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Патент USA US3091814

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June 4, 1963
c. GERARD ETAL
3,091,804
HYDROSTATIC PRESS FOR AN ELONGATED OBJECT
Filed May 24, 1961
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BY
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ATTORNEYS
June 4, 1963
G. GERARD ETAL
3,091,804
HYDROSTATIC PRESS FOR AN ELONGATED OBJECT
Filed May 24, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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3,091,804
Patented June 4, 1963
1
3,091,804
HYDROSTATIC PRESS FOR AN ELONGATED
OBJECT
George Gerard, Yonkers, and Jacob Brayman, Staten
Island, N.Y., assignors to Barogenics, Inc., a corpora
tion of New York
Filed May 24, 1961, Ser. No. 112,385
10 Claims. (Cl. 18-5)
2
is provided between the housing and the anvil members
to prevent the ?uid from escaping between the pressure~
multiplying structure and the housing. Preferably, the
sealing means comprises a resilient sleeve of rubber or the
like surrounding the pressure-multiplying structure and
\a?ixed at opposite ends to the housing to provide an
annular ?uid-receiving chamber.
If desired, each anvil assembly may comprise two or
more portions made of different materials to accommo—
This invention relates to hydrostatic presses of the 10
date the increasing pressure within the anvil toward the
center of the pressure-multiplying structure, and, in addi
proved‘ hydrostatic press especially adapted to apply
tion, strips of resilient supporting material may be located
extreme pressure to .an elongated object. This application
along the junctions of adjacent anvil members adjacent
is a continuation-in-part of our copending application
to the resilient sleeve to prevent the sleeve from extrud
Serial No. 45,608, ?led July 27, 1960, for “Multi-Anvil 15 ing
into the gaps between the anvils when it is under
Apparatus and Test Bodies Therefor,” and now Patent
pressure.
Positioning devices for adjusting the position
3,080,609, granted March 12, 1963.
of the anvil assemblies with respect to each other may be
As described in our above-mentioned copending applica
mounted on the adjacent surfaces of the anvil members
tion, extreme pressures can be applied to an object or
and,
in order to provide access to these devices, longitu
workpiece by surrounding the workpiece with a plurality 20 dinally
extending recesses may be made in the adjacent
of wedge-shaped pressure-multiplying anvil members
anvil surfaces.
within a pressure-resistant housing and applying conven
Further objects and advantages of the invention will
tional high pressure uniformly to the outer surfaces of all
be apparent from a reading of the following description
the anvil members. Moreover, as pointed out in the
conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
above-mentioned application, the principle of that inven 25 in FIG.
1 is a view in vertical section through a typical
tion is particularly useful in applying extreme pressures to
hydrostatic
press arranged according to the invention,
an elongated workpiece. This is because the problems
taken on line l—1 of FIG. 2; and
encountered with conventional piston and cylinder pres
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the press shown
sure apparatus, i.e., Wall friction between the workpiece
in
1, taken on the line 2—2 thereof and looking in
and the cylinder and elastic enlargement and tensile load 30 theFIG.
direction of the arrows.
ing of the cylinder in response to increased internal pres
As illustrated in the drawings, a representative embodi
sure, are effectively eliminated.
ment of the invention comprises a cylindrical shell 10 hav
‘In one embodiment of the invention described in our
ing two end portions 11 and 12 projecting inwardly
above-mentioned application, an apparatus for applying
toward the axis of the cylinder to form internal shoulders
extreme pressures to an elongated object, referred to as a 35
13 and 14, respectively. In order to facilitate assembly
“delta” apparatus, is described which comprises three
multi-anvil type and, more particularly, to a new and im
separable, angularly disposed assemblies, each including
an anvil member radially slidable in a channel of limited
width. Pressure is applied to each anvil member by a
of the apparatus, the end portion 11 is .a separate mem
ber attached to the shell 10 by threads. Both the portions
11 and 12 are formed with access openings 11' and 12',
respectively, to permit access to the interior of the shell.
plurality of pistons exposed to a supply of hydraulic ?uid 40 Within the shell 10 is a cylindrical pressure-multiplying
under pressure.
