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Патент USA US3091937

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June 4, 1963
Lv. w. BEAvl-:N
3,091,927
CYCLING SHAFT ASSEMBLY FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed NOV. 7. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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6.n
/417
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June 4, 1963
1_. w. BEAvl-:N
3,091,927
CYCLING SHAFT ASSEMBLY Foa ENTEENAL coNBusTïoN ENGINES
Filed Nov. fr. 19Go
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
„
United States Patent O " ICC
3,091,927
Patented June 4, 1963
2
contra-spinwise. rIhis section .excludes the breaker box
to show Ithe exhaust valve rotor, the section cutting the
3,091,927
CYCLING SHAFT ASSEMBLY FOR INTERNAL
COUSTIGN ENG
shaft.
-
FIG. 5 is an enlarged `detail of the inward end of said
Leslie W. Beaven, 44 E. Washington St., Palatine, Ill.
Filed Nov. 7, 1960, Ser. No. 67,676
5 Claims. (Cl. 60-39.34)
cycling shaft, sectioned longitudinally to show details
of the fuel seal to the cycling shaft ‘for four-cycle opera
tion.
FIG. 6 is a tr-ansverse section taken as shown in FIG. 5
to show the pitched slots and the stops, counterbored for
This invention is partly a continuation in part of ap
plication Ser. 743,830, tiled June 23, 1958, now Pat.
2,962,861, to cover the cycling shaft assembly of `the en
gine combination thereof which shaft was then known
as the valve driver shaft. It includes improvements there
on and also improves on Ser. 7 03,603, filed Dec. 18, 1957,
now Pat. 2,963,705, and on Ser. 645,224, filed Mar. 1=1,
1957, now Pat. 3,003,308, and on Pat. 2,512,909, issued
four-cycle operation.
FIG. 7 is a transverse section taken as shown in FIG. 5
to show the seal seating surface and the funnel-like
charnfer used for ltwo-cycle operation.
Numeral 10 indicates a frame for supporting one kind
l une 27, 1950. This member now has other functions to
of such an engine, said frame being preferably arranged
to hold the crankshaft 11 from rotating. Cylinders '12
perform and has become so important to internal com
are mounted on -a crankcase 13 and the cylinder-crankcase
bustion engines of the rotary radial expansion-reaction
assembly is journaled -by bearings 13E for rotation on said
type as to merit a special status and recognition of its own.
crankshaft. Skirts 12A on said cylinders project inwardly
It controls :the intake and exhaust gas valving, it con 20 into the crankcase to form a cofferdam to hold excessive
ducts and valves the fuel supply to the firing chamber, it
lubrication from fouling the spark plugs. The said crank
takes into a rugged crankcase and on low friction bear
ings the enormous stresses of the explosions and inertial
shaft is hollow on one end to form an air intake passage
forces. lt permits timing of the ignition spark incident,
case. Piston assemblies 14 are reciprocably connected to
Way 11B for the entry of combustion -air into said crank`
separately for each cylinder. In short it cycles the gases, 25 the crankpin '11A of -the crankshaft and the wristpins
the fuel and the ignition current while carrying the heavy
17N of the pistons, by connecting-rods l5, so the pistons
shock and inertial loads and I now call it the cycling shaft
can spin on »the crankpin Áwhile the cylinders spin on :the
assembly. The gas valving portion is shown innermost
and is rugged and stiff and operates the air intake and
mains. Since the crankpin ‘11A is eccentric to the crank
shaft 11, rotation of the cylinder-crankcase assembly with
the exhaust valves. The outermost portion is slender and 30 the crankshaft held stationary as aforesaid, causes each
flexible `and operates the ignition cam.
piston to typically reciprocate ‘with reference to its cylin
rThe separate ignition timing for each cylinder wipes
der l2.
out timing errors due to differences in the accumulation
A stationary Worm-plate 16 is fastened to the crankpin
of manufacturing tolerances of other related parts and it
but the peripheral worm-track 16A thereon is concentric
prevents complete motor stall, so common with a timer
wi-th the axis of the engine. The cylinders are mounted
offset to the rotationally leading side. A cycling shaft
common to all cylinders.
