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Патент USA US3090564

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May 21, 1963
3,090,554
A. J. MALAVAZOS
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18, 1961
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CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18, 1961
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CALCULATING MACHINE
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CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18, 1961
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A. J. MALAVAZOS
3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18. 1961
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A. J. MALAVAZOS
3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
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3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
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CALCULATING MACHINE
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A. J. MALAVAZOS
3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18, 1961
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A. J. MALAVAZOS
3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18, 1961
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May 21, 1963
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A. J. MALAVAZOS
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18. 1961
18 Sheets-Sheet 14
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A. J. MALAVAZOS
3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18, 1961
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May 21, 1963
A. J. MALAVAZOS
3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18, 1961
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May 21, 1963
A. J. MALAVAZOS
3,090,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed May 18. 1961
18 Sheets-Sheet 18
United States Patent 0
3,990,554
Patented May 21, 1963
2
1
Arthur J. Malavazos, Hayward, Calih, assignor to
Frirlcn, Inc., a corporation of California
Filed May 18, 1961, Ser. No. 110,960
11 Claims. (Cl. 235-453)
“89" would be handled by one subtractive cycle in the
home, or units, order; shifting the carriage one order;
then subtracting once in the second, or tens, order; shift
ing the carriage to the third, or hundrcdths, position and
?nally adding once. This method of multiplication is
controlled by the fact that “39” is equal to “l00—ll.”
The example given illustrates one di?iculty encountered
TABLE Or CONTENTS
in the automatic mechanism using this approach: namely,
3,099,554
CALCULATING MACHINE
I. PRIOR ART CALCULATOR MECHANISMS ....... __
7
A. Machine Frame ____________________________________ l.
S
B. Register Carriage __________ _.
_
8
0. Tens Transfer Mechanism“
.
9
D. Selection Mechanism ..... __
E.
Accumulator
Drive _ _ . . _ _
_ . .. . _
11
12
14
15
i6
complcment” or the “tens-complement.” This, of course,
adds further complexity to the automatic mechanism.
Because of the speed involved in using “Short Out” as
16
against “Repeated Addition” methods of multiplication,
.
9
10
0. Register Clearing Mechanism.-.
H. Automatic Shifting Meehanisrm
I. Shift Terminating Mechanism
II. MULTIPLICATION MEOHANIS
1. Multiplier Selection ____________ ..
(a) Multiplier Keyboard
._
17
._
17
__
1R
2. Operation Control Keys _____________________________ __
2U
Shiftahle
Pin
Carriage _ _ . . _ . . . . .
_ . . . ._
(c) Multiplier Control Segments.
10 tion, the value in the higher order must be reduced by
“1.” In other words, while we speak of using the “tens
complcment” of the higher order values, we sometimes
use the “nines-complement” instead, and the machine
automatically has to select whether to take the “nines
. . . __
F. Carriage Shut"--. .......... __
(b)
that when two successive values require subtractive opera
Column
many inventors have endeavored to adopt the “Short
Cut” method to automatic multiplication. However, the
resulting mechanisms have been very complicated and
often required very careful adjustment, with consequent
(at)§ gglultiplication With Clearing (“MCI/1"’ ‘Key
___________________________________________ _-
(b) Multiplication Without Clcaring (The
"ACCUM M UL'I‘” Key 406) _________________ __
(c) subtractive Multiplication, Without Clearing
(“NEG MULT” Key 407) ____________________ ._
21
22
heavy manufacturing and upkeep costs. My invention
23
is directed to a new and improved approach to the auto
matic “Short Cut" multiplication which avoids the use
of very small parts and avoids the ?ne tolerances that
25
28
are usually required in this type of mechanism, so that
28
the “Short Cut” mechanism can be constructed from
sturdy stampings (as is the case in the “Repeated Addi
31 30 tion” systems of the past) and which will still complete
35
a multiplication problem in the shorter interval incident
36
3. Initiation of Multiplication _____________ ._
24
4. Multiplication Programming lllechanism_
‘25
(a) Program Clutch and Cams _____ ..
(12) Programming ;\'lechanism..
(I) Feed Mechanism..(:2) Condition “0" S
for Operation.
.
__
_________ __
(3) Set Sign Charuc r of Multiplication
Operation _______________________ --
(c) Shift Mechanism ____________________________ --
(1) Disable Segment: Feed Mcchauism..._
(2) Multiplier Carriage Shi[t__ __________ _.
(3) Register Carriage Shift...
5. Short Cut Multiplication Controls___-_
30
to “Short Cut” operation.
Another important object of the present invention is
36
37
38
(a) Normal Digitation Controls ____ _.
to provide, in a “Short Cut” multiplier mechanism, for
40
(1) Value Sensing Mechanism. _
111
(2) Reversing Sign Character Control.
