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Патент USA US3091269

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May 28, 1963
J. E. TROY
3,091,263
MOTTLED PILE FABRIC AND METHOD OF‘ MAKING SAME
Filed June 29, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet __1
III
III
III
III
III
I
I
III
INVENTOR -
BY
“'W
ATTORNEYS
May 28, 1963
J. E. TROY
3,091,263
MOTTLED FILE! FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME
Filed June 29, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR:
J AM as ETKoY
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ATTORNEYS
United grates Patent
3,®9l,253
Patented May 28, 1963
1
2
3,13%,263
Some of the objects of the invention having been stated,
other objects will appear as the description proceeds when
taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in
MOTTLED PHJE FABRIC AND METHUD OF
MAKING SAD/E
James E. Troy, Spray, Nil, assignor to Fieldcrest Miils,
Inc, Spray, NAL, a corporation of Deiaware
Filed June 29, 1959, Ser. No. 823,391
14 Claims. (Cl. 139—4tl2)
which—
FIGURE 1 is an exploded diagrammatic plan view il
lustrating one form of the novel fabric as it is woven
and showing ends of warpwise pile wires beneath some
This invention relates to pile fabrics, such as are used
of the loops and above respective warps;
for carpets, rugs and the like, and more especially, to a
FIGURE 2 is another diagrammatic plan view similar
novel pile fabric having a mottled or tweedy appearance. 10 to FIGURE -1 showing blocks of tufts of different colors
Various carpet fabrics have been produced heretofore
winch were provided with tufts of different textures and/ or
or kinds formed by severing the loops of the fabric shown
in FIGURE 1 at points above respective groups of ground
colors. The pile of such prior art fabrics was formed by
warps;
intertwisted or plied pile yarn strands of different colors or
FIGURE 3 is a schematic elevational view showing
kinds which projected upwardly from between the same 15 how pile wires maybe used for forming loops and cutting
adjacent ground warps throughout the length of the fabric.
the same to produce fabrics according to the present
All strands which passed between and formed rows of
loops or tufts between any two ground warps tended to
invention;
FIGURE 4 is a top plan view of a portion of the im~
proved fabric, wherein all the loops have been severed
strands in adjacent rows of loops and/ or tufts. In most 20 and showing, in particular, how tufts ‘of different colors
instances, therefore, de?nite streaks of one or more tex
or kinds are irregularly positioned throughout the face
adhere to each other rather than intermingling with pile
tures and/ or colors were visible in the pile face of the
of the fabric so the fabric has a mottled appearance;
?nished fabric.
It is therefore a primary object of this invention to pro
FIGURE 5 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary plan view
of the ?rst form of the mottled pile fabric;
Vide a novel fabric and method of making the same 25
FIGURE 6 is a warpwise vertical sectional view through
wherein two or more independent pile yarns of relatively
a portion of the fabric in which all the loops have been
different color or kind project from each selected block
severed;
de?ned between adjacent ground warp and weft portions
FIGURE 7 is a view looking at the right-hand side of
and wherein the fabric is so woven that the pile yarns in
FIGURE 6; i.e., a weftwise vertical sectional view through
each block inherently tend to spread apart and thereby 30 a portion of the fabric;
intermingle with the pile yarn portions in adjacent blocks
FIGURE 8 is a view similar to FIGURE \1 showing a
so the ?nished fabric is devoid of any de?nite or notice
second form of the fabric wherein two pile yarns of dif
able streaks of any single texture or color.
ferent types or colors are looped over alternately spaced
It is another object of this invention to provide a novel
groups of ground warps and three pile yarns of other
cut pile ‘fabric and method of making the same in 35 d'n‘ferent types or colors are looped over intervening groups
which the face of the fabric has variegated tufts and all
of ground warps;
tufts of any one color are distributed among tufts of
FIGURE 9 is a view similar to FIGURE 6 showing, dia
other colors to the eX'tent that the face of the fabric is
grammatically, how tufts may be arranged after the
entirely devoid of streaks of any single color and is devoid
loops in the portion of fabric shown in FIGURE 8 have
of indication of any particular type of patterning.
