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Патент USA US3090860

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May 21, 1963
L. STRAUSS ETAL
3,090,851
FLASHER SWITCH
Filed July 8, 1959
35
37
INVENTORS
LEOPOLD STRAUSS
HAROLD L. LOEW
5,12 WW
ATTO/iWEYS:
United States atent
3,090,851
Patented May 21, 1963
1
2
3,090,851
member. Thus the free end is normally biased to a de?
nite switching position from which it is movable to an
other position in response to a change of the degree of
FLASHER SWITCH
Leopold Strauss, East Rockaway, and Haroid L. Loew,
Jackson Heights, N .Y., assignors to Ideal Corporation,
Brooklyn, N .Y., a corporation of New York
Filed July 8, 1959, Ser. No. 825,631
11 Claims. (Cl. 200-113)
bowing of the tongue. Such a change, which greatly
alters the effective unbending moment, is produced by
changing the relative positions of the tension and tongue
portions. Their relative positions may be changed by
changing their relative lengths, such as by the electro~
This invention relates to new and improved switch
thermal action of an electric current passed through the
devices and more particularly to devices especially suit 10 tension portion when it is composed of an electrical re
able for use, for example, as a ?asher switch in direc
sistance material as mention above.
tional signal systems of motor vehicles.
The switching member is made to operate with a peri
One of the objects of the invention is to provide a
odic snap action, so as to open and close a circuit auto
self-operating switch device that is actuated by expan
matically with a desired frequency and velocity of action,
sion of one part of a switching member relative to an
15 by arranging the tension portion on a line or plane of
other and which oeprates reliably under widely di?erent
ambient temperature conditions, so that the device will
function properly under diverse climatic conditions with
out need for adjustment to a particular climate.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new
and improved switch device of quite simple and eco
nomical construction, which functions with a snap action
to open and close an electrical circuit or the like peri
odically, and which is eminently suitable for use as a
?asher switch.
A further object is to provide an electro-therrnally actn<
tension extending to one side of the cantilevered end of
the tongue portion and bowing the tongue portion elas
tically into a reversely elastically curved formation cross
ing the line of tension, with a ?rst part of the formation
curving in one direction only to that line from the canti
levered end, so that this ?rst part continuousiy exerts a
moment in unbending direction, i.e., away from the line
of tension, and with another part of the tongue portion
curving oppositely into and joined with the free end of
the switching member from the opposite side of that line.
A kind of a toggle action is brought about in this way,
in that an imaginary point of zero bending moment is
created in an intermediate part of the doubly curved
tongue portion, which point lies at one side of the line
of a switching member between spaced contact elements 30 of tension when the tension portion is in its normal or
at any of a variety of frequencies and velocities, so as
“cold” condition and is shifted to the other side of the
to produce desired ?ashing signals and desired clicking
line of tension to produce a snapping movement of the
sounds at desired intervals in the operation of the device.
free end when the tension portion is in an elongated or
According to one feature of the present invention, a
“hot" condition.
switch device is provided with a switching member com
Other objects, features and advantages of this inven
prising a resilient tension portion and a counteracting
tion will be apparent from the following detailed de
ated ?asher switch that can be readily set or biased to
work with the desired contact pressure against an elec
trical contact element and to cause repeated movements
resilient compression portion that is held continuously
scription of a preferred embodiment thereof and from
in an elastically bowed condition by the pull or tension
the accompanying illustrative drawing in which:
of the tension portion, and the tension and compression
FIG. 1 is a side elevation, partly in section, of a ?asher
40
portions are made to have substantially the same coeffi
switch embodying the invention;
cient of thermal expansion, such as by composing them
FIG. 2 is a front elevation taken from line 2-2 of
of identical electrical resistance material, and are so co
ordinated that a switching movement of a part of the
FIG. 1, the protective housing being shown in section;
switching member positioned by the bowing of the com
pression portion will ‘be induced by a change of the tem
the housing again being in section;
perature and a resulting change of dimensions of one of
said portions relative to the other.
