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Патент USA US3091548

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United States Patent 0 ’
2
1
relatively low calorie content by combining a moist endo
sperm residue containing about 50 to 65% by weight
Water, about 22 to 30% by weight protein and about 15
to about 20% by weight starch, and a ?our containing
?ne bran and germ, said ?our being in an amount from
about 20 to 25 parts per 100 parts of moist endosperm.
3,091,538
if1.w,_.
HIGH PROTEIN WHEAT PRODUCT AND METHOD
OF PRODUCING THE SAME
Tew?c Zacharia, Beirut, Lebanon, assignor to Proto, In
ternational Hygienic Food (10., a collective company of
Wheat products of the aforementioned type possess good
uniformity, elasticity and compatibility with other ?ours.
Lebanon
No Drawing. Filed Apr. 11, 1960, Ser. No. 21,090
7 Claims. (Cl. 99-90)
This invention relates to the production of wheat prod
ucts which have good baking properties and are useful in
3,091,538
Patented May 28, 1963
In order that the wheat products of my prior Patent No.
10 2,895,831 have high protein content, it was essential that
the moist endosperm residue have a low starch content.
The moist endosperm residue had to contain sufficient
starch, however, so that the resulting product of moist
nutritive value. The invention also includes novel wheat
endosperm residue and ?our containing ?ne bran and
products produced in accordance with the aforementioned 15 germ be compatible with conventional ?ours.
method.
While the “moist endosperm” of my prior Patent No.
As is well known to the art, soya ?our, which is higher
2,895,831 (referred to therein as “endosperm residue”)
in protein content than the conventionally used flours in
may be combined with defatted soya flour in accordance
the production of baked products, has not been used to
with the present invention, I have found that the “moist
any extent as a baking ?our because of the poor baking 20 endosperm” useful in the present invention may contain
properties of a dough containing a signi?cant amount of
starch over a much wider range than required for the
soya ?our.
moist endosperm (“endosperm residue”) in the invention
Objects and advantages of the invention will be set
disclosed in my US. Patent No. 2,895,831. The reason
forth in part hereinafter and in part will be obvious here 25 for this is that the wheat product of my US. Patent No.
from, or may be learned by practice with the invention,
2,895,831 may be used generally with conventional ?ours
the same being realized and attained by means of the
of relatively high starch-low protein content, while the
steps, methods and compositions pointed out in the ap
present invention is concerned with the combination of a
pended claims.
moist endosperm and a high protein ?our which is not
The invention consists in the novel steps, methods and 30 considered to be a good baking ?our.
compositions herein described.
Accordingly, the moist endosperm useful in accordance
It is an object of this invention to provide a novel
with the present invention is endosperm which has been
method for the production of wheat products which have
treated with water wherin the amount of removed starch
good baking properties and are useful in the production
is from about 5 to about 85% by weight of the amount
35
of high protein-baked products of high nutritive value.
of starch initially present in the endosperm prior to treat
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel
ment with water.
~
method for the production of products containing defatted
The procedures and techniques for the hydrolysis of
soya ?our which have good baking properties and are
proteins in the endosperm, i.e., treatment with water re—
useful in the production of high protein wheat products 40 sulting in removal of starch from the endosperm, is de
of high nutritive value. Yet a further object of this in
scribed in detail in my US. Patent No. 2,895,831. In
the production of high protein-baked products of high
vention is to provide novel products produced in accord
columns 3 and 4 of this patent, there are disclosed the
ance with the methods of the foregoing objects.
preferred conditions with respect to pH of water, hardness
It has been found that the objects of this invention may
of water, temperature of kneading, test for starch content,
45
be realized by combining in amounts set forth in detail
etc.; all of these principles being applicable to the produc
hereinafter: [1] a moist wheat endosperm in which the
tion of the moist endosperm useful in accordance with
proteins therein have been hydrolyzed to an extent de
the present invention.
scribed in detail hereinafter; and [2] defatted soya flour.