structure 15 which, as best seen in FIG. 2, consists of
Because of the limited channel width resulting from the
three wedge-shaped anvil assemblies 16, 1'7, and 18, and
con?guration of the delta apparatus, the outer areas of
surrounding the periphery of this structure is a ?exible
the anvil members to which pressure is applied is restricted
sleeve 19 made of rubber or the like, which is sealingly
to a relatively small fraction of the maximum peripheral 45 attached at opposite ends to the shoulders 13 and 14 by
area of the apparatus. Furthermore, the delta apparatus
clamp rings 20 and 21, respectively. Consequently, a
has a relatively complex structure and includes sliding
sealed annular chamber 22 is formed about the structure
piston and cylinder arrangements which necessitate accu
15 and a ?uid inlet duct 23 leading into this chamber is
rate fabrication and assembly of the components.
provided in the lower shoulder portion 12 of the outer
50
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
shell.
provide a new and improved hydrostatic press for com
pressing an elongated object which overcomes the above
mentioned disadvantages of presently known presses.
The anvil members are in the form of segments of a
cylinder divided longitudinally along radial planes and
each member has a large area outer surface 16', 17', 18'
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and
improved hydrostatic press for an elongated object which 55 in contact with the sleeve 19 and a small area inner sur
face 16", 17", 18", the latter surfaces forming an axial
has a simple and compact structure and is convenient to
ly extending cavity to receive a workpiece assembly 24.
operate.
Although the illustrated embodiment of the invention
These and other objects of the invention are accom
utilizes three anvil members to form an internal work
plished by providing an elongated pressure-multiplying
piece-receiving cavity of triangular cross-section, it will
structure having an outer surface portion and end surface 60
portions and consisting of a plurality of wedge-shaped
be understood that any number of anvil members may be
utilized and that the workpiece-receiving cavity may have
any desired shape in accordance with the cross-sectional
shape ‘of the intended workpiece, provided the multiplica—
anvil members. Each anvil member has an outer surface
forming a part of the outer surface portion, end surfaces
each forming a part of one of the end surface portions,
and an inner surface forming, in conjunction with the 65 tion factor (ratio of effective outer surface area to effec
tive inner surface area) is the same for all the anvil
inner surfaces of the other anvil members, an elongated
members. For example, the internal cavity may have a
object-receiving cavity. In order to supply conventional
square, hexahedral or octahedral cross-section, requiring
high pressure uniformly to the outer surfaces of the wedge
four,
or eight anvil members, respectively, or it may
shaped anvil members, the outer surface portion of ‘the 70 be a six,
polygon with sides of unequal length and corre
pressure-multiplying structure is surrounded by a housing
sponding anvils of unequal size may be provided. In
arranged to receive ?uid under pressure and sealing means
addition, the inner surfaces forming the cavity need not
4
anvil members apart when no pressure is applied to the
chamber 22, but can readily be overcome by the appli
cation of pressure to the outer surfaces of the three anvil
assemblies.
be planar but instead some or all of them may be curvi
linear so that a workpiece having an irregular cross-sec
tional shape can be compressed. In addition, there may
be variations in the cross-sectional size of the cavity
throughout its length to accommodate an elongated
The workpiece assembly 24 which, before compression,
holds the anvil assemblies apart so as to produce small
gaps 39 between the anvils, consists of an object to be
workpiece having a longitudinal irregular shape.
Inasmuch as the pressure near the inner surfaces of
compressed embedded in a material which is normally
rigid but becomes viscous under high pressures. By rea
son of this property pressure is transmitted from the
the anvil members is substantially greater than that near
the outer surfaces, each anvil member may comprise a
plurality of rigidly joined anvil portions made of differ
anvils uniformly throughout the workpiece and the work
ent materials, the inner portion being harder than the
piece containing material is extruded slightly into the
outer portions. For example, the anvil 16 consists of an
gaps 39 so that it forms a seal and prevents further ex
outer portion 16a, a central portion .161), and an inner
trusion of the material into the gaps. Preferably, the
portion ‘160, the portion 16c being made of tungsten
workpiece containing material is aluminum silicate or a
carbide orthe like. At the junction between the periph 15 pyrophyllite such as Tennessee Grade A Lava which pro
ery of the pressure-multiplying structure and the inter
vides the necessary electrical and heat insulation charac
face between each adjacent pair of anvil members a tri
teristics. 'In addition, the workpiece assembly 24 may in
angular strip 25 of resilient supporting material, such as
clude the usual electrical heating elements (not shown),
rubber, is inserted in a mating groove formed by bevel
which are described in detail in our above-identi?ed co
liug the two members so as to prevent the sleeve 19 from
pending application, to raise the temperature of ‘the work
being forced into the gap between the anvils when pres
piece to a desired value while pressure is applied.
sure is applied to the chamber 22.
