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Патент USA US3092041

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June 4, 1963
E. POMAR
3,092,031
ROTARY PISTON MECHANISM
Filed Jan. 31, 1962
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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June 4, 1963
E, POMAR
3,092,031
ROTARY PISTON MECHANISM
Filed Jan. 51, 1962
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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ZA‘odara Puma:
June 4, 1963
E. POMAR
3,092,031
ROTARY PISTON MECHANISM
Filed Jan. 31, 1962
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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3,092,031
ROTARY PISTGN MEQHANISM
Eliodoro Pomar, 41 Via Sanvito Siivestro, ‘Varese, Italy
Filed Jan. 31, 1962, Ser. No. 170,126
Claims priority, application ltaly .Ian. 31, 1961
6 Claims. (Cl. 103-129)
This invention generally relates to rotary piston mecha
nisms which may be used as prime movers and, more
3,692,013 1
Patented June 4., 1963
2
cycle of operation of the device, may be differing in one
phase in respect with other phases of such cycle-where
by the variations of volumes of said progressively in
creasing »and decreasing pockets may ‘be made best adapted
for performing the various compression, expansion and
exhaustion phases of the cycle.
According to an important aspect of this invention, the
mechanism of the invention includes a plurality of vane
like pistons mounted for rotation ‘about the axis of the
particularly, as internal combustion engines or motors, 10 cylindrical chamber, the number of said vanes ‘being
odd and preferably three. Each piston is pivotally linked
and as pumps, compressors, driving and/or driven hy
to a second pivotal connection of 1an endless chain-like
draulic transmission means or the like.
linking means including a number of links which is twice
More particularly, the present invention is concerned
with the kind of rotary piston mechanisms in which the
the said odd number of piston, and wherein any ?rst
piston means consist in a series of vanes mounted for 15 pivotal connection ‘between adjacent links, located between
rotation in ‘a chamber of generally cylindrical shape, the
the pivotal connections linked to the pistons, is guidedly
vanes being adapted to be moved relatively to one an
other during their rotational movement to form series
caused to follow a not circular path, while obviously any
one of said second pivotal connection, linked to a piston,
is caused to follow a circular path having its center on
said axis. The drive shaft :of the mechanism is rotatably
of pockets of progressively increasing and decreasing
cross-section.
It is known to those skilled in the art to which this
connected to at least one of the said ?rstpivotal con
invention appertains that a great number of rotary piston
mechanisms of the kind referred to above had been here
nection, by means of a slide crank type connection, for
tofore proposed. While several prior mechanisms have
As the above essential conditions are satis?ed, and upon
example.
been satisfyingly proved as made use of as pumps or 25 proper de?nition of the said not circular path, a proper
cycle of rotational movement of the vane-like pistons rela
compressor and like driven rotary devices wherein a
source of rotary power is applied to the device drive shaft
tively to one another may be provided; The said not cir
for supplying pressurized liquid or preferably gaseous
cular path may be de?ned by camming surfaces adapted
media, the use ‘of such mechanism as prime movers,
namely as internal combustion engines, did not lead prac
tical results.
to be followed by cam follower means secured to the
said ?rst pivotal connections. The said camming surfaces
may de?ne a not circular path which may be symmetrical
vwith respect to a diameter of said circular path, be ellipti
cal for example, or which may be not symmetrical
In general, the most serious problem faced in the pro
vision of prime movers embodied in mechanisms of the
whereby diifering increments and decreasing of the rota
above kind and not heretofore solved is involved in the
correct and positive transformation of the tangential pres 35 tional relative speed of the pistons may be produced in
sure exerted by an expanding gaseous medium on the
the complete cycle of operation, thus attaining the above
said another object of this invention, if desired.
