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Патент USA US3091210

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May 28, 1963
3,091,204
H. E. PICKRELL, JR
SHALLOW-DRAFT CARGO VESSEL. WITH CAPTIVE AIR SPACES
Filed Sept. 12. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
m:
Hugh EPickr’ell Jr:
IN VEN TOR.
S.
May 28, 1963
H. E. PICKRELL, JR
3,091,204
SHALLOW-DRAF‘T CARGO VESSEL WITH CAPTIVE AIR SPACES
Filed Sept. 12, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Hugh E. Pickrel] Jr.
INVENTOR.
Bylaw“? “a Aid-x
AH 98.
3,091,294
Patented May 28, 1963
2
1
3,091,204
SHALLGW-DRAFT CARGO VESSEL WITH
CAPTIVE AIR SPACES
a horizontal partition that extends between the sides of
the hull and forms the top of the ?rst cargo-carrying
space.
A further object of the invention is to provide a vessel
Hugh E. Pickrell, Jr., Vancouver, Wash, assignor to 5 with two cargo-carrying spaces, one spaced above the
R.P.T.Z. Patco Inc, Portland, Greg, a corporation of
other, as indicated, that also includes an elongated hollow
Oregon
channel extending along each side of the vessel, with the
Filed Sept. 12, 1960, Ser. No. 55,298
interior of each channel connected to the ?rst cargo
5 Claims. (Cl. 114—26)
oarrying space whereby it may operate as an expansion
This invention ‘concerns a novel construction for a 10 system for liquids carried in the first cargo-carrying space
cargo vessel, and more particularly relates to a shallow
draft cargo vessel that can handle multiple types of cargos
and also functions as a captive air space lending buoyancy
to the vessel.
constructed with captive air spaces ‘along the sides of
Other features and objects of the invention will become
more fully apparent as the following descniption is read
the vessel extending substantially along its entire length,
whereby the vessel may be fully loaded with the captive 15 in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side view of a barge constructed according
air spaces buoying and serving to stabilize the vessel in
to this invention, middle portions of the barge having
the water.
been removed for the purpose of shortening the drawing;
In certain operations, particularly in river traffic, a
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional View, taken along the line
cargo vessel such as a barge and the like may have to
be constructed with a relatively ?at bottom, so that the 20 2-2 in FIG. 1, illustrating the shape of the hull of the
vessel can navigate in waters impassable for vessels with
barge in cross section, and the bulkheads joined to the
a deep draft. While shallow-draft vessels in some locali
hull that extend upwardly from the hull;
FIG. 3 is a cross-ectional view taken along the line
ties are fairly widely used, known constructions have been
3-3 in FIG. 1 illustrating further details of the barge;
characterized by certain disadvantages that have detracted
from their use, and it is toward the correction of these 25 and
disadvantages that this invention is directed.
FIG. 4 is a view, slightly enlarged, of conveyer mech
anism shown in FIG. 2 provided for unloading material
The ordinary, shallow-draft barge adapted to carry
from a cargo-carrying space in the barge.
liquid cargo comprises a hull wtih a relatively ?at bottom,
Referring now to the drawings, at 10 there is indicated
and decking extending ‘between the sides of the hull that
an elongated, shallow-draft barge having a bow and stem
closes off its top. Liquid cargo, such as petroleum and
indicated at 12 and 14, respectively. The barge, as can
the like is carried in the interior of the hull. The vessel,
be seen with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2, comprises a
if loaded to carry its maxim-um pay load, ordinarily has
relatively little free board along its sides. Thus, loading
hull 16, with sides 18, 20 joined to a ?at bottom 22.
