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Патент USA US3092061

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June 4,1963
G. SHAPONA ETAL - ’
3,092,051
BASIC OPEN HEARTH ROOF CONSTRUCTION
Filed May 27. 1960
3_Sheets-Sheet 1
_ iL _b'
‘22
07
INVENHRS
-
Gear e Sluyvomw
By flowaz'qdelBmzm’fz
ATTORNEYS
June 4, 1963
G. SHAPONA ETAL
3,092,051
BY
FWMWJ<M
ATTORNEYS
June 4, 1963
e. SHAPONA ETAL
3,092,051
BASIC OPEN HEARTH ROOF CONSTRUCTION
Filed May 27. 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVEN TORS
George Shapozza/a,
By llowa/zvle?Brown '3
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent 0 f ICC
1
3,992,51
Patented June 4, 1963
2
ing only the lower edge portions in pinched positions to
3,092,051
George Shapona, Greenville, and Howard J. Brown, Clark,
Pa, assignors to Sharon Steel Corporation, Sharon, Pin,
BASIC OPEN IEARTH ROOF CONSTRUCTION
a corporation of Pennsylvania
Filed May 27, 1960, Ser. No. 32,204
4 Claims. (Cl. 110-99)
bear the load of the arch. Ultimately the lower edges
yield to the heat and weight and may be crushed, so that
the gradual spalling results in collapse of the arch.
The roof construction of the present invention avoids
prior difficulties and utilizes Wedge-shaped, unnotched,
metal-encased basic brick. The brick casing includes pref
erably a pair of integral hanger members or hooks by
which each brick is hung in place on an overhanging arch
metallurgical furnace. More particularly it pertains to a 10 member. Bach arch member preferably comprises an
basic brick proof construction for an open hearth furnace.
alienate-shaped H beam, l-beam, or inverted Tabeam hav
The use in recent years of basic rather than acid
ing a lower ?ange extending across the top of the furnace
(silica) bricks for the ?ame exposed surface of roofs
from the front to the rear sides. The hanger members
of open hearth furnaces has been increasingly desired
or hooks for each brick are engaged on and suspended
‘and many constructions have been proposed and used. 15 by the lower ?ange of one beam. The bricks are placed
This invention relates to a roof construction vfor a
Basic bricks ‘ordinarily vare composed of rnagnesite and
chrome in Varying proportions. Often they are metal
plated or encased and also reinforced with internal metal
plates to reduce spelling when subjected to elevated tem
in side-to-side rand course-to-conrse abutment, respec
tively, with bricks in the same course and in adjacent
courses, to provide the complete basic roof for the furnace.
Also, the upper end of each unnotched brick is engaged
peratures (2800“ F.—3250° R), which ‘was formerly a 20 and held by ‘an arch member against upward movement.
weakness :of basic bricks. Moreover, wear or erosion
That is, each brick is individually and directly held down
of the ?ame exposed surfaces of open hearth furnace
by an arch member as well as being suspended by such
roofs is not uniform. In the ideal construction of an
arch member.
open hearth furnace all parts should wear out at the
'In addition, the ends of each arch member beam are
same rate so that only one shutdown is required for a 25 ‘secured in place at opposite sides of the furnace so that
complete rebuilding of the furnace.
the beams not only hold up each brick but also hold down
One advantage of a basic roof over an acid roof is
each brick to prevent the arch of bricks from expanding
that the former can withstand temperatures of above
or swelling upwardly in the prior manner as the roof
3250" F. as compared with Ka maximum of about 3000*’
absorbs heat from the furnace in operation.
F. for an acid (silica) roof without apparent damage.
A basic roof can be heated faster so that the furnace
can be put into production sooner. This in part com
pensates tor the higher cost of basic brick. Also, the
The roof construction of the present invention also
preferably utilizes metal fusion plate-s formed of metal
of substantially heavier gauge than the casing metal ‘for
the individual brick. These t?usion plates also are pro
basic roof lasts on the average ‘about twice as long as
vided with hanger members, books or means which co
a comparable silica roof because it is more resistant to the 35 operatively engage the lower ?ange means of two ad
corrosive effects of heat and chemical action.