This mechanism could also be used on static cylinder
assembly 17 is mounted axial with the cylinder and the
engines but they rare definitely going to be superseded by
inward end of its shaft 17A is ñxed to a toothed worm
rotaries ybecause a stationary exhaust orifice loses half
.gear ‘17B which because of the offset mounting of the
the fuel value out the exhaust pipe. The rotaries can be 40 cylinder, engages the worm-track with its trailing side and
made to carry the exhaust orifice at gas velocity and at
clears it on its leading side. Thus the gear teeth -follow
tenuate Ithem inthe wake of the orifice in a secondary ex
the Worm-track and the cycling shaft is slowly rotated in
pansion thereby converting that half to power by reaction.
timed relation to the rotation of the engine, .to cycle
The static exhaust orifice is therefore rudimentary and is
the gases, the fuel and the spark. This shaft, shown
bound to become obsolete.
45 hexagonal, could as Well be square or :triangular in cross
To the attainment of these ends and the accomplish
section for sealing and driving purposes. It is journaled
ment of other new and useful objects as -will appear, the
on its inner end by radial-thrust bearings 17C and 17D,
invention consists of the features of novelty, in substan
of low `friction type which are held in a bearing cage 13A
tially the construction, combination and yarrangement of
which is part of the crankcase assembly, said cage having
the several parts, hereinafter described more fully, and 50 radial stops '13B and 13D by which endwise movement
taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings,
of the outer races of the bearings is prevented. The stops
on the cycling shaft 17A are 13C outer'or centripetal
exemplifying this invention, in which:
FlG. l is an end view of such an engine in which the
which is a nut threaded lto said shaft «and 13E, centrifugal
radially disposed cylinders revolve about a crankshaft
on the back side of the gear l17B. 'I'hese lock the inner
which is preferably stationary. Rotation is shoum clock 55 races to the shaft. The inward end of said shaft is re
wise and the exhaust gases are jetted contra-spinwise and
cessed to receive a fuel sealing assembly 26 comprising a
under Ithe right circumstances the two velocities can be
stop I26A, spring 26B and sealing shoe 26C. A key 26E
made to cancel out. A six cylinder engine is shown.
is fixed to a fuel pipe -21 on which said fuel Sealing :as
They comprise two ñles of -three cylinders each.
FIG. 2 is a transverse section taken perpendicular yto '
the engine axis as indicated in FIG. 3, with parts omitted
to favor attention more specifically to the cycling shaft
assembly itself. The three file row of cylinders indica-tes
four-cycle operation.
sembly rides, to prevent said shoe from turning. Said
60
shoe has an off-center hole 26D thru which the fuel
escapes into said cycling shaft and -the bottom of said
recess is designed in two ways, one for two-cycle opera
tion and the other for four-cycle. This will be described
shortly.
-
The outer end of the stiff portion of said cycling shaft
FIG. 3 is ya longitudinal section taken as indicated in
65
17A is fixed to or may be made integral with the exhaust
FIG. l to show the orientation of the various internal
rotor 17E of the exhaust »valve of the cylinder and said
rotor pilots in its stator 12B which is fixed to, or may be
integral with the cylinder. An intake rotor 17E of the
tion.
70 air intake valve whose stator shown 14A, is part of the
piston which slides inwardly and ou-twardly on the shaft
FIG. 4 is a view of the outer end of a cylinder, to show
and at the same time is rotated thereby on radial-thrust
the exhaust hood for gathering the gases and jetting them
par-ts and their relation to the said cycling shaf-t assembly.
One of the elements shown, makes it apparent that there
are three cylinders in file, which requires four-cycle opera
o
3,091,927
o
low friction bearings ‘14C and 14D, being pivotally driven
by the shaft and keyed thereto by the matched contours
to accommodate for said wobble. This is best accom
plished by boring a clearance hole into the end of the
of their cross sections, said bearings being ylikewise held
by stops ME and 14F. These are held in assembly to
the piston by said stops with the nut and locknut l’iK
and 17M which permits the rotor to rotateV in the piston
but prevents endwise movement therein. A like situation
ing this slender end into the bottom of said clearance
hole previously closed, in Pat. 2,962,861 by a cleanout
plug 88 which is superseded in this instant application by
prevails for the exhaust valve, the holding nut being 17R.
