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Патент USA US3091301

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May 28, 1963
J. H. KIDWELL
3,091,283
LIQUID FUEL BURNER
Filed Feb. 24, 1960
/È
O..
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
May 28, 1963
3,091,283
J. H. KIDWELL
LIQUID FUEL BURNER
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Feb. 24, 1960
FIG.2
36A
38
FIG.3
36A
FIG. 5
INVENTOR.
John H. Kìdwell
BY
ATTORNEY
31,991,233
United States
Patented May 28, 1963
2
1
velocity zone at the center of the burner to produce a
stable lflame. Included in the burner arrangement is a
3,091,2ss
LEQUED FUEL BURNER
.lohn H. Kidwell, Canton, Sirio, assigner to The Babcock
& Wilcox Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of
New Jersey
Filed Feb. 2.4, 1960, Ser. No. 10,682
12Í Claims. (Cl. 158-76)
control circuit to automatically control the point at which
the ñuid for assisting atomization of :the fuel cuts in and
This invention relates generally to liquid fuel burners,
plunger-type liquid-fuel atomizer in which the plunger
and more speciiically to an improved liquid fuel atomizer
and burner arrangement incorporating the same, »and con
trol therefor.
out.
A feature of this invention resides in the provision
of a burner arrangement in which a very substantial in
crease in the turn-down range thereof is attained.
Another feature resides in the provision of a novel
is provided with means for introducing an assisting fluid
into the whirl chamber .to enhance atomization of the
fuel therein.
Heretofore, experience with known liquid fuel burn
Another feature resides in the provision for progres
ers has shown that atomization tends to break down at
sively decreasing the cross-sectional area of the f-uel inlet
15
oil rates below one-tenth load.
openings spaced longitudinally along the length of the
Therefore it is an object of this invention to provide
whirl chamber cage as they approach the whirl chamber
an improved atomizing liquid fuel burner having a high
discharge oritice.
turn-down ratio, as for example 30 to l, while employing
Another feature resides in the provision of means dis
only moderate oil pressures.
posed
about the fuel barrel and spatially disposed with
20
Another object is to provide a plunger-type liquid fuel
in the central duct for «directing a major portion of the
atomizer in which the volume of the whirl chamber and
inner air stream outwardly toward the periphery of the
the amount of liquid fuel introduced thereinto are simul
duct.
taneously controlled, with means constructed and ar
The various :features of novelty which characterize the
ranged for also introducingy an assisting ñuid into the
invention are pointed out with particularity in the claims
whirl chamber to promote atomization of the `fuel .there 25 annexed to and forming a part of this specification. For
in at low loads.
a 'better understanding of the invention, its operating
Another object of this invention is to provide a liquid
advantages and specific objects attained by its use, refer
fuel atomizer with means for varying the rate of liquid
ence should be had to the accompanying drawings and
fuel supplied thereto in combination with a variable
`descriptive
matter in which there is illustrated and de
30
volume mixing or whirl chamber with means for intro
scribed
a
preferred
embodiment of the invention.
ducing a >gaseous fluid thereinto to enhance atomization
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a sectional side View of a liquid-fuel burner
Still another object is to provide means for automati
embodying the present invention with the control circuit
cally controlling the point at which assisting iiuid is intro
operating the same schematically illustrated.
duced into the liquid-fuel atomizer for enhancing the 35 forFIG.
lA is an enlarged sectional view taken along
-atornization of the fuel.
line
1A-1A
of yFIG. 1.
And, another object is to -provide a liquid-fuel burner
FIG. 2 is an enlarged detail of the atomizer whirl
with means for assisting atomization of the fuel and
chamber cage.
means .co-operating therewith for enhancing the subse
FIG. 3 is a left-hand end view of FIG. 2.
quent mixing of the atomized fuel with combustion air 40
of the liquid-fuel.
FIG. 4 is a detailed sectional side view of the im
to attain a very high turn-down ratio.
proved plunger in accordance with this invention.
