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Патент USA US3091026

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May 28, 1963
E. |_. PEDLEY ETI'AL
3,091,016
METHOD OF‘ CONNECTING ROPE LENGTHS IN A NET
Filed Nov. 2, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS
ERIC L. PEDLE)’
PH/LL/P PEDLEY
BY
I
y
ATTORNEYS
May 23, 1963
E. |_. PEDLEY ETAL
3,091,016
METHOD OF CONNECTING ROPE LENGTHS IN A NET
Filed Nov. 2, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
F/6‘._ 2
72
6
74
4
78
INVENTORS
ERIC L. PEDLEV
PH/LL/P PEDLEV
BY
Wm, M
ATTORNEYS‘ '
May 28, 1963
E. |_. PEDLEY EI'AL
3,091,016
METHOD OF CONNECTING ROPE LENGTHS IN A NET
Filed Nov. 2, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
F/6_3
72
69
70
m 65 / a wuix
7!
'
INVENTORS
ERIC L. PEDLEV
PH/LL/P PEDLEV
BV
/
2
A TTO/P/VEVS
/
May 28, 1963
E. L. PEDLEY ETAL
3,091,016
METHOD OF CONNECTING ROPE LENGTHS IN A NET
Filed Nov. 2, 1959
H61. /3
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
[85
88
INVENTORS
ER/C L. PEDLEV
PH/LL/P PEDL E V
V6274,” Mat/W
A 7' TO/PNEVS
d?ghl?;
Patented May 28, 1963
Z
3,091,016
METHOD OF CONNECTING ROPE LENGTHS
IN A NET
Eric L. Pedley and Philip Pedley, San Francisco, Calif.,
assignors to Pedley-Knowles & Co., San Francisco,
Calif.
Filed Nov. 2, 195% Ser. No. 850,246
4 Claims. (Cl. 28-75)
tangled so as not to materially impede the operation of
lashing the ropes of the net together. An additional ob
ject of the invention is the provision of apparatus for lay
ing a net and for applying plastic to glass ?laments in
strands thereof immediately prior to lashing together the
lengths of rope forming said net at their crossing points.
Also, heretofore, nets of irregular outline for special
installations have been difficult to make due to their com
plexity. With the present method triangular nets may be
This invention relates to rope nets and has for one of 10 made from single lengths of rope and then lashed together,
its objects the provision of an improved method for mak
or such triangular nets may be lashed to rectangular nets
ing rope nets more e?iciently than heretofore.
to form the desired outline.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
Other objects and advantages will be obvious from the
method for making rope nets having greater uniformity
description and drawings.
than heretofore insofar as the characteristics of the con
In the drawings, FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of
nections between ropes of the net at their crossing or
a triangular net and the apparatus employed in making the
engaging points.
net.
A still further object of the invention is the provision
of an improved method for making rope nets of different
outlines.
An added object is the provision of a method of mak
ing a triangular net from a single continuous length of
rope, and to the net produced from such method.
FIG. 2 is an end view of the apparatus of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken
through the upper portion of the apparatus of FIG. 1
along line 3—3 thereof.
FIG. 4 is a reduced plan view of a triangular net in
cluding the edge ropes.
Heretofore, as disclosed in our United States Letters
FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a pair of
Patent No. 2,817,263, issued December 24, 1957, the ‘de 25 the ropes of the net at their crossing point after the
sirability of lashing together lengths of rope that were
lengths are lashed together and coated with plastic.
in crossing engaging relation with ?berglass strands im
FIG. 6 diagrammatically illustrates the movement of
pregnated or coated with a hardening plastic was dis
the glass strands in lashing the ropes together.
closed.
FIG. 7 diagrammatically illustrates the movement of
In the prior method a disadvantage was the limited 30 the glass strands of the net of FIG. 4 in lashing the edge
pot life of the plastic, which must necessarily be in liquid
rope to the mesh forming rope.
form when applied in order to impregnate, or to bond
FIG. 8 diagrammatically illustrates the movement of
together the ?laments of the lashing strands. The cold
the glass strands lashing the edge rope to the mesh rope
plastics, such as a polyester or an epoxy, require hardening
of the net along the hypotenuse line of the triangular out
agents or catalysts to effect the reaction that will develop 35 line of the net.
the heat essential for the hardening or curing step.
