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Патент USA US3091874

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June 4, 1963
G. E. FORCE
3,091,864
DRAFTING INSTRUMENT
Filed May 25, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
38
I
‘,2- 24
INVENTOR.
GERALD E. FORCE
__M_
j
I40
A“)
BY
9"»!
ATTORNEYS
June 4, 1963
G. E. FORCE
3,091,864
DRAFTING INSTRUMENT
Filed May 25, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIGS
14/
FIGB
50
lF vil
66
Fl as
BY
INVENTOR.
GERALD E.FORCE
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent 0
1
1
3,091,864
DRAFTING INSTRUMENT
Gerald E. Force, 1458 Columbia Road NW.,
Washington, D.C.
Filed May 25, 1960, Ser. No. 31,662
6 Claims. (CI. 33-76)
d?di??i
Patented June 4, 1953
2
A still further object of the invention is to provide an
improved drafting instrument of the indicated character
in which the vertical liner is removable from the straight
edge for cleaning purposes.
The novel features that are considered characteristic
of ‘the invention are set forth with particularity in the
appended claims. The invention itself, both as to its or
This invention relates to a drafting instrument and
ganization and its method of operation, together with ad
more particularly to a rollable straight edge for hori
ditional objects and advantages thereof, will best be un
zontal lining within which is enclosed a second straight
edge pivotable to an extended perpendicular position and 10 derstood from the following description of a speci?c em
bodiment when read in connection with the accompany
rollable along the ?rst straight edge for vertical lining.
ing drawings, wherein like reference characters indicate
Prior art structures which contemplate means for ef
like parts throughout the several ?gures and in which:
fecting horizontal lining as well as vertical lining are
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a drafting instrument,
characterized by the fact that such devices have heretofor
been cumbersome and of such construction as to make it 15 in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the in
vention, shown a?ixed to a drafting table with the verti
di?icult to manipulate the device. For example, the
cal liner in extended work position;
vertical {liner is not easily' so constructed and arranged
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the instrument with parts
as to permit its movement to an out—of-.the-way position
broken away to reveal details of construction of the
when it is not used. For this reason, it has heretofor
wheeled carriages which support the horizontal and ver
been considered impractical to provide means by which
tical straight edges;
vertical lining may be readily achieved since the dis—
FIG. 3 is a side elevational View partially in section of
advantages attendant upon the addition of such means
the wheeled carriages which support the horizontal and
vertical liners;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary elevation partly in section
vention to provide a straight edge combined with a ver 25
showing the hinge construction of the horizontal straight‘
tical liner both of which are easily movable ‘on wheels
edge when the straight edge is applied to unduly thick i1
which roll along ?xed tracks.
lustration board;
Another object of the invention is ‘to provide an im
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view of the instrument
proved drafting instrument of the indicated character in
which the wheels and track construction are ?at and thin 30 showing the vertical liner positioned within the horizon
tal straight edge and with parts broken away to reveal
and occupy little space being hardly thicker than a con
will usually outweigh the advantages thereof.
Accordingly, it is a primary ‘object of the present in
ventional straight edge.
It is a further object of the invention to provide an
improved drafting instrument of the indicated character
the construction and arrangement of the vertical liner car
riage elements;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary exploded View showing the
in which means are provided for locking the vertical liner 35 vertical liner and its supporting carriage structure;
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary perspective view showing de—
in both its covered nonusable and extended usable posi
tions, the latching means in the latter instance holding
the liner perpendicular to the straight edge during rolling
tails of the latching elements;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary side elevational view showing
movements of the liner to facilitate the drawing of paral 4:0 the ?xed support for the horizontal straight edge with
parts broken away to reveal details of construction of
lel vertical lines anywhere across the face of illustration
the straight edge carriage, and
board on the drafting table.
FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken along the line 9-9
Still another object of the invention is to provide an
of FIG. 8.
improved drafting instrument of the indicated character
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, there
which is ‘readily usable to draw horizontal and vertical 45
is shown in FIG. 1 a drafting instrument ‘according to
lines on illustration board placed on any part of a draft
ing table.
the invention a?ixed to a drafting table 10. The instru
ment comprises a straight edge generally indicated at 12'
A still further ‘object of the invention is to provide, in
which is rollably secured to a ?xed T portion bearing
an instrument of the described character, a straight edge
for ruling vertical lines which is shiftable out of the way 50 the general reference numeral 14, and a second straight
edge 16 which is rollably secured to the ?rst straight
when not required and lockable in a covered position.
edge. As will be described hereinafter, the ruler 16 is
Yet another object of the invention is to provide an
also pivoted to straight edge 12 so that it may be turned
improved drafting instrument of the indicated character
from an enclosed nonuse position, shown in FIG. 5, to
in which is incorporated means for elevating the horizon
a work position perpendicular to the straight edge 12, as
tal straight edge above the drafting table to accommodate
shown in FIG. 1.
very thick illustration board, such means including a pin
The straight edge 12, as well as other parts of the in
rality of hinges which also permit the swinging of the
strument, may be fabricated of metal, plastic or other
horizontal straight edge, together with the vertical straight
suitable material. For purposes of economical construc
edge enclosed therein, to a position away from the illus—
tion, it is desirable to utilize a flat rectangular strip of
ttration board so that parts of the drafting work may be
thin metal in one half of which are punched out or
accomplished manually without the use of the instrument.
stamped a longitudinal slot 18 and two parallel slots 20
Another object of the invention is to provide an im
and 22. The inner edge of each slot 2i} and 2.2 is pressed
proved drafting instrument of the described character in
inwardly to form an angular or semicircular ?ange or rail
which the horizontal straight edge and its mounting plate
are formed of thin strip material cut out and folded to 65 24, as shown best in FIG. 6. The rectangular stamping
12 is then folded approximately about its center line to
yield inexpensive but strong constructions which provide
provide closely spaced parallel upper and lower sides 26
rail support to wheeled carriage assemblies for rolling
and 28, the slots 18, 2d and 22 falling in the upper side
movement of the straight edges.
26. The folded stamping 12 presents an edge 30 for
Still another object of the invention is to provide an
improved drafting instrument of the described character 70 ruling horizontal lines which preferably, although not
necessarily, protrudes slightly beyond the upper side 2-6.
The lower side 28 of the folded member 12 is attached
wheeled carriage mechanisms for both straight edges.
in which the folded construction covers and protects the
at one end to the horizontal ?ange 32 of a vertically ex
3,091,864
3
tending support 34. A hinge preferably having a plu
rality of parallel hinge axes such as 36, 37 and 38 may
be used to attach the straight edge 12 to its vertical sup
port 34.
Q
I
The ?xed T portion 14‘ of the drafting instrument is,
like the straight edge 12, also preferably formed as a
metal stamping with some di?erences in construction.
Member 14 comprises a horizontally extending cover por
tion 40 and a vertically extending side 42 having end
?anges 44 which are ?xedly secured to an edge of the draft
ing table 113 by means ‘of screws 46 or other suitable
4
the rails, each wheel 81} and 1% is peripherally grooved
as indicated at 1114 to seat- the edges of the rails.
Before completing assembly of the wheeled carriage
68 to the straight edge 12', a spacer washer 166 is
dropped about stud SS and a spacer disc 108 is placed
over the stud end. The underside of disc 108 is placed
integral diametric rib 1113 which ?ts into slot 60 of the
stud for turning the latter. An integral stub shaft 112
projects upwardly from disc 1198 and rides in slot 18 of
the upper face 26 of the straight edge. When the wheeled
carriage 68 and its described auxiliary parts have been
assembled to the liner 16 with the wheels 160 urged into
engagement with the rails 24, a manipulating knob 114 is
slotted at 48. The lower edge of side 42 is bent inwardly
assembled on stub shaft 112 outside the upper straight
to provide a lower rail 5-0. A second and upper rail 56
edge face 26 and keyed thereto by means of a key 116.
is formed by the inbent edge of a slot 52 formed in the 15
The vertical support 34 is provided with wheels for
fasteners. The side 42 is centrally and longitudinally
corner juncture of sides 40 and 42. The rails 59 corre
spond in function to rails 24 of the straight edge 12, as
does slot 48 to slot 18 and slot 52 to slot 22 as will more
clearly appear hereinafter.
The vertical straight edge or liner 16 is preferably
marked with the indicia 54 of a length measurement scale.