FIG. 3 is a plan view taken from line 3—3 of FIG. I,
FIG. 4 is an enlarged plan view of the switching mem
her used in the device of FIGS. 1 to 3; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged diagrammatic view of the work
According to another feature of the invention, the ten
ing elements of the device.
sion and compression portions are formed as unitary
As illustrated in the drawing, a switch device embody
parts of a single piece of an electrical resistance mate 50 ing the several new features and advantages of the in‘
rial having a high coe?icient of thermal expansion, for
vention is provided in a form especially suited for use
example, by pressing or stamping the entire switching
as a ?asher switch in the directional signal system of
member out of a thin strip of an electrical resistance
an automobile or the like. The illustrated form is a
alloy such as a nickel-chromium resistance alloy or the
two-terminal switch device adapted for a relatively sim
55 ple directional signal circuit. The working elements of
like.
A particularly advantageous switch device is provided
the structure shown may also be used so as to function
according to this invention by forming an elongated
in the way here set forth in any of many other switch
switching member to comprise a tension or strand por
assemblies, including assemblies provided with three elec
tion composed of one or more strips joined at one end
trical terminals with or without a built-in relay of a type
to one end of a tongue portion of resilient material, the 60 commonly used in ?asher devices to make or break a
joined ends of those portions constituting a movable
free end of the switching member, and anchoring the re—
spective other ends of those portions in relatively ?xed
positions with the tension portion under tension and the‘
circuit to the third terminal.
The functions of the illustrated device are centered in
a switching member 10. As seen in FIG. 4, this member
is
a unitary elongated piece of a thin resilient strip mate
tongue portion under compression between the respec 65 rial composed of an electrical resistance alloy having a
tive ?xed ends and the free end. The ?xed end of the
high coe?icient of thermal expansion, preferably one of
tongue portion is cantilevered on its anchoring means,‘
at least 7 microinches per inch per ° F. of temperature
and by the tension of the tension portion the cantilevered
change. Any of a variety of well known resistance alloys
tongue portion is held elastically in a bent or bowed con—
is suitable for the strip material; for example, various
70
dition in which it continuously exerts an unbending mo
nickel-chromium‘ alloys such as those identi?ed as “Ni
ment tending to position the free end of the switching
chrome" and certain stainless steels such as austenitic
3,090,851
3
stainless steels of the types designated by AISI numbers
in the “300” series.
The switching member 10 is formed with a strand or
tension portion composed of parallel side strips 11 and
12, and with a central tongue or compression portion 14
which is spaced between the side strips and has one of
its ends joined or integral with the strips at one end of
the latter to constitute a free end of the switching mem~
her as seen at 15. The strips 11 and 12 are joined to
gether at their other end by a base portion 16 of the
piece of strip material, which portion is spaced from the
inner end 17 of tongue 14 by a cut-away area 18 that
separates the central tongue from other portions of the
switching member except at the free end 15.
Member 10 may be formed in a single operation by
pressing or stamping it as a unit from a thin strip of the
desired resistance material.
Since its tension portion 11,
12 and its tongue or compression portion 14 are com
posed of identical material, they have the same coeffi
cient of thermal expansion and do not vary substantially
in their relative dimensions as a result of exposure to
widely different atmospheric temperature conditions.
A working assembly of the switching member 10 is
shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 of the drawing and indicated by
the enlarged diagram of FIG. 5.
The various parts of the switch device are mounted on
a conventional circular base 20 composed of an electrical
insulating material such as a molded synthetic resin.
The working parts are normally enclosed within a pro
tective housing 21 ?tted over the base 20.
Base 20 is formed with an upwardly projecting insulat
ing post 22. The ?at top of this post forms a ledge on
which is seated and clamped ?rmly the ?at inner end 17
of the tongue 14 of member 10. The tongue is thus canti
levered to the top of the post. In the assembly of FIG. 1,
flat feet 23 and 27 of brackets 24 and 28, respectively,
are placed over the end of the tongue, ‘and a rivet 31
extending vertically through the post and the superposed
parts is formed with a head 30 which holds tongue end 17
and the feet 23 and 27 ?xed immovab-ly to the top of the
post.
4
15 of member 10, where it normally will be engaged by
the free end 15 with a pressure su?icient to assure a good
electrical contact. To enhance the contact e?iciency, a
coacting electrical contact element 51 is ?xed to the under
side of the free end 15. Contact 50 is ?xed to the for
ward end of a resilient tongue 49 which is mounted at
its backward end on a conductor bracket 46. Bracket 46
extends across a forward part of base 20 in front of post
22 and has a leg 47 ?xed in and extending below the base
20 to form a terminal 48.