FIG. 9 is 1a diagrammatic view of a triangular net hav
In the method disclosed in said patent, the plastic and
ing the outline of an equilateral triangle which is adapted
hardening agent or agents are mixed together in a body
to be made on a frame having projections along lines de
through which the lashing strand is drawn, and the reac
?ning an equilateral triangle.
tion commences in said body, hence delays in the lash 40
FIGS. 10, 11 are diagrammatic views of triangular nets
ing of the rope frequently result in the body hardening
having the outlines of scalene triangles in which none of
before it is used, and in any event, the body of plastic
the angles are right angles, the outline of the net of FIG.
changes its characteristics during the period in which it is
10 having all acute angles while that of FIG. 11 has one
used, and therefore is not uniform.
obtuse angle.
By the present method, the strand used for lashing the
FIGS. 12 and 13 are diagrammatic views of nets of
rope is made up of two smaller strands of ?laments, each
different irregular outlines, and which nets are combina
preferably having half of the total number of ?laments
tions of rectangular and triangular nets adapted to be
for each lashing strand. These separate strands are drawn
made on the frames and by the apparatus of FIG. 1.
through two separate bodies of inactivated liquid plastics,
Referring to FIGS. 1, 2, a net frame on which the
each containing the catalysts essential for effecting the
triangular nets are ‘adapted to be formed may have a
reaction necessary for hardening or setting the plastics,
lower horizontally extending frame member 1, a verti
when said plastics and catalysts are brought together.
cal frame member 2 extending upwardly from one end of
Or one plastic may be an epoxy, for example, and the
other the hardening agent. Until the saturated strands
are brought together no reaction will occur, but when
brought together, the necessary reaction for setting or
member 1 and an inclined frame member 3 that connects
the ends of members 1, 2 that are remote from their ad
joining ends. These members 1, 2, 3 are disposed in
hardening the plastic occurs. Thus the separate plastics
will remain ?uid inde?nitely, until brought together.
a vertical plane and form a right angle triangle for use
in forming a triangular net having an outline similar to
that formed by the frame members.
By bringing the separate saturated or coated strands
In the event a rectangular net is to be formed, such as
together during or immediately prior to the lashing step, 60 is shown in the aforesaid patent, the lower frame mem
the possibility of the plastic setting up in the containers
ber 1 and an upper frame member 4 parallel therewith
is eliminated, ‘and furthermore the reaction of the plastic
may be employed, together with spaced parallel vertical
at each lashed portion is uniform.
end members 5, 6 extending between said members 1, 4
One of the objects of the present invention is the pro
thereby forming a rectangular net frame. It is obvious
vision of a method for insuring thorough coating of the 65 that the member 2 could extend between members 1, 4, if
?laments of glass in the lashing strands with plastic, and
desired, in place of the end frame member 5. Any suit
in metering the plastic so applied to the ?laments to the
able Wall or posts 7, 8 may extend between ?oor 9 and a
desired amount.
ceiling beam 10 to support the net frames.
A still further object of the invention is the provision
In the triangular net frame that is illustrated in FIGS.
of means for metering the plastic as it is applied to the 70 1, 2, and as has already been described, equally spaced
glass ?laments of the strands thereof, and yet enable re
lateral projections, such as pegs, bolts, nails or the equiva
lease of strands that may have become connected or
lent, extend laterally from one side of member 1 in a row
3,091,016‘
3
that extends longitudinally of said member, and similar
projections 13 having the same spacing as projections 12
project laterally from the side of member 2 ‘and are in
a row extending longitudinally of member 2. The pro
jections 12, 13 that are. at the adjoining ends of mem
bers 1, 2 are preferably spaced approximately the same
distance from the intersection 'of lines coincidental with
the rows of projections on said members.
Projections 14 are equally spaced along frame mem
ber 3 and project laterally therefrom at the points of
intersection between lines extending horizontally from’
projections 13 and vertically from projections 12.