As indicated hereinbefore, it has been found that the
The wheat endosperm used in accordance with the 50 combination of moist endosperm and defatted soya ?our
present invention is well known and is described in detail
results in a product of high protein content and good
in my prior US. Patent 2,895,831.
baking properties. The introduction of defatted soya
As indicated hereinabove, the “moist endosperm” used
flour to the resulting moist endosperm serves, moreover,
in accordance with this invention is formed by treating
to help correct the amino acid de?ciency of Wheat flour
(i.e., kneading) the endosperm with water to hydrolyze the 55 notably in lysine, which is in low proportion in Wheat,
protein. As will be evident to those skilled in the art,
and high proportion in soya ?our. Thus, the protein
the extent of hydrolysis of the protein may be based on
content of baked goods made with this product will have
the amount of starch removed from the endosperm in the
more nearly the constitution of a whole protein, with a
production of “moist endosperm” or what is referred to
consequent higher nutritive value. Alternatively, the
in my prior US. Patent 2,895,831 as “endosperm residue.” 60 process of producing the moist endosperm, which in
In my prior Patent No. 2,895,831, patented July 21,
1959, I disclosed a method of manufacture of a wheat
product of high nutritive value, stability, versatility and
volves the use of water, permits an effective method of
enhancing the lysine content to any desired degree, by
3,091,538
3
dissolving lysine hydrochloride in the desired proportion
this dough is baked there results a biscuit containing
about 40% protein‘.
in water and adding it to the moist endosperm at the con
clusion of the extracting process, thus insuring an e?ec
tive dispersion superior to that a?orded by dry mixing.
EXAMPLE 2
Another advantage claimed for this Wet procedure is
that it allows for the treatment of the endosperm in the
wet state, with proteolytic enzymes, trypsin, pepsin, pa
One kilo of endosperm is kneaded with water in ac
cordance With the procedure of Example 1 of my U.S.
Patent No. 2,895,831 to produce 500 grams moist endo
sperm. This moist endosperm is mixed with 150 grams
defatted soya flour to form a dough. When this dough
is ‘baked, there results a biscuit containing about 62%
pain‘and the like, for the purpose of further tenderizing
the enhanced protein content and promoting better bak
ing qualities.
protein.
If so desired, the wheat product of this invention may
be dried to facilitate shipment and 'later mixed with water
to form a dough in the production of baked products.
EXAMPLE 3
One kilo of endosperm is kneaded with water in ac
“vital characteristics” of the product are preserved, the 15 cordance with the procedure of Example 1 of my U.S.
Patent No. 2,895,831 to produce 1250 grams of moist
protein thereof remaining in an undegraded condition.
Any suitable drying techniques may be used whereby the
endosperm. This moist endosperm is mixed with 150
The preferred drying technique is the “spray drying”
grams defatted soya ?our to form a dough. When this
method disclosed hereinafter in detail.
The moist endosperm may be dried before or after it 20 dough is baked there results a biscuit containing about
35% protein.
is combined with the defatted soya ?our. In the process
As indicated heretofore, the preferred method for dry
of my prior Patent No. 2,895,831, it was essential that
ing the Wheat product of this invention is spray drying.
the moist endosperm be combined with a ?our contain
In prior methods for drying high protein wheat products
ing ?ne bran and germ in order that the resulting product
be compatible with other ?ours, as well as providing 25 by spray drying, it has been necessary to treat the mate
rial to be sprayed with certain agents such, for exam
minerals and vitamins. In accordance with the present
ple, as organic acids or to incorporate in the material to
invention, it has been found that moist endosperm is
be sprayed an emulsifying agent in order to obtain a
readily compatible with soya ?our without the necessity
slurry capable of being spray dried effectively. I have
of adding another ?our containing bran and germ, al
30
vfound, however, that the moist endosperm used in the
though such a ?our may be included if so desired, not
present invention may be e?ectively spray dried without
only for the purpose of increasing the mineral and vita
‘acid treatment or the addition of an emulsifying agent.
min content, but, more signi?cantly, because the addi
I have also discovered that the incorporation of defatted
tion of such ?our (?our No. 2 of my prior Patent No.
2,895,831), because of its peculiar structure, enhances 35 soya flour in‘ the moist endosperm facilitates spray dry
ing operations, the defatted soya ?our rendering the com
the structure of the resulting baked products, conferring
position emulsi?able.
upon them lightness; moreover the palatabili-ty and di
gestibility of the product is improved.