The yforegoing objects, and other features and advan
FIG. 5 is an end view of FIG. 4.
tages are attained by a liquid-fuel burner having -a liquid
Referring to FIG. ll, numeral 101 is a wall of a furnace
fuel atomizing means disposed along a longitudinal axis
chamber
which is provided with a burner port or open
45
of the burner and having its discharge end extending
ing y12. As shown, the inner surface 13 of the port |12
into an air register which is disposed adjacent a burner
opening to the furnace chamber is truste-conical in
port of a furnace wall. The atomizing means comprises
shape
and diverges toward the furnace side 1v1 of the
a »fuel supply barrel and includes an atomizer cage which
wall ‘l0 at an angle of approximately 45°. Spaced from
deñnes a whirl chamber that terminates in a restricted
discharge oriñce connected to the end of the barrel. The 50 the furnace wall 10 is a burner wind-box casing 14 Which
defines a passageway `15 through which combustion air
cage is spaced inwardly of the 'barrel and is provided
is delivered from a suitable source to the burner 16 by
with a series of apertures extending substantially tan
a blower which is not shown. The burner casing 14 is
gentially of the whirl chamber for allowing the passage of
provided with .an access opening 17 disposed in axial
liquid-fuel from the barrel to the whirl chamber, atomi
zation of the fuel being effected by the centrifugal or 55 alignment with the burner port 12. A suitable access
door 18 closes the opening 17.
whirling action created therein. A plunger means is pro
The air register 19 of the burner is disposed within
vided for simultaneously varying the volume of the whirl
the wind-box 15 and is located adjacent the burner port
chamber and for valving the apertures to control the
12. As shown, the air register `19 consists of a tubular
amount of liquid-fuel entering the whirl chamber in ac
60
cordance with changing load conditions.
housing 2li having co-axially disposed open annular end
portions deiining an air inlet 21 and an air outlet 22.
According to this invention, the plunger means is pro
The co-axial outlet 22 is more particularly defined by
vided with means for introducing a gaseous iluid into the
a frusto-conical transition section 23 which converges
whirl chamber to assist in the atomization of the »fuel
toward and connects with a cylindrical sleeve 24 extend
therein at low loads. To enhance subsequent mixing
of the atomized fuel with the combustion air a sleeve 65 ing into burner port 12 in the furnace wall 110. A frusto
conical section 25 is connected to the inboard end of
or central duct is spatially disposed about the fuel atom
sleeve 24 and forms with the surface 13 at their junction
izer within the air register to divide the -air passing there
through into inner and outer »air streams.
Means are
provided for imparting a whirling motion to each of the
a restricted throat section 26.
An annular ñange or collar plate `27 circumscribing
70 sleeve 24 is disposed adjacent the furnace wall 10` and
secured thereto to support the air register '19.
major portion of the inner air stream toward the periph
The liquid-fuel or oil burner further includes a fuel
ery of the central «duct »and lthereby create a relatively low
air streams.
A further means is provided to direct a
3,091,283
E
4
supply barrel 28 extending lalong the longitudinal axis of
or away from the whirl chamber orifice 38. As shown,
the spring 43 is retained -between the wall 311A of the
housing 31 and a collar 44 -ñxed to the rearward end of
the shaft 41.
the air register 19. The barrel 28 is supported in a tubu
lar distance piece 29, which in turn, is supported at its
outer end in a bearing 30 located centrally of the access
door 18. The inner end of the barrel extends into the
Heretofore in plunger-type liquid fuel atomizing burn
air. register 19.
ers breakdown of fuel atomization was experienced at
vConnected to the outer end of the distance piece 29
low loads with consequent loss in combustion efficiency.
is a readily detachable coupling housing 31 for connect
ing the barrel 28 to a source of liquid-fuel (not shown).
T-he housing 31 is provided with a yoke or clamp 32 by
which it is secured to the distance piece '29. In the hous
ing 311 is a bore 33 forming a liquid-fuel passageway
which has one end connecting with a suitable fuel line 79
and the other end thereof opening to a chamber 34 into
It has been discovered that the turn-down ratio of a
plunger-type mechanical atomizer can be substantially
increased by introducing a Huid, such as 'G0-100 p.s.i.
compressed air, into the whirl chamber to assist fuel
atomization when the burner is operating in the >lower
load range.
In accordance with this invention, means for effectively
increasing the turn-down ratio in an oil burner having a
which the end 2SA of the supply barrel 28; is threaded,
:thereby placing the fuel supply :barrel 2S in communi
plunger-type atomizer is attained by providing :the plung
cationl> with> a fuel supply (not shown).
er shaft 41V with an axial bore 41A which connects to
The housing 31 isralso providedl with a second passage
and is in registry with air distributing bore 42A in plunger
43 as shown in FIGS. `11A and 4. Apertures 42B-formed
in the end wall of plunger 42 serve to provide a fluid flow
way 35 which is adapted to connect to a suitable source
of fluid, as for example compressed air, for reasons to
be hereinafter set forth.