4
one edge of the net while the other half are parallel with
an adjacent edge. This dilfers from the rectangular net
made from a single rope. Also, the number of projec
tions on the net frame are the same for each edge of the
net, in a triangular net, although those along each of
the frame members may be spaced differently from those
on an adjacent member.
‘Where an odd number of projections are on each of
the frame members, the rope will end at a different point
than where an even number of projections are used.
For
example, in FIG. 10, the rope starts at point 50 and ends
It is seen from the foregoing that lines coincidental with
the three rows of projections that are on frame members 1,
at point 5'1. However, this is immaterial.
In laying the net and in completing it, the apparatus
of FIGS. 1 and 2 may be used, and which apparatus com
It is to be understood that the present invention is not
1, 4 of the net frame and are preferably at a higher level
2, 3 de?ne the outline of a right angle triangle having 15 prises »a carriage suspended from overhead tracks 55, 56
(P165. 1, 2) that may be secured to ceiling beams 10
two sides of equal length, and which sides are at right
or to any other suitable overhead support adjacent to
angles to each other, while the line extending through pro
the net frame. These tracks :are parallel with members
jections ‘14 constitutes the hypotenuse of the triangle.
restricted to any particular shape of triangular net, since 20 than member 4 which is the upper frame member that
it is apparent from FIGS. 9-11 that the net may have
different outlines, such as that of an equilateral, isosceles
or scalene triangle.
in forming ‘any of the triangular nets, a single rope is
used for forming the body of the net having the mesh 25
openings.
.
While the net of HG. l is vertical, being formed on a
vertical frame, the near lengths of rope between bends
along the outer outline of the net will be considered as
Y may be employed in the making of a rectangular net.
This carriage has an upper horizontal platform or sup
port 58 (FIG. 2) on which a plurality of spaced pairs of
containers 59, 60 may be supported in a row (FIG. 1).
Each pair of containers is the same, and they may be '
separate or each pair may be a single receptacle having
a partition therein to provide a pair of compartments.
The two containers of each pair will contain a strand of
untwisted glass ?laments or roving, and a pair of such '
overlying the lengths crossed thereby, and these overlying 30 strands will ultimately form the single strand employed
lengths of :the continuous rope are indicated as being
arched Where they cross the underlying lengths of rope
so as to clarify the structure.
In actual practice the p
for lashing together the rope lengths of a net at their
crossing points, as well as lashing edge ropes to the net,
and in lashing two or more nets together. Thus each con
tainer of each pair may carry a strand that is one-half
lengths of rope are substantially straight where they cross
35 of a ?nal strand, and the half strands, or the strand in
each other.
each container may be in a coil or on a roll, or supported
In forming the net of FIG. 1 the starting point will be
or arrange-d in any other manner suitable for being drawn
designated 20, which is the projection 12 on frame mem
from the container without becoming fouled.
her 1 nearest :to the lower end of vertical frame member
The strands from each pair of containers 5% 60 are
2. The points 21, 22-, 23, 24 will constitute projections
40 designated 65, ‘66.
.
Adjacent to the row of containers is a horizontal bar
sively extended and around which it is bent.
68 at the side of the carriage adjacent to the net. This, ‘
The rope, which may be designated 15 extends parallel
'14-, 13 on the members 3, 2 to which the rope is succes
bar carries three pairs'of guide tubes 69, 70‘, which‘ tubes >
with member 2 from point 20 on member 1 to point 21
extend transversely across the bar. One of the ends 71
on frame member 3, then parallel with member 1 to point
22 on member 2, then over and parallel with member 2 45 of each pair of tubes extends over the containers 59, 60
of each pair thereof and these ends 71 are preferably ,
to point 23 on member 2, and then parallel with member
curved downwardly and slightly ?ared for extending the
1 to point 24 on member 3. From point 24 rope 15 ex
strands 65, 66 therethrough, while the opposite ends 72
tends parallel with member 2 to point 2-5 on member 1
of the tubes that are adjacent to the net may also be
and then over and parallel with member 1 to point 26
50 downwardly curved. The strands ‘65, 66 are thus adapted
on member 1.
to be easily drawn through the tubes ‘69, 70 into the ends
From point 26 the cycle described'from point‘ 20 :to 26
71 thereof and out of the ends 72 (FIG. 3).
