# Патент USA US3090564

код для вставкиMay 21, 1963 3,090,554 A. J. MALAVAZOS CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18, 1961 18 Sheets-Sheet 1 ‘sq >_ “WWII 1La T”, magMm & d NH 3 QQNWM .‘ a._1._I. m.__._._. W‘ @ @da a mg A. ‘ Q m; _ ®%@2= @ 2cmwmowcQmcw@mcmwémago_?\@wg?mcg IFLE.8P"a.lasma? g :2p. mg a, 02 7H _, May 21, 1963 A. J. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18, 1961 18 Sheets-Sheet 2 IE'IE|__£ 100 May 21, 1963 A. .1. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18. 3.961 l8 Sheets-Sheet 3 May 21, 1963 A. J. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18, 1961 18 Sheets-Sheet 4 294 EL. 506 FIE__P May 21, 1963 A. J. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18. 1961 18 Sheets-Sheet 5 66k 552 0 726 75] May 21, 1963 A. J. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18, 1961 18 Sheets-Sheet 6 mI-WHM May 21, 1963 A. J. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18, 1961 18 Sheets-Sheet 7 897 FIE|___1[:I May 21, 1963 A. J. 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I IE! _.|2 El /2» Q /" ‘\ l’Y-BZQ // 7 / / m ._ an, ‘ May 21, 1963 A. J. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18. 1961 \ \ E FIEE|__3I:I 18 Sheets-Sheet 17 May 21, 1963 A. J. MALAVAZOS 3,090,554 CALCULATING MACHINE Filed May 18. 1961 18 Sheets-Sheet 18 United States Patent 0 3,990,554 Patented May 21, 1963 2 1 Arthur J. Malavazos, Hayward, Calih, assignor to Frirlcn, Inc., a corporation of California Filed May 18, 1961, Ser. No. 110,960 11 Claims. (Cl. 235-453) “89" would be handled by one subtractive cycle in the home, or units, order; shifting the carriage one order; then subtracting once in the second, or tens, order; shift ing the carriage to the third, or hundrcdths, position and ?nally adding once. This method of multiplication is controlled by the fact that “39” is equal to “l00—ll.” The example given illustrates one di?iculty encountered TABLE Or CONTENTS in the automatic mechanism using this approach: namely, 3,099,554 CALCULATING MACHINE I. PRIOR ART CALCULATOR MECHANISMS ....... __ 7 A. Machine Frame ____________________________________ l. S B. Register Carriage __________ _. _ 8 0. Tens Transfer Mechanism“ . 9 D. Selection Mechanism ..... __ E. Accumulator Drive _ _ . . _ _ _ . .. . _ 11 12 14 15 i6 complcment” or the “tens-complement.” This, of course, adds further complexity to the automatic mechanism. Because of the speed involved in using “Short Out” as 16 against “Repeated Addition” methods of multiplication, . 9 10 0. Register Clearing Mechanism.-. H. Automatic Shifting Meehanisrm I. Shift Terminating Mechanism II. MULTIPLICATION MEOHANIS 1. Multiplier Selection ____________ .. (a) Multiplier Keyboard ._ 17 ._ 17 __ 1R 2. Operation Control Keys _____________________________ __ 2U Shiftahle Pin Carriage _ _ . . _ . . . . . _ . . . ._ (c) Multiplier Control Segments. 10 tion, the value in the higher order must be reduced by “1.” In other words, while we speak of using the “tens complcment” of the higher order values, we sometimes use the “nines-complement” instead, and the machine automatically has to select whether to take the “nines . . . __ F. Carriage Shut"--. .......... __ (b) that when two successive values require subtractive opera Column many inventors have endeavored to adopt the “Short Cut” method to automatic multiplication. However, the resulting mechanisms have been very complicated and often required very careful adjustment, with consequent (at)§ gglultiplication With Clearing (“MCI/1"’ ‘Key ___________________________________________ _- (b) Multiplication Without Clcaring (The "ACCUM M UL'I‘” Key 406) _________________ __ (c) subtractive Multiplication, Without Clearing (“NEG MULT” Key 407) ____________________ ._ 21 22 heavy manufacturing and upkeep costs. My invention 23 is directed to a new and improved approach to the auto matic “Short Cut" multiplication which avoids the use of very small parts and avoids the ?ne tolerances that 25 28 are usually required in this type of mechanism, so that 28 the “Short Cut” mechanism can be constructed from sturdy stampings (as is the case in the “Repeated Addi 31 30 tion” systems of the past) and which will still complete 35 a multiplication problem in the shorter interval incident 36 3. Initiation of Multiplication _____________ ._ 24 4. Multiplication Programming lllechanism_ ‘25 (a) Program Clutch and Cams _____ .. (12) Programming ;\'lechanism.. (I) Feed Mechanism..(:2) Condition “0" S for Operation. . __ _________ __ (3) Set Sign Charuc r of Multiplication Operation _______________________ -- (c) Shift Mechanism ____________________________ -- (1) Disable Segment: Feed Mcchauism..._ (2) Multiplier Carriage Shi[t__ __________ _. (3) Register Carriage Shift... 5. Short Cut Multiplication Controls___-_ 30 to “Short Cut” operation. Another important object of the present invention is 36 37 38 (a) Normal Digitation Controls ____ _. to provide, in a “Short Cut” multiplier mechanism, for 40 (1) Value Sensing Mechanism. _ 111 (2) Reversing Sign Character Control. 42 the additional cycle of operation in the higher order when 43 ever the multiplier value in the adjacent lower order re (b) Cycle Modifying Mechanism ________________ ._ (1:) Control or‘ Direction oi Feed of the Operative Segment ___________________________________ ._ 44 quires operation in the reverse direction (often sometimes (d) Corrective Operation After Final Cycle _____ ._ 45 loosely referred to as “subtraction” because multiplica 6. Restore Mechanism ___________________________ _. (a) Repeat Operatiom. 46 .. 48 III. OPERATION ____________________________________________ .. 