When the two terminals 36 and 48 are connected to
opposite sides of an electrical circuit and the switching
member 10 is in its normal position with contacts 50 and
51 in engagement, a ?ow of electrical current takes place
through the strips 11 and 12 of member 10. This ?ow
heats the strips and elongates them ‘without changing the
dimensions of the electrically insulated tongue 14.
Upon reference to FIG. 5, it will be evident that when
the switching member 10 is assembled with its tension
portion under suitable tension and its tongue elastically
bent from the cantilevered end toward the tension portion
by the resulting compression, the tongue exerts an un
bending ‘moment in a direction tending to move the free
end 15 against contact element 50. The tension on the
25 strips, which is a relatively ?xed ‘force, may be represented
by the vector F. The unbending moment may be repre
sented by the vector M. The magnitude of the unbend
ing moment M is largely governed by the magnitude of
the tension force F, but it will be evident that although
an elongation of the strips 11 and 12 relative to the
tongue 14, such as effected by an electrical heating of the
strips, does not materially change the tension force F,
an elongation of the strips will be accompanied by a
relatively great reduction of the curvature ‘and the unbend
ing moment of the tongue. The relatively great di?erence
between the curvatures and bending moments of the can
tilevered tongue when the strips are “cold” and when they
are “hot” is utilized to cause a change of the position of
the free end 15 of member 10, and thus to effect a
switching action. Moreover, when the switching action
causes the strips to be no longer heated electrically, the
strips quickly resume their normal length which will
The body of tongue 14 thus extends freely away from
restore the normal curvature of the tongue and thus cause
its cantilevered end to the front of the device. The strips
the free end 15 to be returned to its normal position.
11 and 12 ?ank the post and extend to a ?xed location
As seen in FIG. 5, the tongue 14 when placed under
in back of it, where they are anchored by the base portion 45
compression displacing it toward the strips 11 and 12 as
16 which rests on a flat ledge 34 and is engaged at its
sumes elastically a reversely or doubly curved formation
inner side by a tensioning detent 40 ?tting in a notch or
which crosses the line of tension with one part 14a of
recess 16a of the strip material. Thus the backward end
the tongue curved toward the strip from the cantilevered
of the tension portion is anchored at a location spaced
end and another part 14b of the tongue curved oppositely
somewhat above the cantilevered tongue end 17, and a
into the free end 15 from the other side of the strip.
tension imposed upon the strips 11 and 12 between the
This reverse or double curvature crossing the line of ten
free end 15 and their ?xed end will compress the tongue
sion causes an imaginary point P of Zero bending mo
and bend it elastically relative to the cantilever.
The ledge 34 for base portion 16 is formed as the top 55 ment to exist in the tongue between its oppositely curved
parts 14a and 14b.
of a rigid, electrically conductive bar 35 which extends
The tension of the tension portion and the consequent
vertically through the insulating base 20- in a ?xed posi
bowing of the tongue are selected so that in the normal
tion and forms below base 20 a terminal 36 for connec
or “cold” condition of the switching member the point
tion in an electrical circuit.
The tensioning detent 40 is made adjustable so as to 60 of zero bending moment lies at the upper side of the line
of tension. The tension force F thus urges the free end
place the tension portion of the switching member under
15 in a downward direction, so that its contact element
any desired degree of tension. For this purpose, detent
51 normally bears against ?xed contact element 50 with
40 is integral with a movable bracket 41 which is disposed
a pressure that can be set at any desired value by ap
across the back of conductor bar 35 and has opposite ends
propriate location of element 50 and appropriate selec
42 extending forwardly to engage loosely over side lugs
tion of the tension force.
37 formed on opposite sides of the bar 35; and a screw 44
On the other hand, when the tension portion 11, 12 is
is threaded through a bore 43 in bracket 41 to hear at
expanded thermally, as by a flow of electrical current
its inner end against a socket portion 38 of the ?xed bar
through it between the terminals 36 and 48, the curva
35. Advancement of the screw 44 forces bracket 41 and
detent 40 backwardly relative to the ?xed bar 35 and the 70 ture and bending moment of the tongue are so reduced
relative to the force F that the point of zero bending
cantilevered tongue, thus increasing the tension of the
moment is shifted to the lower side of the line of tension.
strips 11 and 12, while retraction of the screw 44 reduces
The tension force then snaps the free end 15 away
the tension.
from contact element 50, by a kind of toggle action.