By this rotation of the «two rotors in their stators, ports
the slender camshaft V171’. Thus the shaft can flex in
the two clearance holes without throwing `the cam off
are formed and deformed »to open and close passages in
timed sequence to cause the well known cycles of such
center, or being broken.
This is the reason that the exhaust rotor is held on the
larger end of the shaft by a discernable taper tit and the
nut 17K. The exhaust rotor has cooling tins 17S for dis
sipating excessive heat. The cani ll‘îG has an extended
engines, intake, compression, work and exhaust. But this
remarkable cycling shaft assembly handles still `another
cycling shaft, to permit increasing -the length of the slender
end so that the liber stress will not be excessive, »and screw
chore. The outer end of a slender portion of said shaft
has a cam 17G affixed, shown pinned to the shaft by 15 hub UT to give support in the body of said bearing 22
the pin 17U. Its function is to make and break an electric
and shear bearing from the cam pin 17U.
circuit by separating the points to cause the ignition spark
Two views of the exhaust reaction bonnet 23 are shown.
with ‘a standard se-t of breaker points which are carried
Both 'gas rotors form passages by matching half-ports in
`in the breaker box assembly ‘18. Spark occurs when the
the peripheries of the rotors, with half-ports in the interior
circuit is ‘broken by one of the humps on this cam. The 20 boundaries of their stators. Thus the intake gases enter
breaker-box is held by screws 18A by which the setting
the ñring chamber 25 via multiple ports formed by
can be varied to time the ignition of each cylinder sepa
`matchings of half-ports 14B of the intake stator 14A,
rately, thereby overcoming the disadvantage of different
With similar half-ports ldd in the intake rotor y17E and
buildups of tolerances, unavoidable in the manufacture
the exhaust gases enter the exhaust bonnet 23', likewise
of parts, to the separate cylinders where a single breaker
via multiple ports formed by matchings of half ports 112C
is used for multiple cylinder engines. In these rotary 25 of the exhaust valve stator 12B with half-ports 1'7Y in
engines, the cylinders approach a iixed position of the
the exhaust valve rotor 17E, where they turn and jet out
ignition function and the timers can be set very accurately
the exhaust orifice 23A to make additional power by re
-with a light in series so that variations due to buildups
action. The intake air enters via the hollow crankshaft
can be timed out. This equalizes the impulses and their
30 shown HB in FIG. 2 and flows as indicated by arrows
distribution, increases power and makes for smooth run
into the firing chamber 25, and out as shown by arrows
ning.
in FIG. 4.
Channels 19 `for the fuel can be seen in the crankshaft
A cylindrical shroud 24, axial with the engine, encloses
and exiting therefrom which delivers to la rotating fuel
the cylinders for safe-ty and to contain coolant air cur
trough 2() ywhich is driven by the crankcase thru arms
35 rents created by fan blades and/ or motion, the fan blades
20A extended therefrom and bolted .to the inside thereof
not being shown. The tiring chamber is where the fuel
and from which said fuel escapes via fuel pipe 21 `and
and air meet, mix, lare compressed and burned.
seal 26C into the duct l17H in the said cycling shaft from
It is apparent that this cycling shaft assembly could be
whence it escapes thru the wall of the shaft via the trans
made up of separate parts fastened together, or the rotor
verse duct 17] when the piston acting as a valving element 40 and shaft, or the gear and shaft, might be one lunit and the
uncovers said duct near the inward end of the piston
slender shaft, cam and end bearing surface, another. The
stroke. The inward end of the duct 17H is chamfered for
separate fastening means, nuts, taper and pin would then
‘two-cycle operation vto form «a liare or funnel, wide
be omitted. But that is a matter of choice, within the
enough to catch the fuel emerging from the off-center
scope of the mechanic.
-hole 26D in the said sealing shoer26C as shown in FIG.