50 tion is generally considered to be repeated addition) and 40 the value in the higher order necccssitatcs operation in This invention rclatcs to calculating machines and is concerned particularly with an improved mechanism for performing plural order multiplication operations auto matically by means of what is known as the “Short Cut” system. It is a primary object of the present invention to pro vide a more simple and also a more rugged automatic mechanism for performing plural order multiplication problems by the “Short Cut” method than those hereto fore suggested. In the past most of the automatic calcu lating machines utilized the “Repeated Addition” system of multiplication in which a factor is added a number of times in each order corresponding to the multiplier digit for that order. Thus, for example, if the multiplier value were “89,” the multiplicand is added nine times with the register in its home, or units order, position; the car riage shifted one order to the right; and the multiplicand then added eight times in the next ordinal position. This method of automatic multiplication had the great ad the selected direction (often loosely referred to as “addi_ tive” ; ‘which drops a cycle of operation in the higher order whenever the multiplier values in two adjacent orders require operation in the reverse direction in both orders; which enables the correct number of cycles in the higher order whenever the multiplier value in the adjacent lower order necessitates operation in the selected direc tion; and which enables the correct number of cycles, as determined by the “tens-complement" of the multiplier digit, whenever the multiplier value requires operation in the reverse direction While operation in the adjacent lower order required it in the selected direction. That is, one of the objects of the present invention is to provide a simpler and more rugged mechanism which automatically adds an additional cycle of operation in the higher order when ever the machine changes from operation in the reverse direction {generally subtraction) to operation in the sc lccted direction (usually addition); which eliminates a cycle of operation in the higher order whenever the op subject to the drawback that a multiplier value of “9” rc eration in both orders is in the reverse direction; and which neither adds nor subtracts a cycle of operation in the higher of any two orders whenever an operation in quircs nine cycles of operation, a multiplier value of “8” requires eight cycles of operation, etc. In the days of direction. Another important object of the present invention is to vantage that it was by far the most simple, and therefore provided the most trouble-free operation. It is, however, manual multiplication, antcdating the automatic multiply ing machines now available, export operators learned to multiply by what is commonly called the “Short Cut” method in which values of “6,” or greater, are handled by subtracting the “tens-complement” of the value in the ‘ particular order and then adding the value of “l” in the next higher order. In this system a multiplier factor of the adjacent lower order required operation in the selected provide a “Short Cut” multiplication mechanism in a ma chine such as that disclosed in the patents to Fridcn, No. 2,371,752, issued March 20, 1945, and Fridcn et al., No. 2,399,917, of May 7, 1946, which provides for multipli cation both by repeated addition or by repeated subtrac tion. It is obvious that a “Short Cut” multiplication 3,090,554 A mechanism for positive multiplication only would be much the reverse direction in the ?rst order (which reverse simpler than one which is adapted to perform both posi operation requires an additional cycle of operation in the tive and negative multiplication, as in the Friden patents. higher order) the operation of the multiplier segment in In the ?rst system ‘it is merely necessary to set the machine the first order to a “0” position would automatically ad for addition or subtraction according to the multiplier just the multiplier segment in the higher order (which value of a particular order, i.e., values invariably operate thcretofore had stood at the value of “5"), to a value of additively for multiplier values of “1” to “5” and invari “6” in order to take care of the situation. That is, in ably operate subtractively for multiplier values of “6" to stead of six additive cycles in the higher order, it would “9.” On the other hand, in a machine for both positive be changed to a value of “6” and would control four and negative multiplication, the setting must be the result 10 cycles in the reverse direction followed by a single cycle of two separate factors: (1) the sign character of opera in the selected direction in the third order. Similarly, if tion selected by the operator, and (2) the automatic selec the multiplier value were “66,” both orders would be set tion from the magnitude of the multiplier value. In ma for operation in the reverse direction with the setting of chines of the type disclosed in the Friden patents the ma the value keys, and then, during the ?rst ordinal series chine must run in an additive direction when the multiplier 15 of operations, the higher order segment would be adjusted value is between “1" and “5” and the selected operation is to “7" instead of “6.” additive multiplication, but must run subtractively for Another important object of the present invention is to negative multiplication for like values; and, conversely, the provide means for modifying the operation of a multi— machine must run in a subtractive direction when the plier control segment, such as shown in the Friden patents multiplier value is “6” to “9” in additive multiplication, above-mentioned, by a single step to either reduce the and additively for negative multiplication of such larger number of cycles of operation in