In carrying out the spray drying of the moist endosperm
or moist endosperm combined with defatted soya ?our,
The relative amounts of moist endosperm and defatted
soya vary depending upon the desired properties of the 40 the moist endosperm should not be subjected to a tem
: perature greater than about 150° F., and, preferably, not
?nal product. In order to obtain a wheat product hav
greater than about 124° F., in order that the endosperm
ing excellent baking properties, the defatted soya ?our
maintains its vitalized characteristics. As will be evident
is in an amount from about 10 to about 80 parts per
100 parts of moist endosperm on a dry Weight basis. 45 to those skilled in the ?eld, in carrying out the spray
drying of the wheat product of this invention, the product
While the amount of water in the wheat product of this
invention varies depending upon the plasticity of the 1 to be dried is dispersed in water to make a slurry. The
slurry may contain as high as 25% solids. It has been
dough desired, the water is generally in an amount from
found excellent results are obtained when the nozzle aper
about 45 to 65% by weight of the moist endosperm.
The wheat product of the present invention containing 50 ture does not exceed 1/s". Also, either nozzle atomizing
or disc atomizing is useable.
defatted soya flour and moist endosperm may be readily
In Table 1 which follows are examples of the spray
combined with conventional food components, including
drying technique used in accordance with the present
milk, etc., in the manufacture of Various food products,
invention.
such, for example, as cereals, biscuits, and the like.
An example of a idefatted soya bean ?our useful in 55
Sample A relates to the combination of the moist endo
accordance with this invention is one having the follow
sperm formed in accordance with Example 2 (no defatted
ing composition:
soya added) with ?our No. 2 of my prior Patent No.
2,895,831. The amount of ?our No. 2 is 1/5 by weight
Percent
60 of the moist endosperm. Sample A, when dried, may be
Protein‘ ___________________________________ __ 53.0
, subsequently mixed with defatted soya flour in accordance
Fat ______________________________________ __
0.8
with the present invention, the resulting product being
Fiber
2.0
mixed with an appropriate amount of water in order to
form a dough.
____________________________________ __
N-free extract _____________________________ __ 30.0
Ash ______________________________________ __
6.0
The following examples illustrate the preparation of
food products in accordance with the present invention.
EXAMPLE 1
The moist endosperm residue formed in accordance
with Example 3 of my U.S. Patent No. 2,895,831 (i.e.,
65
Sample B relates to the Wheat product of this inven
tion formed in accordance with the hereinafter disclosed
Example 2, i.e., the combination of moist endosperm and
soya flour in accordance with the present invention.
Sample C relates to the moist endosperm formed in
70 accordance with Example 2 (no defatted soya or ?our
No. 2 added). Sample C, when dried, may be subse
quently mixed with defatted soya ?our in accordance with
one kilo of endosperm is kneaded with Water to produce
the present invention, the resulting product being mixed
1,000 grams of moist endosperm) is mixed with 150
with an appropriate amount of water in order to form
grams of defatted soya ?our to form a dough. When 75 a dough.
3,091,538
Table 1
Run No ________________________ __
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sample A.—
Sample A.-—
Sample A.—
Sample B.—
Sample B.—
Sample C_—
Blender.
Blcndor.
Blendor.
Blendor.
Mixed in
Screened
through 16
Screened
through 16
Screened
through 16
Screened
through 16
Waring
Blendor.
mesh.
mesh.
FeedFeed
conditions:
make-up ______________ __ Sample A.—
Agitated in
Waring
Agitated in
Waring
Agitated in
Waring
Agitated in
Waring
mes
Simple
agitation.
Simple
agitation.
Free H2O
decanted.
mesh.
Weight percent solids ______ __
15. 0 _________ _.
15. 0 _________ __
13. 0 _________ __
13. 0 ____ __
Speci?c gravity, gin/ml.
1. 05 _________ __
1.05 ____ __
1. 05 _________ __
1.05 ____ ..
_._
21. 3.
_
1. 000.
Feed temp, ° F_____
_
Room temp-.- Rooin temp"- Room temp“. Room tern ___ Room temp
Feed rate, m1./min
_
166- 270 ______ __
Type ________________ __
_
Amount fed, rnl
143- 200___
___
110- '4
142-180.
Slurry"
____
5,000 ________ __
Operating conditions:
Inlet temp, °F _____________ __
Outlet temp, "F
Upper
cold air ports___
Lower cold air ports _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
_ _ _ __d0_
'
..
_____do.__.
. .___.do..___
Do.
Type heat_. Direct nos
Atomizer type ______________ __ Nozzle SS#5
Direct gas.____ Direct gas_-___
Nozzle SS.#5
Nozzle SS#5
Direct gas-____ Direct gas_.__~ Direct gas.