Connected to the inner :end 28B of barrel 28, in
path by connecting the air distributing bore 42A of the
plunger 42 with Ithe whirl chamber 3-7'. Preferably the
accordance with this invention, is an improved atomiz
apertures 42B are directed in the direction of the whirl in
ing means. As shown in FIG. 2, the atomizing means
chamber 37. Means are provided for introducing the
comprises an atomizing cage 36», in the form of a hollow 25 requisite amount of air through the plunger shaft 41 and
cylindrical body member defining at its inner portion an
connected plunger 42» to the whirl chamber 37` to assist
atomizing whirl chamber 37. The innermostportion of
atomization, in response to conditioned control impulses.
the whirl chamber 37 converges to define a restricted dis
Referring to FIG. l, the end of the plunger shaft ex
charge oriñce 38 in the end lwall thereof. As shown in
tending through the housing 31u is arranged> to reciprocate
FIGS. l and `lA, the cylindrical body of the atomizer 30 within an axially aligned, air chamber 45, disposed within
cagev 36 is disposed in longitudinally spaced relationship
housing 311-, and in communication with air passageway
35. `During low load operation, at which times atomiza
with respect to the innery surface of the barrel 28 to
define. an annular -ñow path 49 therearound. A laterally
tion -tends to break down, air directed to the air chamber
extending flange 36A integrally formed with the body of
45 from passageway 35 is introducedin-to the bore 41A of
cage 36 is arranged to abut `the inner end 28B of barrel
the shaft 41 through one or more radially extending aper
28. A threaded cap 39having an inturned llange 39A
which engages flange 36A of the `atomizer cage provides
the means by which the cage 36. is held in place at the
tures 46 located in that portion ,of the shaft registering
with the air chamber 45. Thus the air is directed` through
’the plunger shaft bore 41A to bore 42A of thel plunger
end of barrel 28.
'
from whence it is discharged into the whirl , chamber
As shown inY FIG. 2, the cylindrical cage body 36 is 40 through openings 42B in the face ofthe plunger to assist
provided vwith a plurality of spaced- apertures 40 disposed
in atomization of the fuel.
in rows at intervals about the cage circumference and
through which fuel ñowing within the barrel 28_ to an
nulus 49 is introduced into whirl Vchamber 37.~ As `shown
in FIGS. 12. and 3, the apertures 411V in each of the rows 45
have their axes disposed substantially tangentially with
respect to the whirl chamber 37, with the cross-sectional
vanes in` air doors 51.
area ofthe apertures y4,0 in each row progressively re
duced iny size as they approach the discharge orilice 38.
Thus it is to be noted that as the fuel flows from barrel
50
28,y and into theV Whirl chamber 37 through the tangen
tially disposed. apertures »40,> a whirling motion is im,
parted .to the fuel within the` whirl chamber to effect
mechanical atomization.
To provide flexibility in burner capacity the amount
of fuel. introduced may bev varied` without changing the
pressure and temperature conditions( of the fuel, by
means ofaplunger provided to simultaneously vary both
the whirl chamber volume, and the valving of apertures
4êìj through whichfuel is introduced into the whirl cham
ber. As shown, the plunger means comprises a plunger
shaft `41 which extends through the housing 31 and co
axially through the connected barrelZ-S, to connect with
plunger 42_,¿-the` latter being adapted to beslidably re
To promote «turbulence within the air stream andthere
by enhance the subsequent mixing of the atomizedY fuel
upon its discharge through orifice 38with combustion air,
a whirling motion is imparted to the air entering. the
register by a plurality ofy radiallyrdisposed, adjustable
1n addition `a central sleeve or
duct 50 is spatially disposed about the fuel supply barrel
218 within the air register 19 to divide the air into inner
and outer air streamsA to provide intimate contact of the
fuel and air. The air doors 51> aresimultaneously ad
justable over a range between. fully open and fully :closed
CT( Cil
position and thereby control andproportion the amount of
air entering the air register. «As` shown, each air door 531
is pivoted at its ends between> a‘frusto-conical collar SZ
connected to a sleeve extension 53 of bearing 30 and an
outer ring 54 connected to the inlet end 21 of the housing:
20. Means for controlling the positioning of theair doors
51 comprises a beveled gear `55 connected to the lower
pivot 56 of each door 51. A master or bull gearl 57 con
nected to a sleeve 58, rotatably mounted aboutV the dis
tance piece 29, is arranged, in meshing relationship with
gear 55 on each of the doors 51. Actuation of> thebull
gear 557 is had througha gearv sector 59v secured to the
65 bull gear sleeve 4‘58. Thevgear sectorv 59 -in turn is con
ceived within the whirl chamber 37.