For pivotally and reliably securing the liner 16 to the
straight edge 12, there is provided at the inner end of
the liner an enlarged ?at portion 56 to the center of which
is affixed, in any suitable way, a cylindrical pivot stud 58
having a diametrical slot 6% in its upper edge, see FIG. 6.
The slot 611 desirably aligns with slot 13 in the cover por
cooperation with the rails 50 to act as a carriage for the
horizontal straight edge 12 in a fashion quite similar
to the arrangement of carriage 68 but simpli?ed because
of the omission of parts required to pivot liner 16 between
its two positions. Referring more particularly to FIGS.
8 and 9, it will be apparent that the rectangular vertical
support plate 34 is provided with a central stud 120 whose
threaded outer end passes through and rides in slot 48
of the ?xed T portion 14. A pair of diametrically op
posed wheels 122 are rotatably af?xed to the plate 34
to rotate in a plane parallel thereto and in a manner sim
ilar to that previously described for wheels 80. Another
tion of straight edge 12 when the liner 16 is assembled
pair of wheels 124 are likewise carried at the ends of an
at right angle thereto. A' pair of latching detents 62 and
arm 126, similar to strip 96, and pivoted with respect to
30
64, spaced apart at a predetermined angular distance, are
the stud 120. The plate 34 has an inturned abutment
pressed upwardly from portion 56 at the ends of an arcu
?ange 127 and arm 126 has another abutment 128.
ate slot 66.
A coil spring 130, similar to spring 90, has its distended
Upon the end portion 56 of liner 16 is assembled a
ends squeezed between the abutments 127 and 128 and
wheeled carriage or truck generally referenced 68. The
surrounds the stud 120 to turn the arm 126 clockwise as
carriage comprises a rectangular ?at plate 70 having a 35 viewed in FIG. 8. This presses the wheels 124 into en
central opening 72 which pivotally receives the liner stud
gagement with the rails 51) whose edges ride in peripheral
58. Surrounding the opening 72 is a semicircular slot 74
grooves 132 formed in each of the wheels 122 and 124.
which slidingly receives the latching detents 62 and 64 of
During assembly of the wheels 122, 124, arm 126 and
the liner 16. At each end of the slot 74 is formed a stop
associated parts to the rails 50, a spacer collar 134 is
tongue 76 pressed upwardly and then inwardly to form 40 utilized to surround the stud 120. A Belleville washer
a latch ?ange 78 substantially parallel to the plate 70.
136 is dropped over stud 120 between collar 134 and
The tongues 76 limit the pivotal movement of liner 16
plate 42. When a nut 138 is screwed on stud 120 out
to 90 degrees upon engagement with the detents 62 and
side of plate 42, the conical spring washer 136 is squeezed
64 which are arranged 90 degrees apart. When the liner
to lock the vertical plate 34 and its assembled wheels and
16 is rotated to either its covered or exposed, work posi
associated elements in a fixed position.
tion, the tongue ?anges 78 resiliently and frictionally en
To utilize the described instrument, it will be ‘apparent
gage the upper surface of detent 64 or 62, respectively,
that the draftsman need only turn knob 138 slightly to
as clearly shown in FIG. 7, and hold the liner in such
' lessen the pressure on the Belleville washer 136 and tree
position until suflicient force is manually applied to over
the straight edge 12 for rolling movement supported by
50 the vertical plate 34 and its wheels 122 and 124 on the
come the latch friction and rotate the liner.
A pair of wheels 3% are rotatably secured to diagonally
rails 50. Thus freed, the straight edge may be easily
opposite corners of plate 70 with the plane of the wheels
shifted along the ?xed support 14 within the limits per
parallel to that of the plate. One means for such secure
mitted by ‘slot 4-8. Thus the edge 30‘ of member 12
ment is to weld, solder or otherwise af?x a spacer disc
may be used for horizontal lining anywhere on the illus
82 flat against plate 70. The disc 82 beats a stub axle 55 rt-ration board mounted on the drafting table 10. When
84 on which rotates the wheel 8i) secured thereto by a
the draftsrnan desires to fix the location of ‘the straight
cotter pin, not shown, or by other suitable means. The
edge 12, it is merely necessary to tighten knob 138.