42
the additional cycle of operation in the higher order when
43
ever the multiplier value in the adjacent lower order re
(b) Cycle Modifying Mechanism ________________ ._
(1:) Control or‘ Direction oi Feed of the Operative
Segment ___________________________________ ._
44
quires operation in the reverse direction (often sometimes
(d) Corrective Operation After Final Cycle _____ ._
45
loosely referred to as “subtraction” because multiplica
6. Restore Mechanism ___________________________ _.
(a) Repeat Operatiom.
46
..
48
III. OPERATION ____________________________________________ ..
50
tion is generally considered to be repeated addition) and
40 the value in the higher order necccssitatcs operation in
This invention rclatcs to calculating machines and is
concerned particularly with an improved mechanism for
performing plural order multiplication operations auto
matically by means of what is known as the “Short Cut”
system.
It is a primary object of the present invention to pro
vide a more simple and also a more rugged automatic
mechanism for performing plural order multiplication
problems by the “Short Cut” method than those hereto
fore suggested. In the past most of the automatic calcu
lating machines utilized the “Repeated Addition” system
of multiplication in which a factor is added a number of
times in each order corresponding to the multiplier digit
for that order. Thus, for example, if the multiplier value
were “89,” the multiplicand is added nine times with the
register in its home, or units order, position; the car
riage shifted one order to the right; and the multiplicand
then added eight times in the next ordinal position. This
method of automatic multiplication had the great ad
the selected direction (often loosely referred to as “addi_
tive” ; ‘which drops a cycle of operation in the higher
order whenever the multiplier values in two adjacent
orders require operation in the reverse direction in both
orders; which enables the correct number of cycles in the
higher order whenever the multiplier value in the adjacent
lower order necessitates operation in the selected direc
tion; and which enables the correct number of cycles, as
determined by the “tens-complement" of the multiplier
digit, whenever the multiplier value requires operation in
the reverse direction While operation in the adjacent lower
order required it in the selected direction. That is, one of
the objects of the present invention is to provide a simpler
and more rugged mechanism which automatically adds
an additional cycle of operation in the higher order when
ever the machine changes from operation in the reverse
direction {generally subtraction) to operation in the sc
lccted direction (usually addition); which eliminates a
cycle of operation in the higher order whenever the op
subject to the drawback that a multiplier value of “9” rc
eration in both orders is in the reverse direction; and
which neither adds nor subtracts a cycle of operation in
the higher of any two orders whenever an operation in
quircs nine cycles of operation, a multiplier value of “8”
requires eight cycles of operation, etc. In the days of
direction.
Another important object of the present invention is to
vantage that it was by far the most simple, and therefore
provided the most trouble-free operation. It is, however,
manual multiplication, antcdating the automatic multiply
ing machines now available, export operators learned to
multiply by what is commonly called the “Short Cut”
method in which values of “6,” or greater, are handled
by subtracting the “tens-complement” of the value in the ‘
particular order and then adding the value of “l” in the
next higher order. In this system a multiplier factor of
the adjacent lower order required operation in the selected
provide a “Short Cut” multiplication mechanism in a ma
chine such as that disclosed in the patents to Fridcn, No.
2,371,752, issued March 20, 1945, and Fridcn et al., No.
2,399,917, of May 7, 1946, which provides for multipli
cation both by repeated addition or by repeated subtrac
tion.
It is obvious that a “Short Cut” multiplication
3,090,554
A
mechanism for positive multiplication only would be much
the reverse direction in the ?rst order (which reverse
simpler than one which is adapted to perform both posi
operation requires an additional cycle of operation in the
tive and negative multiplication, as in the Friden patents.
higher order) the operation of the multiplier segment in
In the ?rst system ‘it is merely necessary to set the machine
the first order to a “0” position would automatically ad
for addition or subtraction according to the multiplier
just the multiplier segment in the higher order (which
value of a particular order, i.e., values invariably operate
thcretofore had stood at the value of “5"), to a value of
additively for multiplier values of “1” to “5” and invari
“6” in order to take care of the situation. That is, in
ably operate subtractively for multiplier values of “6" to
stead of six additive cycles in the higher order, it would
“9.” On the other hand, in a machine for both positive
be changed to a value of “6” and would control four
and negative multiplication, the setting must be the result 10 cycles in the reverse direction followed by a single cycle
of two separate factors: (1) the sign character of opera
in the selected direction in the third order. Similarly, if
tion selected by the operator, and (2) the automatic selec
the multiplier value were “66,” both orders would be set
tion from the magnitude of the multiplier value. In ma
for operation in the reverse direction with the setting of
chines of the type disclosed in the Friden patents the ma
the value keys, and then, during the ?rst ordinal series
chine must run in an additive direction when the multiplier 15 of operations, the higher order segment would be adjusted
value is between “1" and “5” and the selected operation is
to “7" instead of “6.”