Most of the basic roofs recently proposed {are of sprung
arch or sprung-suspended construction with varying
\amounts of suspension ranging from almost none to full
suspension. In many prior roofs, whether suspended or 40
jacent arch members or beams. Bach fusion plate prefer
ably has a length from its hanger means to its lower end,
equal to the length of any brick from the bnick’s hanger
means to its lower end. Each fusion plate also has a
width equal to the width of two bricks and to the spacing
unsuspended, a complicated rigid steel superstructure is
between adjacent arch beams or members.
required, not only to hold up the roof, but also to yield
The fusion plates are hung from the opposed flange
ingly hold ‘the roof against the ‘effects of expansion. The
means of two adjacent arch beams and span the center
intended purpose :of such prior roof constructions has
to-center distance between the arch beams, and also span
been to remove stress from the hot face or ?ame exposed 45 the arch course of brick hung from a lower flange at one
surface of the bricks to prevent spalling.
side of one beam and the abutting arch course of brick
The conventional procedure for installing most prior
hung from the opposed lower flange at the other side of
basic roofs of the sprung arch type, whether suspended or
an ‘adjacent beam. Furthermore, the fusion plates are
unsuspended, is to provide wooden forms on which the
inserted at intervals along the brick arch courses between
bricks are placed. Most such roofs use l-beams running 50 say every three or more bricks to accomplish several im
portant functions.
from end to end longitudinally of the furnace axis and at
different horizontal levels, ‘depending upon the arch, to
First of all, the fusion plates, in being formed of heavy
gauge metal and in being hung from the metal arch
form the roof contour. These beams in turn are mounted,
sometimes yieldingly, on a rigid furnace superstructure.
beams, provide a path for the dissipation of heat from
'
Tie plates are also provided between courses of bricks 55 the roof refractory.
and perpendicular to the lsbeams at spaced intervals. Fre
Second, when the improved roof has been erected and
quently the bricks are suspended from the tie plates indi
the furnace heated up, some fusion may take place be
ditional holddown devices has been unsatisfactory because
tween the fusion plates, the contacting metal-encased
bricks, and ‘the brick refractory to more completely inte
grate the roof.
Furthermore, (as heating within the furnace continues
by continued exposure of the internal surface of the roof
to the furnace ?ame, the ?ame exposed ends of the brick
the basic brick roof expands upwardly when heated
refractory material may burn 0E somewhat.
vidually on wire hangers. Moreover, the individual bricks
have been notched in some manner, and thereby weakened,
to provide for hanging or suspension.
It has been found, however, that a sprung larch roof
having means merely for holding up the brick without ad
At the same
and subsequently collapses. The reason for the ultimate 65 time the inner ends of the individual brick metal casings
collapse of the roof is that when the roof expands up
wardly upon being heated, the weight of the arch, which
tween adjacent bricks than the refractory burn-off. This
was originally borne by the bricks, per se, in complete
burn-01f or burn-back at the ?ame exposed surface of the
surface—to-surface contact with each other, is borne only
roof is accompanied by a rearrangement of the com
as well as the fusion plates may burn back further be
by the lower edges of the bricks. That is, in the expand
pounds and complex reactions under the high operating
ed position the upper brick surface portions move out of
temperatures involved.
Reactions between iron oxide originating from the
complete surface-to-surface contact with each other, leav
3,092,051
4
metal of the brick metal casings and the metal fusion
plates, and the brick refractory material may cause a
swelling of the inner ends of the brick at and adjacent
the ?ame exposed surfaces. In prior constructions, such
swelling sometimes resulted in a build-up of crushing
pressures between adjacent brick which contributed to an
increased spalling eifect.
However, the spaces left in the zones where there has
been fusion plate burn-back, at the intervals along each
course of every three or more brick where the fusion
hung from ?ange means of a third arch beam.
The
bricks ‘thus hung from and held down by the arch beams
cooperate to maintain each brick in complete engagement
with its corresponding beam and with each other. Thus,
the bricks are in effect key-locked together by interen
gagement with each other and the arch beams.
The described advantages and features of the improved
construction cooperate to achieve further all important
advantages and results. Because of the simplicity of the
10 construction, the minimum number of parts required,
plates are located, provide spaces for swelling of the ?ame
exposed brick refractory material ends without a build-up
of damaging, crushing forces incident to swelling.
One of the outstanding aspects and advantages of the
improved ‘construction is that unlike prior constructions 15
it is simple to install and requires ‘a minimum of parts.
and the elimination of form erection and removal, a
furnace is only down or out of opeartion about one-half
of the time heretofore required to rebuild a roof. Thus,
furnace tonnage can be increased by the amount of down
time saved.
Furthermore, aside from actual brick cost which may
be assumed to be the same for any roof regardless of
Inasmuch as each brick is provided with at least one in
tegral hanger member for attaching directly to a ?xed
construction, because of the reduced labor and materials
costs, and because of the time saved in rebuilding, all of
supporting arch beam, rather than being suspended by
which characterize the improved construction, the ma
interconnecting wires, tie plates, etc. of prior construc
terial and labor costs for any roof constructed in accord
tions, no separate arch forms are required to be installed
ance with the invention are approximately one-third of
upon which the improved ‘arched roof is erected. Such
similar costs for prior basic open hearth roof construc~
forms required by prior constructions must be subse
tions.
quently removed after the roof is completed. The ma
In addition to the foregoing, the entire roof asembly
terial and labor installation and removal costs of such 25
may be cooled, if desired, either by water or forced air
temporary arch forms, necessary for erecting arched roofs
of prior construction, are thus completely eliminated.