What I claim as new and entitled to protection is:
6. But when the operation is four-cycle, requiring two
1. A cycling shaft assembly for an internal combustion
revolutions of engine between fuelings, alternate stop and
engine of the expansion~reaction type, the engine having
go feed is required, which necessitates valving by alternate
a cycling shaft, a crankshaft, a crankcase journaled for
pitched radial slots 261I and lands 26G, shown in FIGS.
rotation on said crankshaft, the crankcase carrying at least
5 and 6. AV key 26E fixed to the »fuel tube 21 feathers in 50 one outstanding cylinder, a crankpin on said crankshaft, a
a slot in the piloting hub portion of said shoe to keep
piston reciprocatable in said cylinder, Aa connecting rod
-said shoe, now functioning -as a four-cycle fuel valve
reciprocatively connecting the piston to the crankpin, a
stator, from being turned by drag forces, by the rotating
rotary inlet valve in said piston, a rotary exhaust valve in
shaft I17A, now functioning as a four-cycle fuel valve
said cylinder, the valves being arranged with suitable
rotor.
'
clearance therebetween their associated parts, the valves
The fuel enters the firing chamber by centrifugal' and/ or
comprising the piston and cylinder heads respectively, a
gravitational force when the piston uncovers the holes
V17j' in the valve driver shaft and mixes with the fresh
intake air. The piston then compresses the mixture and
firing chamber being formed between the heads, an ex
haust orifice on the cylinder, `an exhaust bonnet for jetting
rings is employed but not shown .because it has nothing
the reciprocatory movement of the piston in the cylinder,
into the firing chamber, said cycling shaft consisting of a
stiff valve driver shaft in the cylinder, means to axially
the burned gases contra-spinwise for reaction from the
it is ignited by compression, spark, or other means, not>
60 oriñce, the crankshaft having a hollow portion defining
shown.
an air intake passage establishing communication between
Some clearance is required between the valve rotors
the outside atmosphere and the inside of the crankcase
and their stators because of temperature and friction fac
through which the intake air for combustion is drawn by
tors, to prevent seizing. Sealing means similar to piston
to do with this invention. Wear increases this clearance.
Considerable wobble is therefore a possibility and there
is a chance for trouble without proper accommodation.
This is thereason that the outer end of the cycling
shaft is made slender. It passes thru a clearance hole in
a threaded cam piece 18B in the base of the breaker-box, 70
and pilots in a bearing 22 supported in the body of said
box. The threads on said cam piece are exterior land are
rotate said valve driver shaft in timed relation to the rota
tion of the cylinder, the intake and exhaust valves being
common to the firing chamber and to said valve driver
shaft, a fuel source, -a rotating fuel trough, a channel in
the crankshaft for delivering the fuel to said trough, a
fuel channel in said valve driver shaft, an exit tube ern
bodied with said trough and extending to said fuel chan
employed in another feature of timing not germane. The
bearing 22 holds center for the ignition timing cam 17G.
nel in said valve driver shaft, said channel in said valve
But the shaft end 17P must be slender enough to be elastic 75 driver shaft terminating in said firing chamber for con
3,091,927
5
eying fuel to said firing chamber, said piston acting as a
valve element to admit fuel to the firing chamber, means
responsive to said axial rotation of said rotary exhaust
v-alve -to release the exhaust gases of combustion from
the firing chamber, the outer end portion of said stiff
valve driver shaft having an axial hole therein and having
means on the exterior thereof to receive and secure said
exhaust valve thereto, a flexible ignition cam-shaft extend
ing from, and secured at, the base of said hole, to permit
said cam-shaft to iiex therein, an ignition breaker box
arranged coaxial with said cam-shaft, said box being pivot
ably adjustable »for still-setting the ignition timing, said
box being adjustably secured to said cylinder, the said
6
shaft extensions extending through a clearance opening
in the base of said ignition breaker box yassociated there
with and piloted by a bearing arranged in the body of said
box, each of said lshaft extensions having a cam rigidly
secured thereto for timing the primary incidence of igni
tion in its common firing chamber, each of said shaft ex
tensions providing a relatively liexible shaft portion ar
ranged beyond the exhaust valve on the rigid portion of
said shafts which are loosely piloted by the rotatable ex
haust valve therewith, whereby any wobble of the asso
ciated exhaust valve therewith will be accommodated by
said shaft extension extending within said holes and said
clearance openings, thus preventing excessive fiber stresses
from occurring in said cam shaft and breakage thereof
cam-shaft extending through a clearance opening in the
base of said box and piloted by a bearing arranged in the 15 and without effecting movement of its said cam off its
body of Said box, said cam-shaft having an ignition timing
center.