Sides 18, 20 converge on each other at the bow and stern
must be carefully controlled, particularly if the vessel is
to encounter rough water. A barge too fully loaded may 35 of the barge, and bottom 22 slopes upwardly at the
bow and stern, whereby the ends of the barge are tapered.
dive beneath the ‘surface of the ‘water, and sometimes
then completely ?ll up and sink to the bottom. Even
The construction of the hull is fairly typical. Thus,
the sides may be made of the usual steel plate 19 secured
should the barge not sink, when submarining occurs,
towing is complicated. The dif?culties indicated above
to longitudinals 24 extending along each side of the hull,
are particularly troublesome in vessels adapted to handle 40 and the bottom may be made of plate 23 secured to
longitudinal 26. Longitudinals 24 and 26 are secured to
multiple types of 'cargos. Vessels of the latter descrip
tion preferably should have separate cargo-carrying spaces
for different types of cargos, as this makes for faster
vertical frame sections such as the one indicated generally
at 282 in FIG. 2. Vertical frame sections, similar to
loading and unloading and easier cleaning. But the pro< 4.5 section 28c, are provided at regular intervals along the
vision of separate cargo-carrying spaces adds to the weight
length of the hull, at the locations indicated by the paired
of a barge, with the result that the payload that can be
carried, without danger of diving or sinking, is less with
dotted lines indicated at 28a—28h in FIG. 1.
Each frame section, as illustrated by frame section
a multiple cargo vessel than with a single cargo vessel.
28s shown in FIG. 2, comprises uprights 30 at the sides
It is a general object of this invention to provide an 50 and spaced at intervals between the sides of the hull, and
improved construction for a multiple cargo vessel, such
transverse beams 32 joining the top set and bottom set
of ends of uprights 3d. The beams and uprights are in
as a multiple cargo barge and the like, that takes care of
the hereinabove indicated dif?cult-ies and requirements in
terbraced by braces 33.
Sides 18, 20 and bottom 22 de?ne an elongated ?rst
a practical and satisfactory manner. The vessel contem
plated provides for carrying liquid and bulk cangos in 55 cargo-carrying space 35 along the bottom of the vessel.
This cargo-carrying space, in the embodiment illustrated,
separate spaces, and a novel organization wherein the
is adapted to carry a liquid cargo, such as petroleum.
spaces for carrying the two types of cargos are separated
by captive air spaces along the sides of the vessel pro
ducing buoyance inhibiting diving, listing, and submarin
ing of the vessel.
More speci?cally, it is an object of this invention to
provide, in a vessel such as a ‘barge and the like, a ?rst
The cargo-carrying space is closed off adjacent the ends
of the vessel, and the space itself is divided into a series
60 of compartments following one another along the length
of the vessel, by making ?uid-tight bulkheads that extend
transversely of the hull out of selected ones of the sec
tions 28a——28h. Thus, with reference to FIG. 2, steel
cargo-carrying space along the bottom of the Vessel
plate 34 is secured to the uprights, transverse beams and
adapted to carry liquid, and a second cargo-carrying space
for material such as salt, grain, and the like, disposed 65 braces of section 282, and also has margins sealed to
the sides and bottom of the hull, whereby a ?uid<tight
above the ?rst cargo-carrying space and completely sep
bulkhead is formed at the location of section 28a. Simi
arated therefrom by void spaces extending along the sides
lar ?uid-tight bulkheads are formed out of sections 28b
of the vessel. Upright, ?uid-tight bulkheads along the
and 28g (these de?ning the ends of the cargo-carrying
sides and ends of the hull of the vessel extend upwardly
from the hull and de?ne the side ‘and end limits of the 70 space), and alternate sections between these two sections
second cargo-carrying space. The bottom of the second
(for instance, section 28:1 in FIG. 1). The compart
ments are further divided between sections 28b, 28g by
cargo-carrying space is de?ned by a ?oor spaced above
3,091,204
3
4
a vertical.?uid-tight bulkhead 36 that extends along the
midline of the vessel between these sections. Bulkhead
36 comprises plate 37 sealed along the lower margin
thereof to bottom 22 and secured‘ to one side of the
uprights 30 that follow one another along the midline
of the vessel. Longitudinal strengtheners 38 are secured
to the other side of plate 37.
Fastened to the top of each of the frame sections that
In the usual construction, channels 46, 47 are of such
a size that the spaces within the interiors of the channels
have a combined volume that is approximately 5% of
the volume of the cargo-carrying space below deck or
partition 6%. When the vessel is ?lled with a petroleum
cargo, the interiors of channels 46, 47 are left’ open.