nected in meshing relationship to aV pinion 60 .fixed-to
The apertures `49| in the atomizer cage are sized so
the end of a shaft 6_1 which is equipped with a suitable
that, at aconstant oil supply pressure, flow rate is essen
operating means, as for example a crank or handle (not
tially a linear function of plunger travel. This makes
shown). Thus positioning of the `doors 51 is readily ac
it relatively simple to parallel operation of the burner
with other controlled variables, suchuas combustionv air
flow.
A` coil‘spring 43,_disposed about the outer end ofA shaft
441, functions` normally to cause the shaft 41 and con
70 complished through the gearing-crank arrangement de
scribed.
To further promote the whirling movement, o_f the in
ner air stream, a plurality of vanes 62~are disposed about
distance piece 29, adjacent the inlet end of the central
nected plungerl 42 to positionthe plunger 42 outwardly 75 the
duct 5t?. Vanes 62 are preferably ñxed at a predeter
3,091,283
mined angle with respect to the distance piece 29 and
the central air duct 50.
A major portion of the air ñowing through the duct
50 is directed to its outer periphery by a frusto-conical
defiector 63. The deflector is attached to ythe distance
piece 29, within the duct 50. This air ñow pattern cre
ates a relatively low velocity zone at the center of the
burner and thus promotes burner `llame stability over the
entire range of fuel flow. If desired, a portion of the
air may ~be bled through defiector 63 through one or more
apertures 64 in `deflector 63. Thus the central duct
arrangement described provides an air -ñow-fuel ñow pat
tern which effects good ignition stability over a wide
load range, ybut with the burner parts sufficiently removed
from the oil spray to eliminate wetting and coking often
encountered on wide range burners.
Automatic control for the burner described may be
6
atomizer whirl chamber 37 through openings 42B located
in the face of the plunger 42.
The only requirement regarding the load at which `the
air assist is introduced into the whirl chamber 37 is that
the oil pressure in the whirl chamber must be less than
that of the air pressure.
As the load is increased the operation of the control
circuit proceeds in the reverse sequence.
‘If desired, .a manual control is provided for adjusting
the position of the plunger 42. The manual control com
prises simply a threaded handjack 90 by which the actua
tion of the plunger shaft 41 may be attained by manual
rotation of the handjaclt 90 upon disengagement of a
releasable pin connection which connects push rod 74 to
drive 73. llîhus rotation of the handjack in one direction
advances the push rod 74 and plunger into the whirl
chamber and rotating the handjack in the opposite direc
tion retracts the same.
attained by an electrically, hydraulically, or pneumati
To prevent the back flow of gases through the distance
cally energized control circuit. However in FIG. 1, the
piece
29, a collar 9S is disposed about the supply barrel 28,
illustrated circuit 70 is electrically operated and includes 20 to form a seal about the outer end of the distance piece.
a combustion controller 71 which receives a control im
As shown a spring 96 urges the collar in sealing engage
pulse through lead 72 originating, as for example, from
ment against the end of the distance piece.
a steam pressure regulator (not shown), or from another
While in accordance with the provisions of the statutes
suitable indicator responsive to varying load conditions.
there is illustrated and described herein the best form
25
Connected in parallel with the combustion controller 71
and mode of operation of the invention now known to the
is a linear action drive motor 73 to actuate a reciprocating
inventor, those skilled in the art will understand that
drive push rod 74 which is in operative engagement with
changes may be made in the form of the apparatus dis
the plunger shaft 41, and a switch 75 which actuates
closed without departing from the spirit of the invention
solenoid air valve 76 to control the ñow of air in line 81
covered by the claims, and that certain features of the
30
leading to the air passageway 35 of the coupler 31. If
invention may sometimes be used to advantage without
desired, a check valve 77 may be disposed in ‘the air line
a corresponding use of other features.