40 been severed;
It is a more speci?c object of ‘this invention to provide
a pile fabric and method of making the same in which
groups of warp yarns are interwoven with Weft yarns to
form a base with different colors or types of pile yarns
FIGURE 10 is a view similar to FIGURE 6 showing
uncut ground-engaging loops, medium height loops and
cut-loop tuft portions projecting from the face of the
fabric.
being shogged over and above respective groups of warp 45
Previous attempts at making mottled pile fabric includ
yarns and under weft yarns with the pile yarns being di
ing several ‘different colors of pile yarn or several differ
vided into groups, including one or more yarns at alter—
ent types of pile yarn have involved weaving a base from
nate groups of ground warps and two or more pile yarns
ground warp and weft yarns while looping pile yarns over
at intervening groups of ground warps, the pile yarns be
weftwise pile wires and wherein the warps have passed
ing severed where they pass over the respective groups 50 beneath successive wefts between adjacent pile wires and
of warp yarns to form at least three pile tuft strands of
have been retained between adjacent warps throughout
different characteristics, such as color, texture and the
the length of the fabric. When loops of this character
like, in each opening or block defined between adjacent
were subsequently severed, most of the tufts of any one
groups of warp yarns and adjacent weft yarns.
color or kind would largely appear in‘ the form of lineal
It is ‘another object of this invention to provide a novel 55 rows of tufts, substantially devoid of any random ap
variegated pile fabric and method of making the same,
pearance.
in which warps are interwoven with wefts and a single
or odd number of pile yarns of different colors are raised
In some instances, fabrics woven in the manner last
described have had pile yarns which included two or more
twisted strands of different colors or kinds so as to pro
or groups of warps, and wherein an even number of pile 60 duce a more irregular, random appearance to the face
yarns, which are also of relatively different colors and
of the fabric. However, this would still result in no
and shogged over each of certain alternately spaced warps
which differ in color from the colors of the aforemen
tioned pile yarns, are raised and shogged over each of cer
ticeable streaks of alternating colors of pile strands or
tufts of alternating colors or characteristics, notwith
standing the fact that it was necessary to carefully ply
tain intervening groups of ground warps, the odd and even
pile yarns being looped under alternate wefts at one 65 the two or more yarns together and the necessity of in
side of the respective warps and under intervening wefts at
the other side of the respective warps. The pile loops
serting and removing weftwise pile wires still remained.
thus formed over the warps may be severed at their upper
‘I have found that by providing an odd number of dif
The novel fabric is further enhanced by the use of hand
twisted or frieze type yarns.
tion and then‘ cutting the same, variegated tufts, or tufts
ferent colored tufts in each of certain boxes or spaces
portions to form variegated tufts of random disposition
de?ned
between adjacent warp ‘and weft yarns, and by
thereby producing a mottled fabric which, in appearance, 70
originally inserting these tufts by passing pile yarns across
does not suggest any particular patterning.
and above warp yarns and beneath weft yarns in alterna
3,091,263
3
,of different characteristics, are formed which are so
crowded and displaced in each box as to produce a true
mottled appearance to the fabric, which is entirely de
void of any suggestion of lines of any particular color
or kind being discernible, in any direction, on the face
of the fabric.
A most favorable fabric of this character is produced
4
weft. Thus, the pile yarns 15 are looped beneath alter-V
nate wefts 12 at one side of each respective group of
warps 10- and they are looped beneath intervening wefts
at the other side of each respective group of warps 10.
The two pile warps 16, 17, are also shogged over inter~
vening groups of ground warps 11, passed beneath alter
nate vwefts 12 at one side of the respective groups of
win a one-shot weave with an odd number (one or more)
ground warps 11 and passed beneath intervening wefts
warps in each group 10, 11, in this instance, although
take-up mechanism, not shown, the loops move against
for example.
through the shed at one side of each respective group of
ground war-ps and move upwardly and laterally in rop
of pile yarns of a given color or type being raised and ‘ at the other side of each alternate group v11, this proce
shogged across and above alternate groups of warps and 10 dure being repeated throu-ghoutthe weaving of the fabric.
In order to produce .a cut pile fabric, the loops may be
fan even number (two or more) of pile yarns being raised
cut by asuitable shearing apparatus or by any other suit—
and shogged across and above intervening groups of warps
able means, such asthat shown in FIGURE 3.’ It will be
»~ etween-the alternate groups with all the latter yarns being
observed that each pile wire P is provided with a cutter
of different colors or kinds.