In operation, a workpiece assembly 24 is inserted in
As pointed out inour above-mentioned copending ap
the apparatus by removing the end blocks 26 and 27 to
plication, when the length of an elongated workpiece is
expose the internal cavity and applying hydraulic or
more than a few times its maximum thickness and pres 25 pneumatic pressure to the lines 38 to spread the anvil
sure is to be applied only in directions substantially per
members apart. After the workpiece assembly has been
pendicular to the longitudinal axis of the workpiece, it is
placed in the cavity the pressure in the line 38 is released,
not necessary to support the workpiece in the axial direc
permitting the anvils to engage the sides of the work
tion with the same pressure that is applied to its sides.
piece assembly in the manner shown in FIG. 2, leaving
Accordingly, in the apparatus of the present invention, as
gaps 39 between the adjacent anvil surfaces because of
shown in FIG. 1, two end blocks 26 and 27 are posi
the oversize of the workpiece assembly. The end blocks
tioned at opposite ends of the pressure-multiplying struc
26 and 27 are then replaced and conventional high pres
ture 15, and are removably joined together by three tie
sure is applied to the chamber 22 by passing a ?uid such
‘rods 28 extending longitudinal through corresponding
holes 29 in each of the anvil members 16, 17, and 18.
35 as oil or water through the conduit 23‘, the workpiece
being heated to an elevated temperature, if desired. This
pressure, acting through the sleeve 19, drives the anvil
pressure to contain the workpiece assembly 24 and the
members inwardly to compress the workpiece, applying
blocks do not press against the end surfaces of the pres
a pressure thereto which is equal to the pressure in the
sure-multiplying structure with su?icient force to prevent 40 chamber 22 multiplied by the ratio of the outer surface
relative movement of the anvil members in the radial
areas of the anvil members 16, 17, and 18 to their inner
direction, the holes 29 being larger than the diameter of
surface areas. After compression, the end blocks are
the rods 28 so as to permit such relative motion. Alter
removed and the anvils are spread apart by operation of
natively, if desired, the end blocks 26 and 27 may be con
the devices 30 so that the workpiece assembly can be
nected to the end portions .11 and 12, respectively, of the
4.5 withdrawn from the cavity.
shell 10.
It will be readily apparent from the foregoing that the
Before pressure is applied, the workpiece assembly 24
present invention provides a press for applying extreme
is larger than the cavity formed by the surfaces 16", 17",
pressures to elongated objects which is simple and com
and .18" by an amount commensurate with the intended
pact in structure while at the same time being convenient
degree of compression of the workpiece and with the
in operation and overcoming the shortcomings of con
50
amount needed to provide material for the sealing gas
ventional high pressure apparatus.
vents. Consequently, in order to insert the workpiece as
Although the invention has been described herein with
sembly in the cavity, the anvil members must be forced
reference to a speci?c embodiment, many modi?cations
apart against the friction of their contact with the ends
and variations therein will readily occur to those skilled
of the shell 10 and the resilience of the ?exible sleeve 19.
in the art. Accordingly, all such variations and modi?ca
55
To accomplish this, a plurality of anvil adjusting devices
tions are included within the intended scope of the inven
30 is provided between each pair of anvils along their
tion as de?ned by the following claims.
adjacent surfaces and, to permit access to these from the
We claim:
ends of the apparatus, the adjacent surfaces are recessed
1. Apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an elon
to form an elongated cavity 34.