81A leading from the solenoid valve 76 to the air pas
What is »claimed is:
sageway 35 of the coupler housing 31.
l. A liquid fuel atomizcr comprising means defining a
Flïhe fuel oil is introduced into the oil passageway 33
cylindrical whirl chamber having a restricted discharge
of the coupler 31 through a fuel line 79 which has dis 35 orifice, means including a plurality of openings longitu
posed therein an oil pressure regulating valve 80 for
dinally spaced along the length of said whirl chamber for
insuring a substantially constant oil pressure throughout
supplying liquid fuel to said whirl chamber, and a plunger
the operation of the burner.
closely fitting within said whirl chamber and axially mova
As shown, the drive unit 73 is connected to a yoke 99
ble for varying the volume of said whirl chamber and for
40
which can be pivoted about pivot 100 to facilitate removal
valving said openings to control the amount of liquid fuel
of the atomizer assembly.
entering said whirl chamber, said plunger having a passage
The operation of the control circuit is as follows:
therethrough, .and means for introducing a fluid through
At full load operation of the burner .a control impulse
said passage into said whirl chamber to assist atomiza
received by the linear drive motor 73 causes the drive
tion of the fuel during low load operation.
push rod 74 to be retracted to inoperative position, that 45
2. A liquid fuel atomizer comprising a tubular barrel,
is to the extreme left as viewed in FIG. 1. The plunger
an atomizer cage defining a cylindrical whirl chamber
shaft 41 and connected plunger 42 follow the movement
having a restricted discharge orifice connected to one end
of the push rod '74 due to the action of the shaft spring
of said barrel, said cage having a plurality of openings
`43 and the force exerted by the oil pressure on the
longitudinally spaced along the length thereof, said open
face of the plunger 42. Movement of the plunger 42 to 50 ings extending tangentially of said whirl chamber, means
the extreme left opens all of the tangentially drilled holes
for supplying liquid fuel to said barrel whereby 'the fuel
or apertures 40 in the wall of the atomizer cage 36, and
is introduced into said whirl chamber through said open
allows the full ñow of oil into the atomizer whirl cham
ings, and a plunger closely fitting within said atomizer
ber 37, in which the oil proceeds at an increasing rate of
cage and axially movable for varying the volume of said
55
spin to the discharge orifice 38. As the combustion con
whirl chamber and for valving said openings to control
troller 71 calls for less oil, the appropriate control irn
pulse or signal is transmitted to the motor 73 and causes
the amount of liquid fuel entering said whirl chamber,
said plunger having a passage means for introducing a
gaseous ñuid into said whirl chamber to assist atomiza
tion of the fuel therein .and means for cutting in a supply
connected plunger 42 to move to the right to effect a 60 of said ñuid to said plunger at a predetermined low load
the drive push rod 74 to be moved to the right. The
action of the push rod 7‘4 causes the plunger shaft 41 and
progressive valving or shutting off of the holes 40 in the
operation of the atomizer.
atomizer cage, thus reducing the ñow of oil entering Whirl
3. A liquid fuel atomizer comprising a tubular barrel,
chamber 37.
an atomizer cage connected to one end of said barrel and
At some predetermined low load, e.g. at 1/10 load, the
spatially disposed therein, said cage defining a cylindrical
control impulse is sent through lead S2 to actuate the 65 whirl chamber having a restricted discharge oriñce and
switch 75 »controlling the action of the solenoid air valve
having a plurality of openings longitudinally spaced
76. When the switch 75 is energized, the air valve 76
along the length of said whirl chamber, said openings ex
opens to .admit assisting air to the atomizer. With the
tending tangentially of said whirl chamber for mechanical
air valve 76 open, lthe air flows from the supply line 81,
through the air valve 76 and check valve 77 in line 81A 70 atomization therein, means for introducing a liquid fuel
to said barrel and through said openings to said whirl
to the air passageway 35 of the burner coupler 31. From
chamber, a plunger slidably mounted and closely fitting
the passageway 35 the air enters the air distributing cham
within said cage, .and means for actuating said plunger to
ber 34 from whence it ñows through apertures 46 to the
bore 41A of the plunger shaft 41. The air thus iiows to
vary the volume of said whirl chamber and to valve said
the plunger 42 from whence it is introduced into the 75 openings to control the amount of liquid fuel entering into
7
3,091,283
fsaid whirl chamber, said plunger having a passage there
îthrough, and means for introducing .a gaseous fluid
`-through said passage into said Whirl chamber to provide
'combined duid-mechanical atomization of the fuel during
predetermined low load operation.