additive multiplication, but must run subtractively for
Another important object of the present invention is to
negative multiplication for like values; and, conversely, the
provide means for modifying the operation of a multi—
machine must run in a subtractive direction when the
plier control segment, such as shown in the Friden patents
multiplier value is “6” to “9” in additive multiplication,
above-mentioned, by a single step to either reduce the
and additively for negative multiplication of such larger
number of cycles of operation in the operative order or to
values. For this reason, and in order to avoid confusion
increase the number of cycles when required by the nature
which might arise from careless use of these terms, the
of the problem.
terms “selected direction” and “reverse direction” will
These and other objects of the invention will be
generally be used to designate operation in the direction
apparent from a consideration of the following descrip
(i.e., sign character) selected by the operator, or the re
tion, which will be readily understood by reference to
verse, respectively; and the terms “additive” and “subtrac
the drawings forming a part hereof and in which:
tive" will only refer to the sign character of the operation
FIG. 1 is a plan view of the machine embodying the
of the register. With this in mind it will be obvious that
preferred form of my invention;
“selected direction" will designate the operation of the 30
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal, partial, cross-sectional view
machine for the lower multiplier values (values of “l”
of the machine shown in FIG. 1, showing the selection,
to “5” in my preferred embodiment), and this selected di—
actuating, and register mechanisms thereof such as ‘along
rection may be “additive” or “subtractive,” depending up
the longitudinal plane indicated by the line 2——2 of
on the desire of the operator. and operations controlled
FIG. 1;
by higher values (in my preferred form, values of “6”
FIG. 3 is a rear view of the power clearing and shift
to “9") will be in the reverse direction.
ing mechanisms of the machine of the preferred form
A further object of the present invention is to provide
of my invention, such as along the transverse plane in
an improved “Short Cut” multiplying mechanism for a
dicated by the line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
rotary calculating machine using a plural order multiplier
FIG. 4 is a left side view of the right frame plate,
mechanism operative to store the multiplier value and, up 40 showing certain portions of the drive mechanisms and
on operation of the machine, to control the entry of the
controls therefor, such as along the longitudinal plane
product into a product register either additively or sub
indicated by the line 4—4 of FIG. 7;
tractivcly at the will of the operator.
FIG. 5 is a left side view of the mechanism for pro
Another important aspect of the present invention is to
gramming a continuous left shift of the register carriage
provide an improved multiplying mechanism in which the
to the home position operated in multiplication opera
character of the operation (in a selected or in the reverse
tions,
such as taken along a longitudinal plane indicated
sign character direction) is determined by the entry of
by
‘the
line 5-5 of FIG. 7;
the multiplier value into the multiplier mechanism (at the
FIG. 6 is a right side view of the mechanism shown
time the value is entered); the selected direction (positive
in FIG. 5, together with means for controlling a right
for the entry of the true product or negative for the
shift of the register carriage during the multiplication
entry of the complement thereof) is determined by the
program,
such as taken along a longitudinal plane in
operation of the control keys by the operator; and the ad
dicated by the line 6—-6 of FIG. 7;
justment of the multiplier value in any order as affected
FIG. 7 is a plan view of the right portion of the
by the direction of operation in the adjacent lower order
machine
with certain parts removed for simpli?cation;
(i.e., the determination of whether an additional cycle of
FIG. 8 is a plan view of the left portion of the
operation is to be performed in the particular order, or one
machine with certain parts removed, and is, in effect, an
less cycle of operation than the number determined by the
extension of FIG. 7;
value key for that order) is determined by the operation of
FIG. 9 is a right side View of the multiplier mecha
the machine order-by-order.
nism, such as taken along the longitudinal planes in
Another aspect of the present invention is to provide
an improved means for setting the true value or the tens 60 dicated ‘by the lines 9—9 of FIG. 8, with certain parts
removed for simpli?cation;
complement of that value in a multiplication mechanism
FIG. 10 is a plan view, partly in cross-section, of the
automaticaliy from depression of the selected value keys
muitiplier control carriage and certain mechanisms asso
and simultaneously setting a control means to etfect op
eration in the selected direction or in the reverse direction
ciated therewith;
FIG. 11 is a left side view of one of the multiplier
during operation on that order; and to provide means for
automatically modifying the setting so made in an order
by the operation of the machine in the next lower order
when such modi?cation is required by the nature of the
multiplier digits. For example, if a multiplier value were
“56,” the entry of those values into the multiplier control
members (the segments of a machine of the type shown in
forwardly to its “10" position as the result of a short
the Friden patents above-mentioned) would determine,
cut operation, the segment having originally been set at
respectively, that operation was to be in the reverse direc
tion in the lower order and in the selected direction in
the higher order. However, as the machine operates in
by operation in the adjacent lower order in the reverse
segment assemblies showing the position of the parts
as they are restored to their “0” position at the end of
the digitation operation in the order controlled thereby;
FIG. 12 is a similar view of one of the segment assem
blies showing the position of the parts when operated
a value of “5” and then converted to a value of “6"
sign character direction;
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