cam rigidly secured to it for timing the incidence of make
4. A cycling shaft assembly lfor an internal combustion
and break for ignition in said firing chamber, the outer
piston engine of the expansion-reaction type with rotat
end of said rigid valve driver shaft being somewhat loosely
ing cylinders, the exhaust orifice of said cylinder back-jet
piloted by said exhaust v-alve rotor.
20 ting the exhaust gases to add reaction power to the expan
2. A cycling shaft assembly as claimed in claim l, in
sion power, said assembly comprising means for valving
which the means to axially rotate said valve driver shaft
comprises a worm-plate mounted on said crankpin and
combustion intake air to a firing chamber in a cylinder,
means for apportioning fuel to said firing chamber, means
having a peripheral worm-track thereon concentric with
for switching electrical current to primarily time the igni
the axis of the engine and a worm gear mounted on the 25 tion in said firing chamber, means for maintaining the po
inner end of said valve driver shaft in engagement with
said worm-track.
3. A cycling shaft assembly for an internal combustion
sitioning of said cycling shaft assembly against the inertial
and combustial forces generated by the engine, means for
protecting said electrical switching means from injury by
engine of the expansion-reaction type, the engine having a
said forces and means for releasing the expanded burned
cycling shaft, a crankshaft, a crankcase journaled for axial 30 gases from said ñring chamber in a secondary expansion
rotation on said crankshaft, a plurality of radially dis
for reaction power, said means for effecting proper func
posed cylinders supported on said crankcase and rotating
tioning of said electrical system and supplying protection
therewith, a piston in each of said cylinders, means to
therefor consisting of a stiff rugged valve driver shaft,
cause relative reciprocatory movement between each said
an axial hole in the outer end of said shaft, a slender and
piston and its cylinder, an air intake valve in each said 35 flexible ignition timing cam shaft extending from, and se
piston, an exhaust valve in each said cylinder, each of said
cured at the base of said hole and made flexible, in part
valves comprising a rotor and a stator, a firing chamber
by providing a relatively small cross sectional moment of
inertia and in part by providing adequate depth to said
hole, thereby increasing the stressed length of `said cam
communicating between the outside atmosphere and the 40 shaft and thereby reducing the fiber stress in said cam
shaft, said hole being made large enough to maintain
inside of said crankcase, another passage thru the piston
clearance for said cam shaft when transversely loaded,
to the firing chamber subject however to the intake valve,
the aforesaid assembly being coaxial when not so loaded,
a fuel source, a fuel channel in said crankshaft, said chan
and bearing support means for said assembly whereby said
nel connected with said fuel source, means responsive to
said axial rotation of said crankcase and cylinder and as 45 assembly is journaled for rotation, at each end and inter
mediate thereof, the latter bearing somewhat loosely sup
sociated parts to release the exhaust gases of combustion
porting an end of said stiff rugged Valve driver shaft.