'
is repeated until the end of the rope terminates at point
Carried by the bar 68 in a position below the end 72
49 at the end of member 1 that is opposite to point 20.
of each tube 69, 7 0' is -a funnel like container 74.
A characteristic of the net will be that the lengths of
The spout 75 ‘at the lower ‘end of each funnel 74 is
rope 15 that extend across the frame between members 55
downwardly elongated and its sides extend convergently
1 ‘and 3 are parallel with member 2, and the other half
of the lengths that extend between members 2, 3 are -
downwardly.
'
Removably positioned within each spout is a remové
able metering die 76‘, which die is preferably vertically
Another characteristic of the net is that all of the hori
zontal runs that are parallel with member 1 extendv over 60 elongated, having ‘tapered outer sides conforming to the
downward taper of the sides ‘of the spout. This die is
‘the vertical runs that are parallel ‘with the member 2.
formed with a central, vertical, open ended passageway
It is obvious, of course, that‘the start of the net may
73, the sides of which extend convergently in a downward
be at point 49 instead of point 20, but in this case all
parallel with member 1.
direction.
of the vertical runs of rope would extend over the hori_
Each strand 65, 66 is adapted to pass downwardly
zont-al runs. Or the not could start at point 47, which is 65
through each container and each funnel 74 and through
the lowermost projection on member 2, or it could start
the ‘bore of the metering ‘die 76 positioned Within the lat;
ter. The bore of die 76 is somewhat larger than the
diameter of each strand that is adapted to pass there
the frame members and all of the parallel lengths that
extend in one direction would be either over or under all 70 through, therefore in order to effect the metering opera
tion, the lower tapered end 77 of an upwardly removable
of the parallel lengths that extend in the other direction.
stem 79 is positioned ‘within said passageway 73, and the 7
This characteristic is different from that of a single rope
glass ?laments will automatically distribute themselves
rectangular net.
uniformly around said tapered end 77 and the sides of
Also, characteristic of a triangular net, of this inven
tion, is the fact that one-half of the runs are parallel with 75 the passageway upon drawing the strand downwardly
at point 22 which is at the upper end of member 2, but
in ‘any instance the start is at one of the ends of one of
5
3,091,016
through said passageway. Thus, lower portion 77 of the
the ?laments of the strands become bonded to each other
stem may be called a core element of the metering die
which, for example, may be cobalt, while the other funnel
so that each lashed portion becomes practically an in
tegral unit. Since the ‘glass ?laments of each strand are
not stretchable and are not twisted on each other, and
since the plastic has a uniform hardening time after each
lashing is completed, there is no weakness or variation in
of each pair may contain a polyester and a catalyst such
strength at the different lashed points.
since glass ?laments pass around it.
One of the funnels of each pair thereof may contain a
plastic, such as a polyester and a catalyst of one type,
as peroxide.
Or one funnel may contain an epoxy and
The lashing of a rectangular net or other net of differ
the other a hardener. In any event, no hardening of the
ent outline will be accomplished in the same manner as
plastic in either funnel will be effected until they are 10 above described.
brought together, and there are numerous different formu
An edge rope 82 may be extended or threaded through
las that are similarly operative.
the loops formed at the bends of the net rope :15 as seen
Upon drawing each strand through each of the metering
in FIG. 7, and which edge rope may be of a larger diam—
dies, which includes the core element 77, the glass ?la
eter than that of rope 15. This edge rope may also be
ments, being substantially parallel, hard and smooth, will 15 lashed to the net rope 15 so that the completed net will
be drawn past the core element and each of the ?laments
be capable of being handled as a unit as seen in FIG. 4
will be coated with the plastic in the funnel 74, but free
and lashed to a rectangular net rope 85 generally as
from excess, which is why the die is called a “metering
indicated in FIGS. 12, 13.