Further objects and advantages of the invention reside
ous transmission means heretofore proposed for drivingly
in the arrangement of parts and in the details of construc
connect said vanes to said shaft revealed a substantial 40 tion of the various essential components of the mech
tendency to behave as a so called “one-directional” trans
anism, in their combination and in the mode of operation
mission, wherein the one direction admitted is from shaft
of the rotary mechanism as Will be hereinafter described.
to vanes. More particularly as the mechanism is made
In accomplishing the above mentioned and other ob
use of as an internal combustion engine, the pulsing-type
jects
of the invention, and in making use of and enjoying
action exerted on the vanes is of further prejudice of the 45 the various phenomena involved therewith, there are pro
proper transmission and transformation of the applied
vided the improved features and details of construction of
expansive power ‘generated into the pockets.
the essential components of the mechanism, one preferred
It is therefore a primary object of this invention to
form of embodiment of which is illustrated in the accom
provide a new and advantageous rotary piston mechanism
panying drawings, forming an essential component of
which is not subject to the objection common to prior
this disclosure, and wherein:
.
mechanisms of the kind above described and which may
said vanes, during the cycle ‘of operation of the motor, into
a rotary drive applied to the mechanism shaft. The vari
be ‘advantageously made use of as and embodied in a
FIGURE 1 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view
prime mover—in particular in an internal combustion
through the mechanism of the invention, along the line
1-1 of
engine-wherein the power is applied as a pressure of
FIGURE 2, which in turn is a cross-sectional view of
an expanding gaseous medium in the said pockets vand 55
same, taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
exerted on the adjacent vanes for transferring and- trans
FIGURES 3, 4 and 5 are further cross-sectional views
forming said power as a source of rotary continuous
motion of the engine shaft.
of same, taken along the lines 3-3, 4-4 and 5-5,
Another ‘object of this invention is to provide a new 60 respectively, of FIG. 1, showing the rotational connection
and improved rotary piston mechanism ‘of the above
kind, wherein the cycle according to which the positive
and negative incremental ratio of the rotational move—
ments of the vanes relatively to one another, during the
to the mechanism drive shaft, and respectively the end
less chain type linking means and the guide means pro‘
vided for causing a part of the components of such link
ing means to follow a not circular path;
3,092,031
3
£1.
FIGURES 6, 7 and 8 diagrammatically illustrate three
forms of embodiment of cammiug surfaces which may be
alternatively included in said guide means to provide dif
fering not circular paths; and
FIGURE 9 is a graph illustrating the differing eifects
attained by making use of any of said diifering camming
surfaces.
Referring ?rst to FIGS. 1 and 2, wherein the mechanism
of this invention is embodied in a rotary motor, namely
.
rods) are each connected to one vane 11 or respectively 12
‘and 13, such second link pivots and the axis thereof are
caused to travel along a circular path having its center on
the axis of main shaft.
On the contrary, each ?rst link pivot such as indicated
at 32 in FIGS. 1, 3, 4 and 5, each located between two
of said second link pivots, is guided to follow a not cir
cular path by suitable guide means, such as a cam mem
ber 34 having ‘a camming surface 33 thereinto, and along
an internal combustion engine, shown in a somewhat sim
10 which proper cam follower means, such as ball bearings
pli?ed manner:
In the form of embodiment shown, the motor includes
36‘ (FiGS. 4 and 5) are slidably and preferably rollingly
a stationary casing 24- of generally cylindrical shape,
engaged, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 5, for example, each
ball bearing 35 being mounted for idle rotation about one
wherein a cylindrical chamber 10 is formed, having its
pivot 32.
The said canuning surface 33 is dimensioned and
axis at 0-0. According to an important aspect of the 15
shaped, in relation with the radius of the said circular path
invention, the mechanism is combined with a motor hav
of second pivots at 27, 28 and 29 and with the inter
ing an odd number of vane-like pistons, such as three
pivotal length of each connecting link 30, 31, so that each
vanes or pistons ‘11, 12 and 1-3, mounted for rotation in
side said chamber 10 about the said axis 0-0 thereof, and
cam follower means, such as said ball bearings 35, con
de?ning variable volume spaces therebetween, such as 20 tacts anytime the camming surface. Owing to the not
circular path of said ?rst link pivots at 32, the polygon
spaces 36, 37 and 38 of FIG. 2. The positive and nega
embodied by said link assembly 30, 31, as having a part
tive variations of volume of said spaces, according to the
of its vertexes anytime on the said circular path and the
cycle of operation of the motor, are made use of for
remaining part of its vertexes anytime on said not circular
causing a conventional cycle of operation of an internal
combustion engine, either spark plug ignited or injection 25 path, is therefore caused to cyclically modify its shape,
ignited, according to current art.