plate 70 is also notched at one edge to provide upturned
To utilize the vertical liner 16, the d-raftsman merely
abutrnents 86 and 88. Surrounding the pivot stud '58 is
turns
knob 114 with su?icient pressure to over-come the
a wire coil spring 9%) which rests on'plate 7t} and has dis 60
resilient latching ‘friction of the detent tongue 78 to dis
tendiug ends 92 and 94.
engage the latch 64 and rotate the released liner 16 from
' Seated on spring 96 is a ?at strip 96 centrally aper
its enclose-d position of FIG. 5 to its extended Work po
tured at 93 to receive the stud 58 and having a pair of
sition of FIGS. 1 and 2. By pushing knob 114 along
wheels 1% rotatably secured to the ends thereof with the
18, the vertical liner may be shifted to any desired
plane of the wheels parallel to the plane of the strip 65 slot
position along the straight edge 12. The straight edge
96. The strip 96 is formed with a notch, one edge of
12 is maintained perpendicular to the support 14 and
which is downturned at 162. The distended ends 92,
the edge of the drafting table to which it is ‘af?xed
94 of the spring are squeezed between abutments 38 and
throughout all movements of the straight edge ‘by reason
1432, as best seen in FIG. 5, when the strip 26 and plate
71) are assembled to form the wheeled carriage 68. The 70 of the ?xed relation of wheels 122 to plate 34 and the
spring pressure of wheels 124 against rails 56. Similarly,
spring 90 therefore urges the strip 96 to turn in a clock
the carriage 63, ‘during its movements, is maintained in
wise direction until stopped by engagement of the notch
the same relative position to rails 24. Since the vertical
abutment 86 with the strip. Thus the wheels 1111? are
liner 16 is pivotable between two ?xed positions, one
urged against and resiliently held in engagement with the
parallel
to the longitudinal center of the carriage plate
75
rails 24. To secure the wheels and carriage 68 between
3,091,864
7 t1 and the other perpendicular thereto, as determined by
the arrangement of the latching tongues 78 and their
stop walls 76, the liner 16 when in its work position
will always be perpendicular to the straight edge 12.
During use of the described instrument, the horizontal
?ange 40 acts as a cover and prevents entrance of any
substantial amount of dirt, dust, erasings and the like
into the ?xed portion 14 that would tend to prevent
free rolling of the straight edge carriage along rails 50.
6
means for securing said straight edge to said carriage on
the mounting plate for movement along the mounting
plate rails, a vertical liner having one end positioned
between the parallel walls of said straight edge, a pivot
stud at said end of the vertical liner and a pair of de
tents spaced 90° apart in an are about said pivot stud,
a second ?at plate carriage having a central opening
receiving said pivot stud and positioned within the straight
While it is possible for such materials to enter into the 10 edge between the parallel sides thereof, said second car
riage having a semicircular slot ending in bent terminal
straight edge through the opening between the folded
sides 26, 28 and through slots 18, 20 and 22, the carriage
68 and attached liner 16 may be easily removed for
cleaning by sliding out through the end of the straight
edge 12 if the slot 18 is extended to the edge.
The triple hinge construction of the straight edge
enables the latter to lie ?at even on very thick illustra
tion board as clearly shown in FIG. 4. Also the plu
?anges for wedging engagement with said pair of de
tents, disc wheels at the corners of said second carriage
having peripheral grooves, one of said parallel walls
of the straight edge having a pair of longitudinal paral
15 lel rails formed by ?anges and bent inwardly to extend
into the space between the walls of ‘the straight edge,
said peripheral grooves of the Wheels of the second car
riage engaging the straight edge rails, and means for se
rality of hinges enables the straight edge to be swung
180° to extend away from the illustration board to allow 20 curing said pivot stud of the vertical liner assembled
in rotational engagement with said second carriage where
free access for manual drawing ‘operations. The ?at
by
said liner is movable from a covered position seated
folded construction and use of ?at carriages with wheels
between the Walls of and within said straight edge to an
lying parallel thereto is economical to make as well as
extended work position perpendicular thereto, the move
economical of space.
ments
between said positions being limited by engage
Although a certain speci?c embodiment of the inven 25
ment of said detents on the liner with said terminal
tion has been shown and described, it is obvious that many
?anges on the second carriage.
modi?cations thereof are possible. The invention, there
3. A drafting instrument according to claim 2, wherein
fore, is not to be restricted except insofar as is neces
said
means for securing the straight edge to said mounting
sitated by the prior art and by the spirit of the appended
plate includes a plurality of freely movable hinges in
claims.