the operative order or to values. For this reason, and in order to avoid confusion increase the number of cycles when required by the nature which might arise from careless use of these terms, the of the problem. terms “selected direction” and “reverse direction” will These and other objects of the invention will be generally be used to designate operation in the direction apparent from a consideration of the following descrip (i.e., sign character) selected by the operator, or the re tion, which will be readily understood by reference to verse, respectively; and the terms “additive” and “subtrac the drawings forming a part hereof and in which: tive" will only refer to the sign character of the operation FIG. 1 is a plan view of the machine embodying the of the register. With this in mind it will be obvious that preferred form of my invention; “selected direction" will designate the operation of the 30 FIG. 2 is a longitudinal, partial, cross-sectional view machine for the lower multiplier values (values of “l” of the machine shown in FIG. 1, showing the selection, to “5” in my preferred embodiment), and this selected di— actuating, and register mechanisms thereof such as ‘along rection may be “additive” or “subtractive,” depending up the longitudinal plane indicated by the line 2——2 of on the desire of the operator. and operations controlled FIG. 1; by higher values (in my preferred form, values of “6” FIG. 3 is a rear view of the power clearing and shift to “9") will be in the reverse direction. ing mechanisms of the machine of the preferred form A further object of the present invention is to provide of my invention, such as along the transverse plane in an improved “Short Cut” multiplying mechanism for a dicated by the line 3-3 of FIG. 1; rotary calculating machine using a plural order multiplier FIG. 4 is a left side view of the right frame plate, mechanism operative to store the multiplier value and, up 40 showing certain portions of the drive mechanisms and on operation of the machine, to control the entry of the controls therefor, such as along the longitudinal plane product into a product register either additively or sub indicated by the line 4—4 of FIG. 7; tractivcly at the will of the operator. FIG. 5 is a left side view of the mechanism for pro Another important aspect of the present invention is to gramming a continuous left shift of the register carriage provide an improved multiplying mechanism in which the to the home position operated in multiplication opera character of the operation (in a selected or in the reverse tions, such as taken along a longitudinal plane indicated sign character direction) is determined by the entry of by ‘the line 5-5 of FIG. 7; the multiplier value into the multiplier mechanism (at the FIG. 6 is a right side view of the mechanism shown time the value is entered); the selected direction (positive in FIG. 5, together with means for controlling a right for the entry of the true product or negative for the shift of the register carriage during the multiplication entry of the complement thereof) is determined by the program, such as taken along a longitudinal plane in operation of the control keys by the operator; and the ad dicated by the line 6—-6 of FIG. 7; justment of the multiplier value in any order as affected FIG. 7 is a plan view of the right portion of the by the direction of operation in the adjacent lower order machine with certain parts removed for simpli?cation; (i.e., the determination of whether an additional cycle of FIG. 8 is a plan view of the left portion of the operation is to be performed in the particular order, or one machine with certain parts removed, and is, in effect, an less cycle of operation than the number determined by the extension of FIG. 7; value key for that order) is determined by the operation of FIG. 9 is a right side View of the multiplier mecha the machine order-by-order. nism, such as taken along the longitudinal planes in Another aspect of the present invention is to provide an improved means for setting the true value or the tens 60 dicated ‘by the lines 9—9 of FIG. 8, with certain parts removed for simpli?cation; complement of that value in a multiplication mechanism FIG. 10 is a plan view, partly in cross-section, of the automaticaliy from depression of the selected value keys muitiplier control carriage and certain mechanisms asso and simultaneously setting a control means to etfect op eration in the selected direction or in the reverse direction ciated therewith; FIG. 11 is a left side view of one of the multiplier during operation on that order; and to provide means for automatically modifying the setting so made in an order by the operation of the machine in the next lower order when such modi?cation is required by the nature of the multiplier digits. For example, if a multiplier value were “56,” the entry of those values into the multiplier control members (the segments of a machine of the type shown in forwardly to its “10" position as the result of a short the Friden patents above-mentioned) would determine, cut operation, the segment having originally been set at respectively, that operation was to be in the reverse direc tion in the lower order and in the selected direction in the higher order. However, as the machine operates in by operation in the adjacent lower order in the reverse segment assemblies showing the position of the parts as they are restored to their “0” position at the end of the digitation operation in the order controlled thereby; FIG. 12 is a similar view of one of the segment assem blies showing the position of the parts when operated a value of “5” and then converted to a value of “6" sign character direction;

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