That is to say, the vessel ordinarily is ?lled approxi
mately to the level of the underside of deck 60. This
is made into a ?uid-tight bulkhead (sections 28b, 23d,
enables the spaces within the channels to function as an
28e, and 28g in FIG. 1), and adjacent each side of hull 1O expansion system. The spaces within the'channels also
16, is an upright, substantially rectangular, core plate
serve another important function, in that they constitute
49. These core plates are nonperforate, and each forms
captive air spaces disposed along the sides of the barge.
a continuation of the ?uid-tight bulkhead directly below
These captive air spaces produce a buoyancy along the
it. Fastened to the top of each of the frame sections
sides of the barge that gives the barge lateral stability,
that alternate with those formed into ?uid-tight bulk
15 and inhibits diving and submarining of the barge.
heads (sections 280, 28f in FIG. 1), and adjacent each
Continuing with the description of the barge, above
side of hull 16, is a core plate 41 similar to core plate
partition or deck 60 is a second cargo-carrying space,
indicated at 80, adapted to carry dry cargos such as
40 but having a limber hole 42. Plate 19 along each
side of the vesselextends up to the top of the core plates
grain, salt, coal, and the like. Space 80 is completely
40, 41 disposed along the side, and is joined to outer
isolated from space 35, and each may be used-for: a.
edges of these core plates. Top edges of the core plates
selected cargo without the cargo of one space contami
along each side of the hull are covered by plate 43, and
nating the cargo of the other space. For instance,
petroleum may be carried in ?rst cargo-carrying space
along each side of the vessel, vertical inner edges of the
core plates 40, 41 are covered by plate 44. In this man
35 with the barge traveling in one direction, and grain
ner there is provided an elongated hollow channel along 25 carried in the return trip for the barge in space 80, with‘
the grain loaded directly into space 80 without the
each side of the hull (indicated at 46 and 47, respec
' tively) thatiextends substantially the length of the hull,
necessity of any steam cleaning, as Would be necessary
if petroleum and grain were carried in the same space.
with upper portions of plate 19, plate 43 and plate 44
The sides of space 80 are de?ned by upper portions
de?ning the channels, and core plates 40, 41 providing
inner support for the channels. The sides and top of 30 of ?uid-tight bulkheads 86, 88 extending upwardly from
the channels are ?uidetight, and the channels have open
locations adjacent the sides of the hull. Each bulkhead
comprises vertical ribs 99 with enlarged bottom ends
bottoms, so that the channels communicate along their
length with’ the compartments of the ?rst cargo-carrying
92 joined to plate 62 of deck 60. Ends 92 are also
secured to plates 44 that de?ne the inner sides of chan
space. The channels are divided into sections, by the
nonperforate core plates 40, at location directly above 35 nels 46, 47. Longitudinally extending strengtheners in‘
terconnecting the ribs are indicated at 93. Steel plate
those frame sections that are made into ?uid-tight bulk
heads.
94 extends over the outside of ribs 90 of each bulkhead
Extending between sides 18, ‘20 of the hull is a hori
and is secured to the ribs. The bottom margin of plate
94 is sealed to plate 43 of the channel therebelow. With
zontal deck or partition 69. This comprises plate 62
fastened to longitudinals 64 supported on the top edges 40 reference to FIG. 1, the ends of space 80 are de?ned by
The partition or deck
?uid-tight bulkheads 96, 98 that constitute continuations.
is ?uid tight, and along each side of the vessel a ?uid
tight connection is made between plate 44 of the channel
along the side, and the outer margin of deck 60. Plate
34 that'makes a ?uid-tight bulkhead of selected frame
of the ?uid-tight bulkheads formed of frame sections
2817, 28g. Toward the bow and stern of the hull from
of upper transverse beams 32.
sections (sections 28b, 28d, 282, 28g in FIG. 1), extends
up'to and is sealed to the underside of plate 62. Thus,
bulkheads 98, 96, respectively, are ?uid-tight decks 100,
102 that seal o?“ the top of hull 16 at the bow and stern..