30 spaced parallel relation whereby said straight edge will
What is claimed is:
lie ?at and parallel to the drafting table upon unusually
1. A drafting instrument comprising a mounting plate
thick illustration boards and said straight edge may be
for ?xed securement to an edge of a drafting table, said
turned upon said hinges to lie in a direction away from
mounting plate having a pair of longitudinal inwardly
board on the table when not required.
bent ?anges forming parallel rails, a carriage having 35 the4.illustration
A
drafting
instrument according to claim 2, wherein
wheels at its corners engaging said rails, a straight edge
perpendicular to the rails of said mounting plate, said
straight edge being formed of a ?at sheet folded to pro
at least one of said wheels on each of said ?rst and second
carriages is resiliently urged into contact with the as
sociated rail.
vide closely spaced parallel walls open at one side, means
5. A drafting instrument according to claim 2, wherein
for securing said straight edge to said carriage on the 40
said second carriage includes a raised abutment, a pair of
mounting plate for movement along the mounting plate
said wheels vfor said second carriage being rotatably sup
rails, a vertical liner having one end positioned between
ported at the ends of a pivotable member having a central
the parallel Walls of said straight edge, a pivot stud at
recess enclosing said pivot stud, said member being
said end of the vertical liner and a pair of detents spaced
diagonally
disposed with respect to said carriage and hav
90° apart in an arc about said pivot stud, a second car 45 ing a detent formed at one edge, a coil spring surrounding
triage having a central opening receiving said pivot stud
said pivot stud and having straight end portions, one
and positioned within the straight edge between the paral
of said end portions engaging the said carriage abutment
lel sides thereof, said second carriage having a semicircular
and the other end portion engaging said detent on the
slot ending in vbent terminal ?anges for wedging engage
diagonal member whereby to turn the diagonal member
ment with said pair of detents, wheels at the corners of said 50 and resiliently press the wheels carried thereby against
second carriage, one of said parallel walls of the straight
their associated rails.
edge having a pair of longitudinal parallel rails formed
6. A drafting instrument according to claim 2, wherein
by ?anges and bent inwardly to extend into the space
one of said walls of the straight edge is additiona-llly pro
between the walls of the straight edge, said wheels of
with a central longitudinal slot, said pivot stud on
the second carriage engaging the straight edge rails, and 55 vided
the vertical liner being formed with a slot in the face of
means ‘for securing said pivot stud of the vertical liner
its free end, a disc positioned under said slotted Wall of
assembled in rotational engagement with said second
the straight edge and having a pin at one side extending
carriage whereby said liner is movable from a covered
through the wall slot and an oppositely directed rib at
position seated between the walls of and within said
the other side, said rib being seated in the slot of said
straight edge to an extended work position perpendicular 60 pivot stud, and a manually movable knob secured to said
thereto, the movements between said positions being lim
pin outside of said straight edge for manipulating the ver
ited by engagement of said detents on the liner with said
tical liner.
terminal ?anges on the second carriage.
2. A drafting instrument comprising a mounting plate
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
for ?xed securement to an edge of a drafting table,
said mounting plate having a pair of longitudinal in
UNITED STATES PATENTS
wardly bent ?anges forming parallel rails, a ?at plate
858,913
Sauer ________________ __ July 2, 1907
carriage having disc wheels at its corners parallel to
2,102,636
McDonald ___________ __ Dec. 21, 1937
the plane of the carriage and each wheel having a pe
2,918,726
Kalbunde ____________ __ Dec. 29, 1959
ripheral groove engaged in one of said rails, a straight 70
edge perpendicular to the rails of said mounting plate,
said straight edge being formed of a ?at sheet folded to
provide closely spaced parallel walls open at one side,
2,954,609
Goertz ______________ __ Oct. 4, 1960
1,169,465
France ______________ __ Sept. 8, 1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
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