4. An improved liquid fuel burner comp-rising an air
register for receiving combustion air, a sleeve disposed in
Isaid air register for dividing said combustion air into an
inner and outer air stream, a barrel extending along a
ylongitudinal axis of the burner, said barrel being spatially
disposed in said sleeve, means for supplying liquid fuel to
said barrel, an atomizing means connected to one end of
the barrel, said `atomizing means including an atomizer
cage defining a cylindrical whirl chamber having a re
stricted fuel discharge orifice, said cage having a plu
rality of openings longitudinally spaced along the length
8
chamber and valvingfsaid‘apertures to control the amount
of liquid fuel entering said chamber, said plunger having
a longitudinally extending bore vopening to said whirl
chamber, and means for cutting¢in and directing a gaseous
ñuid through said bore -to said whirl chamber to assist
Iatornization of the fuel therein at a predetermined low
load operation of the burner.
7. An improved liquid fuel burner comprising an air
register for receiving combustion air, a sleeve ydisposed
in said air register for dividing said combustion air into
an inner and outer air stream, a barrel extending along a
longitudinal axis of the burner, said barrel being spatially
disposed in said sleeve, means for supplying liquid fuel
to said barrel, an atomizing means connected to one end
of the barrel, said atomizing means including an atomizer
cage defining a `cylindrical whirl chamber having ‘a re
thereof through which liquid fuel from said barrel is in
stricted fuel discharge orifice, said cage having a plurality
.troduced into said whirl chamber, and a plunger slidably
of openings longitudinally spaced along the length thereof
.mounted and closely fitting within said whirl chamber
through which liquid fuel from said barrel is introduced
¿and movable therein for varying the volume of said whirl 20 into said whirl chamber, a plunger slidably mounted With
ìchamber and for valving said openings to control the
in said whirl chamber ‘and movable therein for varying
tamount of liquid fuel entering into said whirl chamber,
the volume of said whirl chamber and for valving said
-said plunger having a passage therethrough, `and means
openings to control the amount of liquid fuel entering
for introducing a gaseous fluid through said passage into
into said whirl chamben said plunger having means for
-said whirl chamber to assist atomization of lthe fuel
ldirecting a gaseous ñuid into said whirl chamber to assist
îtheiîein during pre-determined low load operation only.
atomization of the fuel therein at low loads, and means
5’. An improved liquid fuel burner comprising `an -air
for automatically sliding said plunger within said whirl
-register for receiving combustion air, said register having
chamber including a control circuit having a linear action
coaxially disposed air inlet and air outlet ends, a sleeve
drive motor operatively connected to said plunger to ef
coaxially disposed in said air register for dividing said
feet `movement thereof, means responsive to changing
combustion air into an inner and outer air stream, means
load conditio-ns of the burner for energizing said circuit
imparting a whirling movement to each of said air streams,
a barrel extending along a longitudinal `axis of the burner,
said barrel being spatially disposed in said sleeve, means
for supplying liquid fuel to said barrel, an atomizing
means connected to one end-of the barrel, said atomizing
means including an atomizer cage defining a cylindrical
whirl chamber having a restricted fuel discharge orifice,
said cage .having a plurality of openings longitudinally
spaced along the length thereof through which liquid
fuel from said barrel is introduced into said whirl cham
ber, and a plunger slidably mounted and closelyliitting
within said whirl chamber and movable therein for Vary
ing the volume of said Whirl chamber and for valving
said openings to control the amount of liquid fuel enter
ing into said whirl chamber, said plunger having a pas
sage therethrough, and means for introducing a gaseous
iiuid through. said passage into said whirl chamber to as
to actuate said drive motor, said latter means cutting
in the supply of gaseous iiuid at a predetermined low load
condition.