At the front of the assembly, ‘an electrical contact ele
ment 50 is located in a ?xed position below the free end 75 The upward movement of the free end is limited by a
3,090,851
?xed stop or contact element 25 which is formed at the
forward end of bracket 24 and is located to permit the
desired range of movement of the free end of the switch
ing member.
6
portion with a ?rst part of said formation curved elas
tically in one direction only from said cantilevered end
to said line of tension, so that said ?rst part continuously
exerts a moment urging said free end in the direction op
The movement of end 15 away from contact 50 stops
posite to the direction of its bend, and with another part
the heating of the tension portion by breaking the cur
of said formation curved oppositely into and joined ‘with
rent ?ow through the device. The tension portion then
said free end from the other side of said line; a relatively
cools and shrinks quickly, and the attendant increase of
?xed contact element in the path of said free end; said
curvature and bending moment in the tongue causes the
portions normally coacting to bias said free end against
zero moment point to return above the line of tension 10 said contact element, and being responsive to a lengthen
and the free end 15 to be [snapped back into engagement
ing of said tension portion by a heating thereof to move
with contact element 50. The tension portion then be
said free end away from said contact element.
comes hot again, and the switching action is repeated.
3. In a switch device, a switching member comprising
For as long as a supply of current is continued at the
a tension portion and a tongue portion of resilient strip
terminals of the device, the switching action continues 15 material, said portions being united at one end thereof
to be repeated at short intervals.
For given settings of the contact or stop elements 50
and 25 and of the tension and bowing of the tension and
to constitute a movable free end of said member; means
anchoring the respective other ends of said portions in
relatively ?xed positions with said tension portion under
tension and said tongue portion under compression be
tongue portions of member 10, the pressure of the free
end 15 against element 50 and the sensitivity and speed 20 tween the respective ?xed ends and said free end; the
of the switching action may be controlled and varied by
?xed end of said tongue portion being cantilevered on its
the setting of a screw 29 which is threaded in ?xed brack‘
anchoring means; the line of tension of said tension por
et 28 and extends freely through an opening 26 in brack
tion extending to one side of said cantilevered end in
et 24 to bear against an intermediate part of the bowed
spaced relation thereto; said tongue portion being bowed
tongue 14. An advancement of the screw 29 to lower its 25 elastically between its ends into a reversely elastically
point of engagement with the tongue increases the pres
‘curved formation crossing said line of tension with a ?rst
sure of the free end 15 against element 50. It also dis
part of said formation curved elastically in one direc
places the zero moment point of the tongue 14 nearer
tion only to said line from said cantilevered end, so that
to the line of tension of the strips 11 and 12, so that
said ?rst part continuously exerts a moment urging said
the switching member may act more quickly in response 30 free end in the direction opposite to said one direction,
to a ?ow of electric current through the strips.
and with another part of said formation curved oppositely
While we have described and shown details of an ill
into said free end from the other side of said line; said
lustrative embodiment of this invention, it is to be under
portions normally coacting to bias said free end to one
stood that the new features of the invention can be uti
lized in many other ways and are not restricted to the
illustrated embodiment except as required by a fair con
struction of the appended claims.
We claim:
1. In a switch device, a switching member comprising
a tension portion and a tongue portion of resilient ma~
terial, said portions being united at one end thereof to
constitute a movable free end of said member, means
anchoring the respective other ends of said portions in
relatively ?xed positions with said tension portion under
tension and said tongue portion under compression be
tween the respective ?xed ends and said free end, the
?xed end of said tongue portion being cantilevered on its
anchoring means, the tongue portion being held bent
elastically between its ends into a reversely elastically
position, and being relatively movable to snap said free
end to another position.