Thus,‘ completely around space 80 are walls that are
?uid tight, that enable the vessel to ride in the water with
partition or deck 60 closes oil the top of the ?rst cargo
tlze7s6urface
of the water at the load water line indicated
a
.
carrying space, and it will be noted that the Various com
‘Over the top of space 80 is roof structure 11110 compris~
partments of the space are isolated one from another. 50
As already indicated, the cargo-carrying space along
the bottom of the hull and beneath deck 60 is adapted
to hold liquidcargos such as petroleum, and such a
cargo is fed into and removed from the vessel, using con
mg panels 111 supported on longitudinals 113 and roof
ibeams 112. Stanchions supporting middle portions of the
An opening ‘118 extends
along the midline of the roof structure, and the opening
roof structure are shown at 116.
ventional piping indicated at 68. Each compartment of 55 1s opened and closed vby slidable covers 120.
’ Within the space bounded by bulkheads '86, 88 and bulk
the space isprovided with an ullage pipe 70. The hollow
heads 96, 98 is ?uid-tight ?oor structure 121. 'This in
channels along each side of the hull (each de?ned by
upper portions of plate 19, plate 43, and plate 44) func
tion as an expansion system‘ for the various compart
ments.
cludes ?oor sections '122, 124 sloping downwardly and.
inwardly from side ‘bulkheads 86, 88, that terminate ad
jacent elongated unloading troughs 126 extending longi
The sections of channel 46 along one side of the hull,
and the sections of channel 47 along the other side of
the hull, are connected to a vent conduit 72 by pipe
connectors 74 (see FIG. 1). Vent conduit 72 has an
tudinally of the vessel the length of space 80. Two such
troughs are‘ shown in the embodiment of vthe invention
'load water line for the vessel with the vessel loaded
outer ends fastened to ribs 90, and inner ends ‘fastened to
illustrated. Between the troughs are sloping de?ecting
?oor sections 128, 130. The ?oor sections are supported
end 72a disposed substantially above the highest normal 65 above partition 60 on braces ‘136, 138. Braces 136 have
(such water line being indicatedat 76)." End 72a is
equipped with a pressure responsive valve 78 sensitive
to di?erences between atmospheric pressure and the pres-v
'
saddles 1'40 spaced \at intervals beneath a trough and sup
porting the trough.
The ends of braces r138 are secured
to saddles 149 and stanchions 116.
Floor structure 121 .
sure within the channel vented by conduit 72. The 70 de?nes the bottom of space 80. Since the ?oor sections
of the structure slope toward the troughs, dry material
valve operates to relieve pressure di?erences exceeding
7 tends to fall by gravity into the troughs during unloading.
a predetermined amount, normally in the range of about
Material isunloaded ‘from space 81) by moving it along
one and a half pounds per square inch, by accommodaté
ing appropriate in?ow or out?ow of gas through vent
troughs g126 toward the bow of the barge, Where it dumps
conduit 72:
75 from the troughs into a collecting pit vor sump 146/(s'ee
3,091,204
ii
FIG. 1) positioned below and adjacent the ends of the
troughs. Preferably automatic unloading mechanism of
the type disclosed in US. Patent 2,889,942, for instance,
is provided for removing material from a trough. A-s de
scribed in this patent, and with reference to FIG. 4, such
an unloading mechanism comprises a pair ‘of elongated
hollow channel communicating adjacent the bottom there
'of with :said ?rst cargo-carrying space, said channels func
tioning as expansion chambers for said ?rst cargo-carrying
space, the improvement comprising a horizontal ?uid-tight
deck extending between the sides and ends of the hull and
closing off the top of said first cargo-carrying space, an
conveyor screws, such as those indicated at 150 and 152,
mounted Within each trough, and an overlying hood struc
ture, indicated at 154, that covers the conveyor screws and
upright longitudinally extending ?uid-tight bulkhead joined
to the hull and extending upwardly from each side of the
Screws 150, 152 are driven by motors 1160 disposed in
rying space, and a ?uid-tight ?oor for said second cargo
hull and said deck, and an upright transversely extending
prevents material from falling around and completely en 10 ?uid-tight bulkhead joined to the hull and extending up
wardly from said deck adjacent each end of the hull, said
gul?ng them. Material falls into opposite sides of a
bulkheads de?ning the side and end limits of a second
trough through slots 156 that extend longitudinally along
cargo-carrying space disposed above said ?rst cargo-car
opposite sides of the trough.