8. A `liquid fuel burner comprising an air register for
receiving combustion air, a sleeve disposed within said
air register for dividing said register air into an inner and
outer air stream, means for imparting a whirling move
ment to each' of said inner and outer air streams, a barrel
40 extending along a longitudinal axis of said burner, said
barrel having an end portion spatially disposed inv said
sleeve, means for supplying `liquid fuel to saidy barrel, an
atomizing means connected to the end of said barrel, said
atomizing means including an atomizer cage defining a
45 cylindrical whirl chamber having a restricted fuel dis
charge orifice, said cage having> a plurality of apertures
longitudinally spaced along the length of said cage through
which liquid fuel from said barrel is introduced in said
Whirl chamber, said apertures having theirv axes extending
substantially tangentially of «said whirl chamber Iand their
sist atomization of the fuel therein during predetermined
10W load operation only of the burner.
50
6. A liquid fuel burner comprising `an air register for
respective cross-sectional area progressively diminished as
receiving combustion air, a sleeve disposed within said
their proximity to said orifice is increased, a plunger adapt
lair register for dividing said register air into an inner and
ed to be received in said whirl chamber in a closely fitting
outer air stream, means for imparting a whirling move
relationship therewith, means yfor rendering said plunger
ment to each, of said inner and outer air streams, a barrel 55 movable in said whirl chamber for simultaneously varying
extending along a longitudinal axis of said burner, said
the volume of said chamber ‘and valving said apertures
ïbarrel having an end portion spatially disposed in said
to control the amount of liquid fuel entering said chamber,
lsleeve, an outwardly flaring impeller disposed about said
said plunger having a »longitudinally extending bore open
lbarrel within sai-d sleeve, said impeller being arranged -to
ing ’to said whirl chamber, and means »for directing a
»direct the whirling inner air stream outwardly toward the 60 gaseous fluid through said bore to said whirl chamber to
¿periphery of said sleeve, means for supplying liquid fuel
assist atomization of the fuel therein during low load
¿to said barrel, an atomizing means connected to the end
`’of said barrel, said atomizing means including an atomizer
'cage -deñning a cylindrical whirl chamber having a re
stricted fuel discharge orifice, said cage having a plurality
of apertures longitudinally spaced along the length of
said cage through which liquid fuel _from said barrel is
introduced in said whirl chamber, said apertures having
their axes extending substantially tangentially of said
operations.
9. A. liquid fuel burner comprising yan air register for
receiving combustion air, a sleeve disposed within said
air register for dividing said register air into laninner and
outer air stream, means -for imparting a whirling movement
to each of said inner and outer air streams, a barrel ex
tending along a longitudinal axis of said burner, said
barrel having an end portion spatially disposed in said
whirl chamber and their respective cross-sectional area 70 sleeve, means for supplying liquid fuel to sa-id barrel, an
progressively diminished as their proximity to said orifice
atomizing means connected to the end of said barrel, said
is increased, a 'plunger adapted to be received in said
atomizing means including an atomizer cage defining a
whirl chamber in a closely fitting relationship therewith,
cylindrical whirl chamber having a restricted fuel dis
means for rendering said plunger movable in said whirl
charge orifice, said cage having a plurality of apertures
chamber for simultaneously varying the volume ‘of Said 75 longitudinally spaced along the length of said cage through
3,091,283
which liquid fuel from said barrel is introduced into said
whirl chamber, said apertures having their axes extending
substantially tangentially of said whirl chamber and their
respective crosssectional area progressively diminished as
their proximity to said orifice is increased, a plunger adapt
ed to :be received in said Whirl chamber, means for render
ing said plunger movable in said Whirl chamber for simul
taneously varying the volume of said chamber and valving
said apertures to control the amount of liquid «fuel entering
said chamber, said plunger having ‘a longitudinally extend
10
trol circuit having a linear action drive motor operatively
connected to said plunger to effect the movement of said
plunger, means responsive to the rate of combustion for
energizing said circuit to operate said drive motor, and
means cutting in the gaseous fluid supply to said plunger
at a predetermined low load range only to assist fuel
atomization thereat.