Referring to FIGURE 1, the ?rst form of fabric gen 15 blade 20 adjacent its free end portion and forwardly of
the surface of the pile wire over which the loops ,are
erally comprises groups of warp yarns including alternate
formed. Thus, as the fabric is taken up by the usual
groups ‘10 and intervening groups 11. There are four
therinclined upper edge of blade 20 and are thus severed.
a greater or lesser number of ground warps may be used.
It will be observed in FIGURE 2 that, when the loops
Also, these warps are shown in the form of chain warps 20
which overlie ground warps 1t}, 11 are severed, this pro
interwoven with weft yarns 12, which are shown in the
vides three distinct tufts of di?ierent color or different
form ,of double wefts or two-strand wefts, preferably
characteristics, as the case may be, in each box de?ned
made from jute. The wefts 12 may be of the single
between adjacent wefts 12 and adjacent groups of' chain .
strand type and are merely shown in the form of double
_
strand .wefts, since the fabric may be woven on looms of 25 warps 10, 11.
It might be statedthat, since the pile yarn guides, such
the type known as Clark looms and disclosed in United
as that indicated at G in FIGURE 3, move downwardly
States Patent Nos. 2,437,378; 2,437,379 and 2,860,669,
.
Looms of the character disclosed in the latter patents
include .means for weaving a base or ground fabric from
warp and weft yarns and are provided with pile yarn
guides IG (FIGURE 3), through which respective con
posite directions, thisvcauses the yarns to be pushed down
~wardly against portions of adjacent pile yarns wihch had
previouslybeen inserted by respectiverpile yarn guides G.
This results in the loops being crowded together at their
tinuous .pile yarns pass. The’ guides G dip or move
bases and also causes them to upset or displace each
downwardly from a position above the fabric, whereupon
double weft yarns are inserted through the open shed, 35 other because of the last inserted portion of each re
. spective pile yarn being forced downwardly by the next
formed of the ground warps, and over the strands of pile
yarns, the double weft being inserted by means of an
elongated needle N.
Upon ground’warps being inserted, the pile yarn guides
G move upwardly from a position within the shed and are
then‘ shifted laterally substantially simultaneously with
the "beat-up stroke of the reed and then again moved
succeeding portion of yarn inserted by the corresponding
pile yarn guide.
To explain further, assuming that the fabric of FIG
URE 1_is taken up in the direction indicated by the arrow
in-the lower portion of FIGURE 1, after portions Y, for
example, of pile yarns 1,6, 17 have been inserted, the re
spective alternate pile yarn guides G move upwardly, over
and acrossthe respectiveground warps 11. At the same
downwardly preparatory to another double weft yarn
beinginserted over strands of pile yarn, In so doing, the
time, the intervening guides Gadjacent the last-named
pile’yarns are looped over corresponding ‘groups of warp 45
guides also move across and above the intervening groups
yarns and respective warpwise loop forming ?ngers or
of ‘ground warps 10 and thus insert, portions X of the
pile wires -P. ‘Portions of such pile wires are shown in
respectiverpile yarns 15 into the same boxes in which the
FIGURES l and 3. The pile wires P may be provided
respective portions Y of yarns 16, 17 had just previously
with‘loop forming stages of different heights and may be
been‘positioned. Thus, the portions X move downwardly
'7 shifted longitudinally of the warp to present stages of 50. and press against the respective portions Y of yarns 16,
different heights to loop forming position to form cor
17. In so doing, portions X relatively displace portions
responding loops ofdi?erent heights (see United States
Patent 'No. 2,860,664).
- Y to some extent.