4. In a switch device, a switching member comprising
a tension portion and a tongue portion of resilient strip
material, said portions being united at one end thereof
to constitute a movable free end of said member; means
anchoring the respective other ends of said portions in
relatively ?xed positions with said tension portion under
tension and said tongue portion under compression be
tween the respective ?xed ends and said free end; the
line of tension of said tension portion extending to one
side of the ?xed end of said tongue portion; said tongue
portion being bowed between its ends into a reversely
elastically curved formation crossing said line of tension
with a part of said formation curved toward said line
from said ?xed end and another part thereof curved op~
positely into said free end from the other side of said
curved formation which crosses the line of tension of
said tension portion with a ?rst part of said formation
line; said portions normally coaeting to bias said free end
curved elastically in one direction only from said canti
to one position, and being relatively movable to snap
levered end to said line of tension, so that said ?rst part
said
free end to another position; and a pressure element
continuously exerts a moment urging said free end in the
direction opposite to the direction of its bend, and with 55 bearing from said other side of said line against a part
of said bowed tongue portion between the aforesaid parts
another part of said formation curved oppositely into
of said curved formation, to control the action of said
and joined with said free end from the other side of said
member.
5. ‘In a switch device, a switching member comprising
end to one switching position, and being responsive to a
change of their relative positions to switch said free end 60 a tension portion of electrical resistance material having
a high coefficient of thermal expansion and a tongue por
to another position.
tion of resilient strip material, said portions being united
2. In a switch device, a switching member comprising
at one end thereof to constitute a movable free end of said
a tension portion and a tongue portion, said portions
member; means anchoring the respective other ends of
being formed of the same resilient material and united
line; said portions normally coacting to bias said free
said portions in relatively ?xed positions with said tension
portion under tension and said tongue portion under com
said member, said material comprising an alloy having a.
pression between the respective ?xed ends and said free
high coefficient of thermal expansion, means anchoring
end; the ?xed end of said tongue portion being canti
the respective other ends of said portions in relatively
levered on its anchoring means; the line of tension of
?xed positions with said tension portion under tension
and said tongue portion under compression between the 70 said tension portion extending to one side of said canti
levered end; said tongue portion being ‘bowed between its
respective ?xed ends and said free end, the ?xed end of
said tongue portion being cantilevered on its anchoring
ends into a reversely elastically curved formation crossing
means, said tongue portion being held bent elastically be
said line of tension with a part of said formation curved
at one end thereof to constitute a movable free end of
tween its ends into a reversely elastically curved forma
toward said line from said cantilevered end and another
tion which crosses the line of tension of said tension 75 part thereof curved oppositely into said free end from
3,090,851
7
the other side of said line; a ?xed pressure element bear
ing from said other side of said line against a part of said
bowed tongue portion between the aforesaid parts of
said curved formation; relatively ?xed contact elements
limiting the path of movement of said free end; said por
tions and said pressure element normally coacting to bias
said free end against one of said contact elements, and
being responsive to the closing of an electrical circuit
through said tension portion to switch said free end
of said plane against a part of said bowed tongue be
tween the aforesaid parts of said curved formation, so
as to regulate the pressure of said free end against said
one contact element and the speed of the switching action.
9. A switch device as claimed in claim 7, said strips
being interconnected at said one end by a base portion of
said piece; said anchoring means for said tongue com
prising an electrically insulating post; said anchoring
means for said strips comprising an electrically conduc
periodically to and fro between said contact elements.
6. In a switch device, a switching member comprising
a tension portion of material having a high coe?icient of
thermal expansion and a tongue portion of resilient strip
material, said portions being united at one end thereof to
constitute a movable free end of said member; means
tive detent projecting between said strips beyond the end
of said tongue and pivotally engaged by said base por
anchoring the respective other ends of said portions in
relatively ?xed positions with said tension portion under
tension and said tongue portion under compression be
tween the respective ?xed ends and said free end; the
10. In a switch device as claimed in claim 7, said strips
being interconnected at said one end by a base portion
of said piece; said anchoring means for said tongue com
?xed end of said tongue portion being cantilevered on ~
tion to tension said strips; and conductors electrically con
nected respectively with said detent and with said one
contact element to pass current therebetween through said
strips.