11. .A liquid fuel `burner comprising an outer tubular
barrel, ,an inner tubular conduit disposed in space-d rela
tionship within said outer barrel to form a flow space
therebetween, means including la cap closing the outer
ing bore opening to said Whirl chamber, and means for
«end of said ilow space between said outer barrel and said
directing a gaseous fluid through said bore to said Whirl
inner conduit, »an atomizer cage defining a cylindrical
chamber to `assist atomization of the fuel therein, and
Whirl chamber having a restricted discharge orifice con
a control circuit for automatically controlling the opera
nected to lthe outer end of said outer barrel `and in com
tion of said burner, said circuit including a linear drive 15 munication with said inner conduit, said cage having a
motor and a switch means connec-ted in parallel, said
plurality of openings spaced talong the length thereof and
motor being operatively connected to said plunger, and
communicating said Whirl chamber with said `flow space,
said switch means controlling the flow of gaseous fluid to
a plunger closely fitting -Within said Whirl chamber and
said plunger, means responsive to changing load condi
forming the inner end of said whirl chamber, means for
tions of said burner to energize said circuit for actuating 20 supplying a liquid fuel -to said outer tubular barrel where
said drive motor to effect movement of said plunger ac
‘by the 1fuel is introduced into said whirl chamber through
cordingly throughout the burner load range, and said
said openings, said plunger axially movable in said whirl
latter means rendering said switch operative to -admit said
chamber to Vary the volume of said whirl chamber and
gaseous iluid to said plunger at some predeterminate low
25 to valve said openings to control the mnount of liquid
load range only.
fuel entering said whirl chamber, :and a passage through
10. An improved liquid fuel burner comprising an
said plunger, tand means for introducing a gaseous fluid
air register for receiving combustion air, a sleeve disposed
through said passage into said whirl chamber to assist
in said air register for dividing said combustion air into
atomization of the fuel therein.
an inner `and outer air stream, means for imparting a
l2. A liquid atom-ize-r comprising a whirl chamber hav
whirling movement to each of said air streams, a barrel 30 ing a restricted discharge oriñce adapted to effect me
extending along a longitudinal axis of the burner, said
chanical atom-ization of :a liquid fuel, means for supply
barrel .being spatially disposed in said sleeve, a vaneless
ing «a liquid fuel into said rwhirl chamber for discharge
impeller disposed about said barrel within said sleeve,
through said oriñce, means including a combustion con
said impeller ilaring upwardly and outwardly toward the
troller for regulating the flow of said liquid fuel to said
periphery of said sleeve, ya housing means connected to 35 atomizer, means for supplying iluid into said chamber to
one end of said barrel for supplying liquid fuel thereto,
assist latomiz-ation of said liquid fuel, a valve means for
an atomizing means connected Ito the other end of the
controlling the flow of said «assisting fluid to said Whirl
barrel, said atomizing means including an atomizer cage
chamber, and -a regulating means responsive to said com
defining -a cylindrical whirl chamber having a restricted
bustion
controller for opening said valve means to supply
40
fuel discharge orifice, said cage having a plurality of open
said
assisting
dìuid to said whirl chamber when the fuel
ings longitudinally spaced along the length thereof through
flow falls below a predetermined quantity to provide com
which liquid fuel from -said barrel is introduced into said
bination fluid-mechanical fatomization of said liquid fuel
whirl chamber, said `openings having their axes extending
for closing said valve means to stop the supply of
substantially tangentially of said whirl chamber, a plunger 45 and
said assisting iluid when the fuel ñow exceeds said pre
slidab‘l-y mounted Within said Whirl chamber and movable
therein for Varying the volume of said Whirl chamber
and for valving said openings to control the amount of
liquid fuel entering into said whirl chamber, said plunger
having »a bore opening to said whirl chamber, a hollow 50
plunger shaft connected to said plunger, said shaft extend
ing outwardly ,beyond said housing, said housing means
having a passageway connecting with said shaft for direct
ing a gaseous fluid through said shaft and connected
plunger to said Whirl chamber to assist atomization of the 55
fuel therein, spring means normally urging said shaft and
connected plunger away from said orilìce, and means for
automatically sliding said plunger against the action of
said spring to valve said Whirl chamber including a con~
determined quantity to provide mechanical atom-ization of
said liquid fuel.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
q
715,044
1,042,076
1,486,685
yFisher _______________ __ Dec. 2, 1902
Breuer ______________ __ Oct. 22, 19i12
Reinhardt ___________ __ Mar. :1‘l, 192A
1,914,355
2,233,529
2,774,629
2,838,103
Argyle et tal. _________ __ June 20,
Herr _________________ __ Mar. 4,
Noon et al. __________ __ Dec. 18,
Voorheis _____________ __ June l0,
1933
1941
1956
1958
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