from the firing chamber, the cycling shaft assembly com
prising a stiff valve driver shaft in each of said cylinders,
5. A cycling shaft assembly for an internal combus
tion engine of the expansion-reaction type, the engine em
means to rotate said valve driver shaft in timed relation
to the rotation of its said cylinder, said paired intake and 50 bodying a cycling shaft, a stationary crankshaft, a crank
exhaust valves in each cylinder being common to the firing
case journaled for rotation about the main axis of said
arranged between the paired valves -in each of said cylin
ders, an air intake passage in said crankshaft, said passage
chamber thereof and to each said valve driver shaft there
of, said valve driver shaft being connected to and extend
ed by a slender and somewhat flexible ignition timing cam
shaft, said valve shaft having an axial hole in its outer
end, said cam shaft extending from and secured to Said
valve shaft at the bottom of said hole, there being a clear
ance provided all around said cam shaft between it and the
side walls of said hole so that said slender cam shaft may
flex freely, means to rotate each of said valve driver shafts
in timed relation to the rotation of its cylinders, a single
rotating fuel trough common to a plurality of cylinders,
means to deliver fuel from -said fuel channel to said
trough, a fuel channel in each of said valve driver shafts,
a plurality of exit tubes embodied with said trough, each
of said exit tubes extending from said trough to each of
said fuel channels in each of said valve driver shafts, each
channel of each of said driver shafts terminating in said
firing chamber common thereto for conveying fuel there
to, each piston acting as a valve element to admit fuel to
its common firing chamber, an ignition breaker box ar
ranged coaxial with each of said valve driver shaft exten
crankshaft, a radially disposed cylinder, said crankshaft
supporting a crankpin eccentrically arranged with respect
to the main axis of said shaft, a stationary worm-plate
55 fastened to said crankshaft, said worm-plate having a
worm track thereon, said track being `concentric with the
axis of the engine, a piston arranged in said cylinder, a
pair of wrist pins in said piston, a connecting rod means
connected to its inner end with said crankpin and its outer
60 end with said pair of wrist pins, an air intake valve in said
piston, said intake valve consisting of a rotor and a stator,
the head portion of said piston having an axial bore and
said portion accommodating to act as the stator for said
intake valve, a rotary exhaust valve likewise consisting of
65 a rotor and a stator, the exhaust valve stator secured in
the outer end portion of said cylinder, said rotary valves
comprising the piston head and cylinder head respectively,
a firing chamber being formed between said heads, an
exhaust orifice adjacent the outer end of said cylinder, an
70 exhaust bonnet for jetting the burned gases contra-spin
wise from said exhaust oriñce for reaction, said crank
shaft having a hollow end defining an air intake passage
into said crankcase, the said cycling shaft including a stiff
valve driver shaft axial in said cylinder, a worm gear
and adjustably secured to the cylinder associated there
with, the outer end portion of each of said valve driver 75 means mounted on the inward end of said valve driver
sions, said box being pivotally adjustable for still setting
3,091,927
` 8
shaft and assembled in engagement with said Worm-.track
cured to the outer end of said valve driver shaft for rota
to axially rotate said valve driver shaft on the latter’s axis
and in timed relation to the rotation of the cylinder, a
fuel source, a rotated fuel trough, a channel in said crank
shaft for delivering the fuel to said trough, a longitudinal
fuel channel in said valve >driver shaft, an exit tube em
tion therewith, said valve driver shaft having a longitu
bodied with said trough and extending into said fuel chan
nel in said valve driver shaft and exiting therefrom into
said ñring chamber, said intake rotor acting as a fuel valve
element to regulate fuel to said tiring Chamber during its
ysliding movement upon said valve driver shaft, a plurality
of half ports in said exhaust valve rotor, a plurality of
half ports in said exhaust valve stator, the intake valve
likewise, registration of said half ports in said valve rotors
with the half ports in said valve stators due to axial rota- l
tion of said valve rotors due to rotation of said Worm gear,
releasing of exhaust gases of combustion into said exhaust
bonnet, said exhaust valve rotor being supported and se
dinal recess in said Outer end portion, said outer end por
tion being fixed to said exhaust rotor, a flexible ignition
cam shaft, means at the inward end of said axial recess
lconnecting `said ñexible cam shaft to said rigid valve driver
shaft, clearance in said recess around said flexible shaft,
the outer end of said cam shaft having a cam añixed there
to, an ignition breaker box secured to said cylinder,
breaker means therein, said -box enclosing said breaker
means and cam, said rigid shaft, ilexible shaft, cam,
breaker box, intake and exhaust valve rotors Ibeing ar
ranged to assemble zzo-axially.
References Cited inthe ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Beaven ______________ ___ June 27,
2,512,909
` 2,962,861
1950
Beaven ___`___________ __ Dec. 6, 1950
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