As ‘heretofore stated, 'I‘have discovered that-pile yarns‘
Thus, after the yarns have been severed, they do not
colors ‘randomly positioned throughout the ‘face of the
the successive insertion of respective portions of pileyarn
in fact assume the positions shown in FIGURE 2, the
of different colors may be interwoven with the base 55 tufts merely being shown in block form in FIGURE'Z
above alternate groups of ground warps to form varie
I to clarify the positions thatthey would occupy were they
gated loops which, when out, form pile tufts of di?erent
not twisted and relatively displaced to some extent by
fabric. To this end, in the first form of the invention
'in the blocks de?ned between adjacent warp and weft
shown in FIGURES t1 and 2,,itwillrbe noted that a single 60 yarns. Also, the fact that the pile yarns 15, 16, 17 are
pile yarn 15 ‘is associated with each alternate group of
drawn across respective ground warpsias they-are with
warps 710 and two pile vyarns 1V6'and 17 are associated
drawn from the base at one side of therespectiveground
with each intervening group of warps 11. In its pre
warps and inserted at the other side thereof produces
ferred embodiment, all the pile yarns 15, 16, 17 may
somewhat of a twisting and stressing action on the pile
be different colors from each other although, of course, 65 .yarns which causes them to become ‘further intermingled
theyrrnay also be of relatively different characteristics
such as texture or twist, withoutdeparting from the spirit
of the invention.
It will beobserved in FIGURE 1 that single pile yarns
and to spring into relatively irregular positions when
they are severed as shown in FIGURE 2. This results
in the actual fabric appearing as shown in FIGURES 4,
5, 6 and 7,.Wherein it will be noted that it is practically
‘15,are each looped‘beneath a weft 12 and then raised 70 impossible to detectrany particular lineal arrangement of '
and shogged over a respective pile wire P. Pile yarns 15
tufts of any particular color. It should be noted that
are then looped beneath the next succeeding weft yarn.
FIGURE 5 is an inked reproduction of anactual magni
Of course, the single pile yarns are then raised and shogged
?ed photograph of a portion of the ?rst form'of the
in a reverse direction back across the same respective
fabric, withrshading to indicate the different colors of
' group of warps and, thence, beneath the next succeeding 75 the tufts.
3,091,263
5
6
In FIGURES 8 and 9, a second form of the invention
is shown wherein the fabric is quite similar to the ?rst
pile loops of varying appearance over the face of the
fabric.
form of fabric with the exception that alternate groups of
warps ltta have groups 15a of three pile yarns of different
2. The method of making pile fabrics which comprises
interweaving spaced groups of warps with wefts while
raising and shogging a single pile yarn, of a given color
over each alternate group of warps, raising and shogging
colors or kinds associated therewith while intervening
groups of warps 11a have respective groups 16a of two
pile yarns of different colors or kinds associated there
with. The groups of odd numbers of pile yarns 15a
include individual yarns or pile strands a, b, c and the
groups of even numbers of pile yarns 16:: include indi
vidual pile yarns or strands d and e.
The groups of
a pair of pile yarns, each of a different color and differ
ing in color from said single pile yarn, over each inter
vening group of warps, looping said single pile yarn and
said pair of pile yarns under alternate wefts at one side
of the respective groups of warps and under intervening
wefts at the other side of the respective groups of warps,
and severing the pile yarns at points above the respective
pile yarns 15a, 16a are interwoven with wefts 12a and
respective groups of ground warps 19a, 11a in substantial
ly the same manner as the respective single pile yarns
groups of warps to form variegated tufts of random dis
15 and pairs of pile yarns 16, 17 are interwoven with the 15 position over the face of the fabric.
wefts 12 and the respective groups of ground warps 1t},
3. The method of making pile fabric which comprises
11. Accordingly, a further description of the pile fabric
weaving a base from warps and wefts while spacing cer—
in this respect is deemed unnecessary.
tain adjacent warps from each other and interweaving
It will be observed in FIGURE 9 that severing of the
warpwise pile yarns with said warps and wefts by shog
loops formed over the groups 10a, 11a of pile yarns 20 ging a single pile yarn of a given color weftwise across
produce ?ve tufts of different colors or kinds in each
and above alternately spaced warps de?ning said spaces
block de?ned between adjacent groups of warps and wefts,
and passing the latter pile yarn beneath alternate wefts
these tufts being identi?ed by the same reference nu
merals as are applied to the respective pile yarns in FIG
on one side of the latter warps and beneath intervening
wefts at the other side of the latter warps, shogging an
URE 8, for purposes of clarity. Here again, the position 25 even number of the pile yarns, each of a different color
in which the tufts are shown in FIGURE 9 is diagram
and differing in color from said given color, weftwise
matic to the extent that the tufts are shown in alinement
across and above each of the intervening warps de?ning
with each other. However, as heretofore stated, adjacent
said spaces and disposed between said alternate warps
porions of pile yarn are actually shifted to various posi
while also passing said even number of pile yarns be
tions as the fabric is woven so the tufts are randomly 30 neath alternate wefts on one side of said intervening
positioned insofar as color and/ or texture thereof is con
warps and beneath intervening wefts on the other side
cerned. Thus, with the exception of greater tuft density,
of said intervening warps to form a single pile loop of
the ?nished fabric actually appears substantially the same
said given color between adjacent wefts and extending
as the fabric of the ?rst form of the invention shown in
over alternate warps and to form an even number of
FIGURES 4 and 5.