The said' stationary casing 24 is therefore provided with
suitably arranged two inlet and outlet passages 18 and 19,
respectively, and with suitably threaded means 26 adapted
for suitably locating an igniting and/or fuel feeding
means, such as a spark plug or a diesel-type injector.
The various ancillary devices of the motor, such as the sev
eral carburetting, feeding, igniting, exhausting and lubri
cating means, have been omitted in the drawing and will
not be further described, as appertaining to current knowl
edge of the art and as not being claimed matter of this
invention, as de?ned in any by the appended claims. The
motor includes further a main motor shaft 14, supported
for rotation inside said chamber 10' for rotation about
said axis 0-0, by means of ball-bearing means 21 and 40
22, supported in and by symmetrically and oppositely
located cover members 23 of the said casing 24, for
and the spacings between adjacent second link pivots at
27, 2S and 29 are at their turn therefore caused to cy
clically vary. Such variation of shape and of spacing be
tween seoond link pivots of the polygonal chain link
means 30, 31 causes the desired motion of said vanes 11,
12 and 13, relatively to one another during their rota
tional movement, and the desired consequent cyclical
increasing and decreasing of the cross-section of pockets
or spaces 36, 37 and 38 therebetween, ie, the desired
variation of volumes of said spaces.
The drive connection between the said polygonal link
assembly 30, 31 and the shaft 14 may be embodied by a
proper rotational connection having a link at, at least
one of, said ?rst link pivots 32, such as a brace 39‘ (FIGS.
1 and 3), having proper counter-balancing masses 40
secured to or integrally formed therewith, and slidably
engaging with a slide member such as at 41 pivotally con
nected to one pivot 32, for example.
Upon consideration of what above and of the accom
The linking means drivingly connecting the said vanes
11, 12 and 13 to the said shaft 14 are adapted, according 45 panying drawings, two important results of the inven~
tion may be readily understood, as summarized below:
to the invention, either for having the said vanes or at
Assumed that the number of vanes is odd, the pres~
least a part thereof driven by the said shaft, such as dur
sures existing in any space 36, 37 and 39, during the com
ing the compression phase of the cycle of operation of the
pression and expansion phases of the cycle of operation
internal combustion engine, and for having the said shaft
the motor, are obviously equally and balancedly ap—
driven by said vanes, such in the expansion phase of said 50 of
plied to both adjacent vanes 11 and 12, or 12 and 13, or
cycle. For proper balance of the transmitted power,
12 and 11, respectively. Such adjacent vanes, however,
such means, which will be described in detail hereinbelow,
are never connected to the shaft 14 by link means which
are preferably symmetrically constructed and located at
may be simultaneously positioned in an equal or sym
‘both oppositely located portions 25 and 26 of the assem
condition or position relatively to one another,
bly. The following disclosure, mainly related to the 55 metrical
owing to the oddness of the number of vanes.
means located in the portion 26 only, for simplicity sake,
According to the invention, it has been found that
is therefore also intended as referred to the symmetrical
such feature is essential and critical to prevent the mech~
components and members located and operating in the
anism to be hampered when the direction of drive is in
example.
other portion 25.
_ verted. Further, in the operation of the described mech
According to another important feature of the inven 60 anism, the law which de?nes the variations of rotational
tion, the said linking means include an endless chain form
ing assembly of connecting links, alternatively indicated
at 30 and 31 in FIGS. 3 and 4, the number of the links
and therefore of the link pivots included in said assembly
movement of the vanes, relatively to one another, is
obviously determined by the shape of the said not circular
path of the ?rst link pivots at 32, namely of the said cam
ming surface at 33. Now, provided that the condition
being twice the number of said vanes, namely being six. 65 of constant engagement of the cam followers with the
Any second link pivot in said endless chain linking means
camming surface would be satis?ed, an ample latitude
is connected to one vane 11, 12 and 13, preferably by
of selection may be enjoyed in providing such camming
means of longitudinal rods 27 and respectively 28 and 29,
surface’s shaping. The new and advantageous results
constructed and arranged as shown in FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and
of such important feature of the invention might be
4, for example. The end portions of such rods 27, 28 70 readily understood from a consideration of diagrammati
and 29 embody the pivots of the said second link pivots
cal FIGS. 6, 7, and 8, when compared with the curves
and de?ne the pivotal axis thereof.
of the graph of FIG. 9, wherein such curves indicate the
Assumed that the said second link pivots such as indi
cated at 27, 28 and 29‘ in FIGS. 3 and 4 (as being em
variation of volume W of any space such as 36, 37 or 38
during ‘a full rotation of any vane such as 11, 12 and 13
bodied by the end portions of the correspondingly referred 75 from 0° to 360° (0°:360").