die.” Should there be a snarl or bunching of ?laments
In FIGS. 12, 13 different triangular nets are shown at
in a strand being drawn through the funnel, or should
one of the ends of a rectangular net. FIG. 12 shows
some foreign material in the strand or in the plastic be
one triangular net such as may be formed on the frame
drawn to the metering die so that the strand cannot be
of FIG. 1 whereas FIG. 13 shows two triangular nets
drawn through the passageway around the core element,
87, 88 lashed to one end of a rectangular net and lashed
it is only necessary for the operator to momentarily lift
to each other. The nets ‘87, 88 are of different triangular
the stem 79 in order to free the strand or foreign mate 25 outline as may occur in special instances where the area
rial to enable the strand to again pass through the die
to be protected may have an outline that is not symmetri
with the core element in place.
cal.
The stem is preferably of metal and is merely held in
As has already been explained, the nets of FIGS. 9, 10,
position by gravity during withdrawal of each strand,
11 may be formed by the same method as has been de
although the downward movement of the glass ?laments 30 scribed for the net of FIG. 1. The frame members of the
therepast will tend to urge the stem downward. The
net frame are positioned on the wall in an arrangement to
taper of the sides of the passageway 73 and the core ele
correspond with the outlines of the nets of FIGS. 9-11
ment are such as to preclude jamming of the ?laments.
and which members carry the requisite number of pro
However, when the operation of withdrawing the strands
jections as seen in FIGS. 9-11. Obviously the smaller
is stopped for an appreciable length of time, the stems 35 the mesh openings are to be the closer the spacing be
may be tapped to tightly engage the ?laments and to
tween the pegs, nails, bolts or whatever projections are
thereby insure against leakage of the plastic.
on the frame for making the bends.
The metering dies could be used without the core, pro
While the mesh openings in FIG. 10 are elongated, this
vided the diameter of the passageway were substantially
is not objection-able in some instances, although the ar
equal to the diameter of the strand to be drawn there 40 rangement can be carried to an objectionable extreme, in
through, but snarls, foreign material and the like could
which case, the triangular net may be made up of a num
not readily be cleared, and operations would cease.
ber of nets that more nearly approach a net in which the
With the present metering die, different sized dies may
mesh openings are square.
be readily inserted in each funnel according to different
The particular shape of the die 76 in each spout 75 in
sized strands, such different sizes being either due to dif 1.1.5 combination with the core element, substantially elimi
ferent numbers of ?laments in a strand, or different sized
nates excess plastic on the strand drawn through the
?laments or both, but each metering die will accommodate
nozzle, as well as air bubbles that may be in the plastic.
a larger range of sizes than where the diameter of the
During the period when the strands are not being drawn
passageway through the die were the sole controlling
through the dies 76, the ?laments of the strands coop
factor, and where there was no core element.
50 erate with the cores in each die for preventing leakage of
The carriage suspended from tracks '55, 56 and that
plastic, although as explained before the stem 79 may be
carries the containers 59, v69 includes depending opposed
slightly tapped downwardly, if desired, where the strands
end members 78 (FIGS. 1, 2) and a lower platform 80
are not used for long intervals of time.
extending between and carried by said end members at
It may be mentioned that the mere contact between
their lower ends.
55 one of the sides of a pair of coated strands 65, 66 is ad
The platform 89 will carry several operators. One
equate for commencing the reaction resulting in harden
standing on the platform can reach the upper portion of
ing of the plastic.
the net on the net frame, although a support 81 may be
While the employment of glass ?bers or ?laments in
provided on one end of the platform to facilitate reaching
strands thereof for securing the rope lengths together at
the uppermost portion of the net, while other operators 60 their crossing points is preferred, it is not intended that
can also work on the net in a standing or seated position
on platform 89.
In a normal operation there is one operator for each
the invention be necessarily restricted thereto. Also, it is
the intention that the claims appended hereto cover all
changes and modi?cations of the example of the inven
pair of containers 59, 6t} and each operator draws a pair
tion herein chosen for purposes of the disclosure, which
of strands 65, 66 together adjacent to each of the cross 65 do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope
ing points of the rope lengths forming the net. After so
of the invention.
bringing the strands together, the crossing ropes are lashed
We claim:
together as seen in FIGS. 5, 6 and the lashing is then cut
at the tie to form a solid lashing at each crossing point
as seen in FIG. 5.