35 pile loops of different colors between said adjacent wefts
FIGURE 10 is a view similar to FIGURE 6 and differs
and extending over said intervening warps.
only to the extent that, instead of all the loops being out
4. The method of claim 3 including the step of sever
after being formed in the manner shown in either FIG
ing said loops to form a cut pile face having a tweed-like
URE 1 or FIGURE 8, only a few of the loops are cut to
provide tufts T while loops of intermediate height I re 40
main intact as well as any intervening ground-engaging
or low loops L which may have been formed on the base
appearance.
5. The method of making pile fabric which comprises
interweaving spaced groups of warps with wefts while
shogging an odd number of pile yarns each of a different
fabric. It is apparent that, in forming tufts T, the loops
color over each alternate group of warps and while
shogging an even number of pile yarns, each of a dif
level than intermediate loops I so that subsequent shear 45 ferent color and of a different color than said odd num
ing of the fabric cuts only the high loops to produce the
ber of pile yarns, over each intervening group of warps,
of which they are formed are actually raised to a higher
tufts T. The showing of FIGURE 10 is merely for pur
poses of illustrating various types of fabrics which may
embody the mottled effects produced acording to the pres
and looping said odd and even pile yarns under alternate
wefts at one side of the respective groups and under
intervening wefts at the other side of the respective
ent invention. Accordingly, a detailed illustration and de 50 groups to form piles of different colors randomly dis
scription of the fabric shown in FIGURE 10 is deemed
posed over the face of the fabric.
unnecessary, it being deemed suf?cient to state that the
6. The method of making pile fabrics which com
loops of different heights and intervening tufts may be
prises interweaving spaced groups of warps with wefts
produced by means such as that disclosed in US. Patent
while shogging an odd number of pile yarns each of a
No. 2,860,669, granted to Ivar O. Moberg on November 55 different color over each alternate group of warps, shog
18, 1958.
ging an even number of pile yarns, each of a different
In the drawings and speci?cation there have been set
color and of a di?erent color than said odd number of
forth preferred embodiments of the invention and, al
pile yarns, over each intervening group of warps, loop
though speci?c terms are employed, they are used in a
ing said odd and even pile yarns under alternate wefts
generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes 60 at one side of the respective groups of warps and under
intervening wefts at the other side of the respective
of limitation, the scope of the invention being de?ned
groups of warps, and severing pile yarns shogged over
in the claims.
I claim:
1. The method of making pile fabrics which comprises
weaving a base of groups of warps and wefts, concur
the groups of warps to form tufts.
7. The method of making carpet fabrics which com
prises interweaving spaced groups of ground warps with
weft yarns; concurrently raising and shogging an odd
rently raising and shogging a single pile yarn over alter
number of pile yarns each of a different color across
nate groups of warps and shogging a pair of pile yarns,
and above certain alternate groups of warps and beneath
each of a different color and differing in color from said
certain spaced Weft yarns at one side of each respective
single pile yarn, over each intervening group of warps
70 alternate group of warps and beneath certain intervening
between said alternate groups, and looping said pile
weft yarns at the other side of each respective alternate
yarns under certain alternately spaced wefts at one side
group of warps; while raising and shogging an even
of the respective groups of warps and under certain in
number of pile yarns, each of a different color and of
tervening wefts between said alternately spaced wefts at
a different color than said odd number of pile yarns,
the other side of the respective groups of warps to form 75 across and above certain intervening groups of warps
3,091,263
7 and beneath said certain spaced and said certain inter
yarns and Warp yarns de?ning warpwise and weftwise
vening Weft yarns at opposite sides of each respective
intervening group of warps to form pile loops of differ
strands including at ieast three pile strands each of a
rows of openings therebetween, an uneven number of pile
‘different ‘color and forming a like number vof tufts pro
ent colors over respective alternate and intervening groups
of warps.
jeoting outwardly from the base at each ofrsaid openings,
8. A method according to claim 7 including severing
said loops to vform variegated tufts randomly positioned
being looped beneath alternately spaced weft yarns and,
over the face of the fabric.
some of the strands in each warpwise row of openings
the remainder of the ‘strands in each warpwise row of
’
openings being looped beneath intervening 'weft yarns.