8,092,031
Differing not circular paths 33a, 33b and 330 are shown
in FIGS. 6, 7 and 8, respectively, as provided by corre
sponthngly shaped camming surfaces.
The camming
surface 33 of FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 is shaped to de?ne a not
circular path of the character indicated at 33c in FIG.
8, for example.
Assuming that a camming surface adapted to provide
a not circular path such as at 33a is made use of in the
mechanism of the invention, there is shown that said
path is symmetrical with respect with two axis x--x and
y—y, crossing at right angle on rotational axis of the
vanes, i.e. in the center of the circular path of the second
tions in rotary mechanisms of the type considered, without
omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art,
fairly constitute characteristic of the invention and, there
fore, such adaptations should and are intended to be com
prehended within the range of equivalents thereof.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed
as new and desired to have protected by Letters Patent is:
1. A rotary piston mechanism comprising a casing, a
chamber of circular cross-sectional shape inside said cas
10 ing and de?ning an axis, a plurality of piston forming
vanes which are independently rotatable in said chamber
about said axis to form a corresponding plurality of vari
able volume spaces therebetween in said casing, the num
ber of said vanes in said plurality being odd, endless chain
given by an ellipse. In such case the variation of vol
ume W follows a substantially sinusoidal law, as graphic 15 type link means located outside said chamber about said
axis including a plurality of link members chain-likely
ally shown by curve Wa of FIG. 9, and having its peaks
interconnected by a corresponding plurality of chain-like
and pits at same upper and respectively lower values
link pivots, the numbers of said link members and of said
and evenly spaced at 90° and 270° ‘and respectively at
link pivots being twice the number of said vanes, the said
0°=360° and 180° along the abscissa. From the point
of view of the operation of an internal combustion en 20 link pivots including second pivots and ?rst pivots alter
natively located along said endless chain-type link means,
gine, such law correspond to the law of volumetrical vari
link pivots. A typical example of such path shape is
ation of a conventional piston engine having recipro
cating pistons.
means to connect each vane to one single second pivot for
drivingly connecting said vanes to said link means at said
second link pivots and to cause said second link pivots to
By causing the said ?rst link pivots at 32 to follow a
path such as shown at 33b in ‘FIG. 7, Whose shape is 25 follow a circular path having its center in said axis upon
rotation of said vanes in said chamber, and guide means
symmetrical with respect to one axis y—y only, the vol
engaging each ?rst link pivot to cause said ?rst pivots to
ume W variation follows the law such as de?ned by curve
follow a not circular path about said axis as said second
Wb in graph. By making use of camming surfaces of
pivots follow said circular path, whereby the said vanes
the type de?ned by typically oval shape 33b, there
fore, it is possible, for example, to cyclically have smaller 30 are caused to move relatively to one another during their
rotational movement about said axis in said chamber to
minimum volumes followed by greater minimum volumes,
cyclically vary the volumes of said spaces, upon the cycli
owing to the greater level of pit at 180° than at 0°=360°.
cal variation of spacing between adjacent second link
Such feature may be usefully enjoyed for having a proper
pivots along said circular path as the respectively interme~
compression ratio of the motor, and a quite full exhaus
tion of burnt gases, for example. In such case the 90° 35 diate ?rst pivot follows the said not circular path.