Nozzle SSirT5
Nozzle SS§5
Nozzle SS#5
Atomizer air pres, p.s.i.g_____
l‘J‘iL.
100 __________ __
W’ ori?ce.
100 __________ __
1 3” ori?ce.
V3” ori?ce.
_.
72.
61
Chamber accumulation ____ __ Heavy, con-
___
_
Ambient dry bulb, ° F__
63 ______ __
Product
conditions:
Collector
product,
gm ______ ._
Chamber product, gm
Total product, gm ____ __
_
72 ___________ __
I'Ieavy, con-
Heavy, con-
ccntrated
180 __________ ._
80.0 _________ __
Col r
__._
Light tan__ .__
Flow characteristics ________ __
Free ?owinrn _
_________________ __
in one spot
in one spot
in one spot
in one spot
onc cone.
on cone.
on cone.
on cone.
on cone.
230 __________ __
1%
Free flowing. _
No'rE.—-Ohamber washed out after run.
The invention in its broader aspects is not limited to the
speci?c steps, methods and compositions described but
eentratcd
in one spot
on cone.
23G __________ __
325 __________ __
290.
1S5.
_
385_
520 __________ _.
710.
__
79.7 _________ __
100. 0+.
66.3.
Light tan_ _ ,_
Light tan. _ .__
Light tau. _ ___
Light tan.
.
.
Heavy, con
centrated
in one spot
Free ilowi.. __
100.
75.
Heavy, 0011-
centratcd
85 ___________ -_
__
0
67 ____ __
ecntrated
95 ___________ ..
Percent Recovery (wet basis).
K,” ori?ce.
0 __________ __
83.
_
Heavy, con-
centrated
on cone.
M,” ori?ce.
_
Ambient wet bulb, ° F__
in one spot
}/3” ori?ce.
_
Free ?owing _
Free ?owing _
190.
.
Free flowing"
375.
Free ?owing.
from about 10 to 80 parts per 100 parts of the endosperm
based on a dry weight basis.
5. The method of producing a wheat product of high
departures may be made therefrom within the scope of 35 protein content and good baking properties according to
the accompanying claims without departing from the prin
ciplcs of the invention and without sacri?cing its chief
advantages.
claim 4, wherein the cndosperrn which is mixed with the
dcfatted soya ?our is in a moistened state.
‘6. The method of producing a wheat product of high
What is claimed is:
protein
content and good baking properties according to
1. A wheat product of high protein content and good 40 claim 4, wherein the endosperm which is mixed with the
baking properties when made into a dough, comprising
dcfattcd soya ?our is in a dry vitalized state.
defattcd soya ?our and wheat endosperrn in which starch
7. The method of producing a wheat product of high
has been removed therefrom in an ‘amount from about 5
protein content and good baking properties comprising
to about 85% by weight of the starch initially present
contacting wheat endospcrm with water so as to remove
in the cndosperrn by contacting said cridosperm with 45 therefrom
about 5 to about 85% by weight of starch
water, the defatted soya flour being in an amount from
about 10 to 80 parts per 160 parts of the endosperm based
initially present in the cndosperm and leave a moist endo
sp'erm, mixing said moist cndosperm with dcfattcd soya
on dry weight basis.
flour in an amount from about 10 to 80 parts per 110i)v parts
2. A wheat product of high protein content and good
of the endosperm based on a dry weight basis, and dry
baking properties when made into a dough according to 50 ing the resulting product by spray drying.
claim 1, wherein the Wheat endosperm is in a moistened
state.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
3. A wheat product of high protein. content and good
baking properties when made into a dough according to
claim 1, wherein the wheat cndospcrm is in a dry vital-izcd 55
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,797,212
2,895,831
Miley et a1. __________ __ June 25, 1957
Zacharia _____________ __ July 21, 1959
contacting wheat endosperm with Water so as to remove
499,106
Great Britain __________ __ I an. 16, 1939
therefrom from about 5 to about 85% by weight of starch 60
OTHER REFERENCES
“The Baker-s Digest,” December 1942, pp. 282-284.
state.
4. The method of producing a wheat product of high
FOREIGN PATENTS
protein content and good baking properties comprising,
initially present in the endosperm, and mixing the starch
reduced cndospcrm with dcfatted soya ?our, in an amount
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