prising an electrically insulating post; said anchoring
means for said strips comprising an electrically conduc
tive member engaging and positioning said base portion
its anchoring means; the line of tension of said tension
portion extending to one side of said cantilevered end
beyond and on one side of the end of said tongue so as
in spaced relation thereto; said tongue portion being
to tension said strips and thereby hold said tongue in said
bowed elastically between its ends into a reversely elasti
cally curved formation crossing said line of tension with
elastically ‘curved formation; and conductors electrically
a first part of said formation curved elastically in one
directions to said line from said cantilevered end, so that
one contact element to pass current therebetween through
said ?rst part continuously exerts a moment urging said
free end in the direction opposite to said one ‘direction,
and with another part of said formation curved oppositely
into said free end from the other side of said line; rela~
tively ?xed contact elements limiting the path of move
11. In a switch device, a switching member comprising
a tension portion of electrical resistance material having
a high coci?cient of thermal expansion and a tongue
connected respectively with said member and with said
said strips.
portion of resilient strip material, said portions being
united at one end thereof to constitute a movable free
ment of said free end; said portions normally coacting to
bias said free end against one of said contact elements,
and being responsive to thermal expansion of said tension
portion relative to said tongue portion to snap said free
end of said member; means anchoring the respective
other ends of said portions in relatively ?xed positions
with said tension portion under tension and said tongue
end away from said one contact element into engagement
with the other of said contact elements.
7. In a switch device, a switching member comprising
ends ‘and said free end; the ?xed end of said tongue por
tion being cantilevered on its anchoring means; the line
of tension of said tension portion extending to one side
a unitary elongated piece of a thin resilient strip material
composed of an ‘alloy having a high coef?cient of thermal
tongue portion being bowed elastically between its ends
portion under compression between the respective ?xed
of said cantilevered end in spaced relation thereto; said
expansion, said piece having portions of its body cut away
into a reversely elastically curved formation crossing said
along its opposite sides and across one‘ of its ends to
line of tension with a. ?rst part of said formation curved
elastically in one direction only to said line from said
cantilevered end, so that said ?rst part continuously exerts
a moment urging said free end in the direction opposite
to said one direction, and with another part of said for
mation curved oppositely into said free end from the other
side of said line; reiatively ?xed contact elements limit
ing the path of movement of said free end; said portions 2'
normally coacting to bias said free end against one of
leave integrated at its other end substantially parallel side
strips and a central tongue extending from said other
end between said side strip; relatively ?xed means sep
arately anchoring said strips and said tongue at said one
end of said piece and holding said other end thereof free
for movement in a path transverse to the plane of said .
other end, said strips being anchored in spaced relation
to the anchored end of said tongue to one side thereof,
said tongue being cantilevered on its anchoring means;
said anchoring means holding said strips under tension
and said tongue under compression, said tongue being
bowed elastically between its ends into a reversely elasti
cally curved formation crossing the plane of tension of
said strips with a ?rst part of said formation curved elasti
cally in one direction only from said cantilevered end to
said plane, so that said ?rst part continuously exerts a
moment urging said free end in the direction opposite to
said one direction, and with another part of said forma
tion curved oppositely into said free end from the other
side of said plane; relatively ?xed contact elements spaced
apart at opposite sides of said free end; said strips and 65
said tongue normally coacting to bias said free end against
one of said contact elements lying at the same side of
said strips as said cantilevered end, and being responsive
to a lengthening of said strips by a heating thereof to
switch said free end away from said one contact element
said contact elements, and being responsive to the closing
of an electrical circuit through said tension portion to
switch said free end periodically to and fro between said
contact elements.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
970,169
1,668,974
2,225,086
2,528,756
2,568,476
2,597,759
2,709,732
2,761,931
2,782,291
2,879,355‘
into engagement with the other of said contact elements.
Kaser ________________ __ Nov. 7, 1950
Wierich et a1. ________ __ Sept. 18,
Starkey‘ ______________ __ May 20,
Davis _______________ __ May 31,
Schmidinger __________ __ Sept. 4,
Cayet _______________ _- Feb. 19,
Welsh ______________ __ Mar. 24,
1951
1952
1955
1956
1957
1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
8. A switch device as claimed in claim 7, and a rela
tively ?xed pressure element bearing from said other side
Birs?eld _____________ __ Sept. 13, 1910
Mottlau ______________ _- May 8, 1928
Schramm ____________ __ Dec. 17, 1940
783,885
Great Britain __________ __ Oct. 2, 1957
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