a motor room adjacent the stern of the vessel, indicated at 15 carrying space extending between said bulkheads above
said deck, said ?oor along each side of the hull being
162. The motor room has a ?oor 164, a front wall 170
and a ceiling 172, that join bulkheads 86, 88 and that
together close off the room from the ?rst and second cargo
carrying spaces described.
Drive vfrom a motor to a con
veyer screw is through a speed reducer, indicated at 174.
The screws are rotated by the motors in a direction that
causes material falling into a trough to be carried toward
the bow of the barge, where it may tall into collection
spaced a substantial distance above said deck, the under
side of said ?oor and the top of said deck de?ning an elon
gated captive air space in the vessel along each side of the
vessel, said captive air spaces being closed oil? from said
expansion chambers.
3. A shallow-draft cargo vessel comprising an elongated
hull with bottom and sides de?ning an elongated ?rst
cargo-carrying space along the bottom of the vessel, 2.
pit 1146.
Adjacent the bow of the vessel, and directly above pit 25 horizontal ?uid-tight partition spaced vertically above said
bottom and extending between the sides and ends of the
156, is a hatch 176. Material is removed from pit 146 by
hull and closing off the top of said ?rst cargo-carrying
any suitable conveyer mechanism inserted downwardly
space, an upright longitudinally extending ?uid-tight bulk
into the pit through hatch 176. A hatch cover 178 is
head joined to the hull and extending upwardly from each
swung downwardly over the hatch to close it, when the
side of the hull and said partition, an upright transversely
hatch is not in use.
With particular reference to FIG. 2, it will be seen that
?oor sections 122, 124 of structure 120 are spaced a sub
extending ?uid-tight bulkhead joined to the hull and ex
tending upwardly from said partition adjacent each end of
the hull, said bulkheads de?ning the sides and end limits
stantial distance above partition or deck 60. Thus, there
of a second cargo-carrying space disposed above said
are large ‘voids between the upper side of the deck and the
underside of the floor sections, one along each side of the 35 ?rst cargo-carrying space, and a ?uid-tight ?oor for said
second cango-carrying space extending between said bulk
barge, and these voids extend along the sides of the barge
heads and de?ning the bottom of said second cargo-car
the entire length of space 80, which is a major portion
rying space, said ?oor along the length of the vessel sloping
of the length of the barge. These voids also function as
downwardly progressing vfrom the sides of the vessel
toward the midline of the vessel whereby material carried
in the second cargo-carrying space on unloading is directed
Using the barge of the invention, a load can be carried
by the floor toward the midline of the vessel, said ?oor ad
where little if any free board exists along the sides of the
jacent the sides ‘of the vessel being spaced a substantial
barge. In fact, the barge can be loaded to such an ex
distance above said partition and the underside of the
tent that the sides of the hull along portions of the barge
floor and the topside of said partition providing along a
intermediate the bow and stem are completely under
water. Even when ‘fully loaded, and when moving in 45 substantial portion of the length of the vessel a captive
air space along each side of the rvessel.
rough water, the barge maintains its lateral stability and
captive air spaces providing buoyancy for the barge and
inhibiting diving, listing, and submerging of the barge.
is buoyed from diving and sinking, by the captive air
spaces described that extend along opposite lateral sides
4. In a shallow-draft cargo vessel comprising an elon
gated hull with bottom and sides de?ning an elongated ?rst
cargo-carrying space along the bottom of the vessel, and
of the hull. The barge can handle with equal facility
50 means along each side of the vessel de?ning an elongated
multiple types of cargos.
