frequency energy for charg
ing said energy storage means, a switching tube inter
posed in the‘ circuit between said energy storage means
and the electronic tube load and operable to control en
er‘gization of the latter, a source of biasing energy con
mined period of time, a source of biasing energy con
nected to said second switching tube to render it nor
60
mally non-conductive, and a trigger input source of pulsed
energy simultaneously applicable to both said switching
tubes to cause said ?rst mentioned tube to become con
ductive with attendant discharge of said capacitor bank
through said electronic tube load to energize the latter
'for a time period corresponding to the duration of the
pulse from said trigger input source, and said trigger
input source causing said second switching tube to become
conductive with attendant simultaneous charging of said
capacitor bank during the entire pulse period of ener
nected to‘said switching tube and operable to render it
normally non-conductive, a constant current droop com 70 gization of said electronic tube load to compensate for
the droop in the energy of said capacitor bank which
pensator‘ input source, a second‘switching tube interposed
would otherwise result from the discharge thereof through
between said droop compensator input source and said
said load.
‘
energy storage means and operable to control charging
4. A droop compensating circuit for electronic tube
of the latter at a predetermined period of time, a source
modulator systems comprising energy storage means,
of biasing energy connected to said second switching tube
3,090,010
5
a source of high power radio frequency energy for charg
ing said energy storage means, a switching tube inter
posed in the circuit between said energy storage means
6
ing said capacitor bank, a switching tube interposed in
the circuit between said capacitor bank and the electronc
tube load and operable to control energization of the
and the electronic tube load and operable to control ener
latter, a source of biasing energy connected to said switch
gization of the latter, a source of biasing energy connected 5 ing tube and operable to render it normally non-conduc
to said switching tube and operable to render it normally
tive, a constant current droop compensator input source,
a second switching tube interposed between said droop
non-conductive, a constant current droop compensator
input source, a second switching tube interposed between
compensator input source and said capacitor bank and
said droop compensator input source and said energy
operable to control charging of a portion of said capaci
storage means and operable to control charging of the 10 tor bank at a predetermined period of time and with a
latter at a predetermined period of time, a source of bias
current substantially twice the current supplied to said
ing energy connected to said second switching tube to
electronic tube load, a source of biasing energy con
render it normally non-conductive, and a trigger input
nected to said second switching tube to render it nor
source of pulsed energy simultaneously applicable to both
mally non-conductive, and a trigger input source of pulsed
said switching tubes to cause said ?rst mentioned tube to 15 energy simultaneously applicable to both said switching
become conductive with attendant discharge of said en
tubes to cause said ?rst mentioned tube to become con
ergy storage means through said electronic tube load
ductive with attendant discharge of said capacitor bank
to energize the latter for a time period corresponding
through said electronic tube load to energize the latter
to the duration of the pulse from said trigger input
for a time period corresponding to the duration of the
source, and said second switching tube being operable 20 pulse from said trigger input source, and said second
upon the application of a pulse of energy from said
switching tube being operable upon the application of a
trigger input source thereto to cause said second switch
pulse of energy from said trigger input source thereto
ing tube to become conductive with attendant simultane
to cause said second switching tube to become conduc
ous charging of said energy storage means at a voltage
tive with attendant simultaneous charging of said capaci—
greater than one half the total discharge voltage and in 25 tor bank at a voltage greater than one half the total dis
a direction opposite to that of the discharge thereof dur
charge voltage and in a direction opposite to that of the
ing the entire pulse period of energization of said elec
tronic tube load, to compensate for the droop in the
energy of said energy storage means which would other
wise result from the discharge thereof through said load.
5. A droop compensating circuit for electronic tube
modulator systems comprising a bank of capacitors, a
source of high power radio frequency energy for charg
discharge thereof during the entire pulse period of ener
gization of said electronic tube load, to compensate for
the droop in the energy of said capacitor vbank which
would otherwise result from the discharge thereof through
said load.
No references cited.
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