The plastic is activated for setting and hardening as
1. The method of making a rope net that comprises
the steps of; laying rope lengths across each other in
70 angularly extending relationship to each other and in
engagement at their crossing points, separately coating
lashing operation, and a predetermined time thereafter
it becomes hard. Some of the plastic will enter the inter
a pair of strands of lashing ?laments with relatively ?uid
plastics that include agents operative to activate harden
ing of said plastics only when the latter are brought to
stices of the rope, hence the tie is bonded to the rope and
gether, then bringing said pair of strands together after
soon as the strands are brought together and during the
3,091,016
U
said coating thereof with said plastics in substantially
engaging relation whereby said plastics will be brought
into contact with each other and at substantially the
same time tightly lashing said lengths of rope together
with said pair of engaged strands at each of said cross
ing points, and thereafter keeping said pair of strands
together at each of said crossing points until said plastics
have hardened.
2. The method of making a rope net that comprises
the steps of; laying rope lengths across each other in
hardening, and maintainingrsaid strands and the plastics
thereon together at said points until said plmtics have '
hardened.
4. The method of securing several elements together
that comprises the steps of; separately coating a pair of
strands of lashing ?laments with relatively ?uid plastics
.that include agents operative to activate hardening of said
plastics only when the latter are brought together; then
bringing said pair of strands together after said coating
10 thereof with said plastics in substantially engaging rela
tion whereby said plastics will be brought into contact
with each other and, at substantially the same time, lash
angular relation to each other and in engagement at their
crossing points, then moving each of a pair of strands of
.glass ?laments through a separate body of ?uid plastic
that'includes a hardening agent operative to activate
ing said elements together with said strands, for sub
sequent hardening of said plastics Where they are in lash
hardening of the plastic of each body only when and 15 ing relation to said elements.
after the plastics of the bodies thereof are brought into
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
contact with each other whereby the ?laments of said
UNITED ‘STATES PATENTS
strands will be coated with said plastics, then bringing
said strands together substantially atsaid crossing points
and lashing said lengths together at said points whereby
285,672
20
said plastics on said strands will be brought into contact
and hardening thereof on the lashings at said points will
follow.
3. The method of making a rope net that comprises
the steps of; laying rope lengths in angularly crossing rela 25
tionship in engagement with each other at their crossing
Phillips ______________ __ Sept. 25, 1883 ~
692,467
1,120,479
1,361,055
2,360,416
2,423,308
2,514,197
Mu-gnier _____________ __ Feb. 4,
Harrah ______________ __ Dec. 8,
Henry _______________ __ Dec. 7,
Gray _______________ __ Oct. 17,
Frieder et al. _________ __ July 1,
Groten et al. _________ __ ‘July 4,
1902
1914
1920
1944
1947
1950
2,557,826
Keaton et al __________ __ June 19, 1951
points, simultaneously drawing a pair of spaced strands
of glass ?laments through separate bodies of relatively
?uid plastics that include hardening agents operative to
activate hardening of said plastics only when and after 30
2,577,793
2,659,956
2,783,214
2,786,256
Miller ______________ __ Dec.
Lilien?eld ___________ __ Nov.
Homan ______________ __ Feb.
Axelsson ____________ __ Mar.
11,
24,
26,
26,
1951
1953
1957
1957
said plastics are brought into contact with each other,
2,797,728
2,817,263
2,842,829
2,874,441
2,946,701
Slayter ______________ __ July 2,
Pedley ______________ __ Dec. 24,
Buckles ______________ __ July 15,
Berquist _____________ _._ Feb. 24,
Plueddemann ________ __ July 26,
1957
1957
1958
1959
1960
then bringing said pair of strands together and immedi
ately thereafter lashing said lengths together with said
pair of strands at said crossing points whereby said plas
tics on the lashings at said points will be activated for 35
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