gated object comprising a housing, a plurality of wedge
60
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention, as best
shaped pressure-multiplying anvil members within the
seen in FIG. 2, each adjusting device 30 comprises a cyl
housing forming an elongated pressure-multiplying struc
inder<32 having a pair of opposed pistons 33‘ and 34 con
ture having an outer surface portion and two end surface
nected through piston rods 35 and 36 to the adjacent
portions, each anvil member having a large area outer
anvil members respectively, a recess 37 being cut into
surface forming a part of the outer surface portion of the
each anvil surface to receive the cylinder. Preferably,
structure, two end surfaces each forming a part of the
end surface portions of the structure, and a small area
the piston rods "35 and '36 are pivotally attached to the
inner surface forming, in conjunction with the corre
anvil members to permit some freedom of angular mo
sponding inner surfaces of the other anvil members, an
tion of the anvils with respect to each other. The pistons
are actuated to force the anvils apart by applying pneu 70 elongated central object receiving cavity, resilient pres
sure-transmitting means surrounding the outer surface
‘rnatic or hydraulic pressure through a line 38 which leads
portion
of the pressure multiplying structure, means form
to the portion of the cylinder 32 between the two pis
ing a seal between the resilient pressure-transmitting
tons; 'If desired, the piston and cylinder arrangements
These rods hold the end blocks together with only enough
may be replaced by compression springs and appropriate
means and the housing to form an annular pressure-tight
mechanical linkages which are capable of forcing the 75 chamber surrounding the pressure-multiplying structure,
5
3,091,804
means for introducing ?uid under high pressure into thev
annular chamber, and a strip of resilient material located
at the junction of the outer surfaces of each pair of ad
jacent anvil members to prevent extrusion of the pres
sure-transmitting means between the anvil members.
2. Apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an elon
gated object comprising a housing, a plurality of wedge
shaped pressure-multiplying anvil members within the
housing forming an elongated pressure-multiplying struc
6
portion of the pressure multiplying structure, means form
ing a seal between the resilient pressure-transmitting
means and the housing to form an annular pressure-tight
chamber surrounding the pressure-multiplying structure,
means for introducing ?uid under high pressure into the
annular chamber, and wherein the resilient pressure
transmitting means comprises a sleeve surrounding the
pressure-multiplying structure and the means forming a
seal comprises clamping means for clamping the sleeve at
ture having an outer surface portion and two end surface 10 opposite ends to the housing. '
portions, each anvil member having a large area outer
7. In apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an
surface forming a part of the outer surface portion of the
object,
a plurality of wedge-shaped pressure-multiplying
structure, two end surfaces each forming a part of the
anvil members each having a small area inner surface,
end surface portions of the structure, and a small area
inner surface forming, in conjunction with the corre 15 a large area outer surface, and a side surface adjacent to
the side surface of an adjacent anvil member, forming a
sponding inner surfaces of the other anvil members, an
pressure-multiplying structure to transmit pressure applied
elongated central object receiving cavity, resilient pres
to the outer surfaces of the members to an object located
sure-transmitting means surrounding the outer surface
within the region bounded by the inner surfaces, and
portion of the pressure multiplying structure, means form~
ing a seal between the resilient pressure-transmitting 20 anvil positioning means connecting each pair of adjacent
anvil members along their adjacent surfaces effective to
means and the housing to form an annular pressure-tight
urge the anvil members apart.
chamber surrounding the pressure-multiplying structure,
8. In apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an
means for introducing ?uid under high pressure into the
elongated object, a plurality of relatively movable wedge
annular chamber, means disposed at opposite ends of the
central cavity for con?ning an object within the 25 shaped pressure-multiplying anvil members forming an
elongated pressure-multiplying structure having an outer,
cavity, and means for con?ning an object within
surface portion and two end surface portions and a cen—
the cavity comprises a pair of blocking members abut
tral object-receiving cavity extending therethrough, and
ting the opposite end surface portions of the structure
means for con?ning the object within the cavity compris
respectively, and means extending through the anvil mem
bers joining the pair of blocking members.
3. Apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an elon
gated object comprising a housing, a plurality of wedge
shaped pressure-multiplying anvil members within the
housing forming an elongated pressure-multiplying struc
ing a pair of blocking members abutting the opposite end
30 surface of the structure and means extending through the
anvil members and joining the blocking members.