9. Avcut pile fabric comprising a base formed of groups
113. An improved pile tfabriclincluding a base, having
of warp yarns interwoven with weft yarns, one pile yarn 10
warp yarns interwoven with weft yarns, adjacent warp
:llooped beneath alternate weft yarns between ‘each ad
yarns and weft yarns yde?ning openings therebetween ex
jacent pair of groups of warp yarns and extending from
tending in both warpwise ‘and weftwise rows, each of said
the base in the form of tufts, a
of other pile yarns
looped beneath intervening weft yarns between said alter
openings having an odd number of tufts therein, each
' yarns, and each of the pile yarns between any adjacent
groups of warp yarns being of a di?erent color than the
being looped beneath alternately spaced weft yarns, and
,rnate weft yarns and extending from the base in the form 15 of a different color, formed from pile yarn, an oddnum
ber of said pile yarns in each warpwise row of openings
of tufts between each adjacent pair of groups of warp
an even number of pile yarns in each warpwise row of
openings being looped beneath certain intervening weft
‘other pile yarns between ‘the respective adjacent groups of
20 yarns between said spaced weft yarns.
warp yarns.
‘
14. A pile tabric including a base having weft yarns
interwoven with strands of warp yarn, certain adjacent
of warp yarns interwoven with weft yarns, one pile yarn
pairs of said strands each being spaced apart su?iciently
looped beneath alternate weft yarns ‘between each ad
for receiving therebetween a group including an evenv
jacent pair of groups of warp yarns and being raised
above and across one of the groups of said adjacent pair, 25 number and an odd vnumber of warpwise extending
strands ‘of pile yarn, each of the strands of pile yarn in
a pair of. other pile yarns looped beneath intervening weft
10. A pile fabric comprising a base formed of groups
each pair of adjacent odd and even groups being of a
color differing ‘from thatof the other strands of .pile yarn
yarns between said alternate weft yarns and being raised
above and across the other group of warp yarns in said
in the respective pair of odd and even groups, saideven
adjacent pair, and each of the'pile yarns between any ad_
jacent groups of warp yarns being of 1a different color 30 number pile yarn being looped beneath alternately spaced
weft yarns and raised above and across one of the strands
than the other pile yarns between the respective adjacent
of warp yarn ‘of said pair, and said odd number pile
groups of warp yarns.
yarn being looped beneath ‘intervening strands of weft
111. A pile fabric comprising groups of warp yarns‘
yarn and raised above and across theother of the strands
interwoven with weft yarns to form a base, adjacent weft
yarns and warp yarns de?ning warpwise and weftwise 35 of warp yarn of :said pair.
rows of openings therebetween, an uneven number of
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
pile strands including at least three pile strands each of
a different color and forming a like number of tufts pro
UNITED STATES PATENTS
jecting outwardly from the base at each ofsaid openings,
Re.
23,837
Waite ________________ __ June 8, 1954
some of the strands warpwise between adjacent warp 40 2,497,716
Bl'ech etial ____________ __ Feb. 14, 1950
vyarns being looped beneath certain alternately spaced
weft yarns and the (remainder of the‘ strands between said
adjacent warp yarns being looped beneath certain inter
vening weft yarns.
_
'12. A pile fabric comprising groups of warp yarns in
terwoven with weft yarns to form a base, adjacent weft
2,655,951
Clark _______________ __ Oct. 20, 71953
2,860,669
. Moberg ______________ __ Nov. 18, 1958
2,924,251
Nowicki et a1 ___________ __ Feb. 9, 1960
45
FOREIGN PATENTS
148,433
I
Australia ____________ __ Sept. 29,3195}
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