2. In a rotary piston mechanism as de?ned in claim 1,
spacing of peaks and pits of the curve is constant, as in
the not circular path de?ning guide means consisting of
the case of curve Wa.
cam means de?ning a camming surface of not circular
Further, by providing guide means such to de?ne a not
shape about said axis, and of cam follower means con
circular path of the type shown at 330 in FIG. 8, a most
interesting curve of variation may be attained, such as 40 nected to each said ?rst link pivot and in constantly en
gaged relationship with said camming surface.
shown at We in the graph. Such slant oval path causes
3. In a rotary piston mechanism as de?ned in claim
not only the volume W to drop at differing minimum
1, the not circular path de?ning guide means shaped
values at 180° and at 0°=360°, respectively, thus attain
to de?ne a typically elliptical not circular path sym
ing the above analyzed advantageous results of the shape
33b of ‘FIG. 7, but also causes a marked variation of the 45 metrical with respect with two symmetry axes perpendic
ularly inter-crossing in said chamber axis, whereby caus
spacings between peaks and pits of the curve, and more
ing the said vanes to move relatively to one another dur
particularly of the pendency of the curve. For example,
ing their rotational movement about said axis for cyclical
curve Wc steps down from its peak at 110° about at a
ly varying the volumes of said spaces formed therebe
negative angle whose value is far greater than the value
the positive angle of raising of the curve from its pit at 50 tween in said chamber according to a variation law as
defined by a curve of volumes as a function of rotary
0°=360° to the said peak at 110°.
motion, including evenly spaced peaks and pits, ‘wherein
It is well recognized by those skilled in the art of inter
the said peaks and pits are at the same upper and
nal combustion engines that it will be greatly desirable to
respectively the same lower level during a whole 360°
have an expansion phase smoother and longer than the
cycle of rotation of any vane.
pure amplitude of 90°, and that such desirable feature is
4. In a rotary piston mechanism as de?ned in claim
however proved as not practically obtainable by applying
1, the not circular path ‘de?ning guide means shaped to
current knowledge of the art.
‘de?ne a typically oval not circular path symmetrical with
It is to be evident that the present invention includes
respect to one symmetry axis inter-crossing the said
various advantageous features, and it Will be understood
too that each of the new features described and any com— 60 chamber axis, whereby causing the said vanes to move
relatively to ‘one another during their rotational move
bination thereof may also ?nd useful application in other
ment about said axis for cyclically varying the volume
types of construction and mechanism differing from the
of said spaces formed therebetween in said chamber, ac
one described.
cording to a variation law as de?ned by a curve of vol
While the invention has been heretofore described and
shown but in one form of embodiment thereof, it is 65 umes as a function of rotary motion of any vane, includ
ing peaks and pits, wherein pits at \dilfering curve levels
intended that the invention is not limited to the very de
are included in the curve de?ning a whole 360° cycle
tails shown, and that said details should not be taken
of rotation of any vane.
as restrictive of the invention, as it is obvious that various
5. In a rotary piston mechanism as de?ned in claim
modi?cations in design may be resorted to by those skilled
in the art to which this invention appertains, without de 70 1, the not circular path de?ning ‘guide 'means shaped to
de?ne a typically slanting annulus shaped not circular
parting from the spirit and the scope of the invention, as
path not possessing symmetry conditions with respect to
de?ned in and by the appended claims.
any line in the plane of said path and crossing the said
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully re
chamber axis, whereby causing the said vanes to move
veal the gist of this invention that others can, by applying
current knowledge, readily adapt it for various applica 75 relatively to one another during their rotational move
3,092,031
8
ment about said axis for cyclically varying the volume of
endless chain type link means including six link mem
bers, three ?rst pivots and three second pivots alternatively
said spaces formed therebetween in said chamber, ac
cording to a variation law as de?ned by a curve of vol
umes as a function‘of rotary motion of any vane, in
located along said link means.
cluding slanting portions vbetween peaks and pits thereof
and representing the variational ratio of the positive and
negative variations of said volumes, the absolute values
of mean inclination of said curve portions being dif
ferent Where representing a_ positive and, respectively, a
negative volume variation during a whole 360° cycle of
rotation of any vane.
’
.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
10
1,330,629
Gooding ____________ __ Feb. 10, 1920
1,904,892
Trube ______________ __ Apr. 18, 1933
2,147,290
Gardner ____________ __ Feb. 14, 1939
267,565
Great Britain ________ __ Sept. 22, 1927
p
FOREIGN PATENTS
'6. A rotary piston mechanism as claimed in claim 1,
including three piston forming vanes in said chamber and
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