‘9. In apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an
object, a plurality of wedge-shaped pressure-multiplying
ture having an outer surface portion and two end surface. 35 anvil members each having a small area inner surface, a
large area outer surface, and a side surface adjacent to
portions, each anvil member having a large area outer
surface forming a part of the outer surface portion of the
the side surface of an adjacent anvil member, forming a
structure, two end surfaces each forming a part of the
pressure-multiplying structure to transmit pressure applied
end surface portions of the structure, and a small area
to the outer surfaces of the members to an object located
inner surface forming, in conjunction with the corre 40 within the region bounded ‘by the inner surfaces, resilient
sponding inner surfaces of the other anvil members, an
pressure-transmitting means surrounding the structure to
elongated central object receiving cavity, resilient pres
apply pressure to the outer surfaces of the members and
sure-transmitting means surrounding the outer surface
supporting means disposed along the junctions of the
portion of the pressure multiplying structure, means form
outer surfaces of the anvil members adjacent to the re
ing a seal between the resilient pressure-transmitting 45 silient pressure-transmitting means to prevent the pres
means and the housing to form an annular pressure-tight
silre-transmitting means from being forced between the
chamber surrounding the pressure-multiplying structure,
anvil members.
means for introducing ?uid under high pressure into the
10. Apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an
annular chamber, and anvil positioning means connect
ing each pair of adjacent anvil members along their ad
elongated object comprising a tubular housing having in
wardly projecting shoulder portions at each end, a plu
rality of wedge-shaped pressure-multiplying anvil mem
bers within the housing ‘forming an elongated generally
cylindrical pressure-multiplying structure having an outer
including a pair of members each connected to one of the 55 surface portion adjacent to the inner wall of the housing
and two end surface portions adjacent to the inwardly
adjacent anvil members and means for supplying ?uid
pressure to the piston and cylinder means to urge the anvil
projecting shoulder portions, each anvil member having
members apart.
a large area outer surface forming a part of the outer
5. Apparatus according to claim 3 including recess
surface portion of the pressure-multiplying structure, two
means in the adjacent surfaces of each adjacent pair of 60 end surfaces each forming a part of the end surface por
anvil members forming an elongated cavity to provide
tions of the structure, and a small area inner surface
access to the positioning means.
forming, in conjunction with the corresponding inner sur
6. Apparatus for applying extreme pressure to an elon
faces of the other anvil members, an elongated central
gated object comprising a housing, a plurality of ‘wedge
object-receiving cavity, a pair of ‘block members abutting
shaped pressure-multiplying anvil members within the
the opposite end surface portions of the structure to con
housing forming an elongated pressure-multiplying struc
?ne
an object within the cavity, means extending through
ture having an outer surface portion and two end surface
the anvil members joining the blocking members, a sleeve
portions, each anvil member having a large area outer.
of resilient pressure-transmitting material surrounding the
surface forming a part of the outer surface portion of the
structure, two end surfaces each forming a part of the. 70 outer surface portion of the structure, clamping means
for a?ixing the ends of the sleeve to the housing shoulder
end surface portions of the structure, and a small area
portions to form an annular pressure-tight chamber sur
inner surface forming, in conjunction with the corre
rounding the structure, and means for introducing ?uid
sponding inner surfaces of the other anvil members, an
under high pressure into the chamber.
elongated central object receiving cavity, resilient pres
sure-transmitting means surrounding the outer surface 75
(References on following page)
jacent surfaces effective to urge the anvil members apart
to enlarge the central cavity.
4. Apparatus according to claim 3 wherein the anvil
positioning means comprises piston and cylinder means
3,091,804
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1 ,226,470
1,415,755
1,746,696
’ 2,031,418
Coolidge _____________ __ May 15, 1917
Wright _______________ __ May 9, 1922 5
Dows _______________ __ Feb. 11, 1930
Kraft _______________ __ Feb. 18, 1936
2,170,188
2,253,003
2,315,634
2,730,783
2,966,713
3,044,113
8
Cobi _______________ __ Aug. 22,
Whipple _____________ _.. Aug. 19,
McCall _______________ __ Apr. 6,
Kennison _____________ __ Jan. 17,
Billner _______________ .._ Jan. 3,
‘Gerard et al. _________ __ July 17,
1939
1941
1943
1956
1961
1962
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