hollow channel communicating adjacent the bottom there
It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters Patent:
of with said ?rst cargo-carrying space, said channels func
1. A shallow-draft cargo vessel comprising an elongated
tioning as expansion chambers for said ?rst cargo-carrying
hull with bottom and sides de?ning an elongated ?rst
space, the improvement comprising a horizontal ?uid-tight
cargo-carrying space along the bot-tom of the vessel, 21 hori
zontal fluid-tight partition spaced vertically above said bot 55 deck extending between the sides and ends of the hull
and closing off the top of said ?rst cargo-carrying space,
tom and extending between the sides of the hull and closing
an upright longitudinally extending ?uid-tight bulkhead
o? the top of said ?rst cargo-carrying space, an upright
joined to the hull and extending upwardly from each side
longitudinally extending ?uid-tight bulkhead joined to the
of the hull ‘and said deck, an upright transversely extending
hull and extending upwardly from each side of the hull
and said partition, an upright transversely extending ?uid 60 ?uid-tight bulkhead joined to the hull and extending up
wardly 'from said deck adjacent each end of the hull,
ti-ght bulkhead joined to the hull ‘and extending upwardly
said bulkheads de?ning the side and end limits of a sec
from said partition adjacent each end of the hull, said
ond cargo-carrying space disposed above said ?rst cargo
bulkheads de?ning the side and end limits of a second
carrying space, and a ?uid-tight floor for said second
cargo-carrying space disposed above said ?rst cargo-car
rying space, a ?uid-tight ?oor for said second cargo 65 cargo-carrying space extending between said bulkheads
carrying space extending between said bulkheads above
above said deck, said ?oor along the length of the vessel
said partition, said ?oor along each side of the hull
sloping ‘downwardly progressing from the sides of the
being spaced a substantial distance above said partition and
vessel toward the midline of the vessel whereby ‘material
the underside of said floor and the topside of said parti
carried in the second cargo-carrying space on unloading
t=ion along each side of the vessel de?ning an elongated
is directed by the ?oor toward the midline of the vessel,
captive air space in the vessel.
said ?oor adjacent the sides of the vessel being spaced a
2. In a shallow-draft cargo vessel comprising an elon
substantial distance above said deck, the underside of the
gated hull with bottom and sides de?ning an elongated ?rst
floor and the top side of said deck de?ning an elongated
cargo-carrying space along the bottom of the vessel, and
captive
m'r space in the vessel along each side of the
means along each side of the vessel de?ning an elongated 75
3,091,204
o
0
vessel, said captive air spaces being closed oiffrom said
expansion chambers.
midline of the vessel, said ?oor because of its slope also
having an underside which along each side of the vessel is
5. A shallow-draft cargo vessel comprising an elongated
hull with a substantially ?at bottom and sides de?ning an
spaced a substantial distance above the horizontal deck
below the ?oor so that an elongated captive air space is
elongated holdvjor liquid along the bottom of the vessel, a 5 de?ned ‘along each side of the Vessel, said captive air
horizontal ?uid-tight deck extending between the sides and
spaces being closed off from said hold for liquid.
ends of the hull and closing off the top of said hold,
bulkheads joining with said deck and extending upwardly
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
therefrom ‘and de?ning the side and end limits of an e-lon
UNITED STATES PATENTS
gatedsecond hold extending :along the length of said vessel 10
superimposed over said deck, a ?uid-tight ?oor for said
second hold extending between said bulkheads and spaced
above said ‘deck, said ?oor along the length of the vessel
sloping downwardly progressing from each side of the
vessel toward the midline of the vessel, said ?oor because 15
of its slope being operable on unloading of material
from said second hold to direct such material toward the
190,542
643,064
843,390
1,111,740
2,594,930
2,889,942
Brooks __________ __‘__.._ May 8, 1877
Kershaw ______________ ___ Feb. 6,
Burney ______________ __ Feb. 5,
Frear ________________ __ Sept. 29,
Hudson ______________ __ Apr. 29,
Russell ________________ __ June 9,
1900
1907
1914
1952
1959
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