Moreover, the encased, unnotched basic bricks used in
accordance with the invention, having integral hanger
members or hooks, may be installed readily by unskilled
passed through conduits formed in the arch beams, to
achieve the bene?ts accompanying a cooled furnace roof,
including a longer roof life.
Accordingly, it is a general object of this invention to
labor. Thus, skilled brick masons are not required to lay
provide ‘a new basic open hearth roof construction which
may be installed readily at a minimum cost and with a
up the arched roof, so that an additional cost item is
eliminated.
The elimination of forms required by prior construc
tions for roof erection has a further advantage in accord
ance with the invention. Thus, the improved roof may be
readily, quickly and easily patched at low cost where
necessary, Without the erection and removal of forms by
minimum number of parts.
regular and key brick is the location of the integral hanger
metal-encased, basic brich with integral hanger members
it is another object of this invention to provide a new
basic open hearth roof construction which includes arch
beams at spaced intervals to which each roof brick is sep
arately attached and by which each arch course of bricks
is held in a permanent, ?xed, arched position.
simply removing the bricks requiring replacement and 40 It is another object of this invention to provide a new
basic open hearth roof construction including a plurality
hanging new bricks in their place.
of spaced arch beams to which each brick is held ?xed
With regard to the connecting parts required, each
by direct abutment between each brick and beam, and
brick used in accordance with the present invention has
by which each arch course of bricks is held permanently
its own integral hanger member or means which is at
tached directly to the arch-forming beam rather than in 45 in place against upward expansion which would other
wise result due to the heat of the furnace.
diie'ctly through interconnecting wires, tie plates, etc. as
It is another object of this invention to provide a new
in prior constructions. As a result, the number of dif
basic open hearth roof construction in which the bricks
ferent parts necessary for the improved construction is
in each arch course are held down in side-to-side wedge
maintained at a minimum.
A further aspect of the invention from the standpoint 50 abutment with each other to avoid breaking and spelling
of the brick which could otherwise result from the brick
of 1a reduced number of parts or elements utilized in the
rising
out of abutment and into pinched engagement at
improved construction is that only two different encased,
their lower ends.
unnotched basic bricks are used, namely, a regular brick
It is another object of this invention to provide a new
and a key brick, each of which has the same wedge
shaped con?guration. The only difference between the 55 basic open hearth roof construction utilizing unnotched,
by which the brich are individually and separately se
cured and held ?xed in place on the ?ange of an arch
Moreover, the arch-forming beams include lower ?ange
beam
in erecting the roof without the necessity of install—
means on which the bricks are hung to carry or hold the
weight of the bricks. When the bricks are thus hung, 60 ing temporary arch forms for roof erection.
It is another object of this invention to provide a new
the upper ends of the bricks abut the undersurface of the
basic open hearth roof construction in which the bricks
?ange means so that the bricks also are held down in
of one arch course are separately secured in place on
place in complete side-to-side abutment with each other.
one arch beam and in which the bricks of an adjacent
By bolting down the opposite ends of each beam the en
tire ‘assembly is prevented from expanding or heaving 65 arch course are similarly secured so that edge abutment
between bricks of adjacent courses hold such bricks in
upwardly from the furnace heat in operation.
place.
The arch beams are equally spaced at intervals with a
It is anoher object of this invention to provide a new
spacing substantially equal to the width of two bricks.
basic open hearth roof construction including spaced arch
Thus, the bricks in one course hung from a lower ?ange
at one side of one beam are in abutment with similar 70 beams which hold each course of bricks in ?xed position
by holding up and holding down each arch course of
bricks in an adjacent course hung from a lower ?ange at
bricks.
the other side of an adjacent beam. Similarly, the bricks
hung from the lower ?ange at the other side of said one
It is another object of this invention to provide a new
beam abut with the bricks hung from said one side of said
basic open hearth roof construction in which spaced arch
beams are provided with reinforcing tube means by which
one beam; and also abut similar bricks in a third course
means therefor.
3,092,051
5
6
the furnace roof may be cooled by passing coolant ?uid
through the tube means.
.
Also it is an object of this invention to provide a new
basic open hearth roof construction utilizing only two
different wedge-shaped, unnotched, metal-encased, pref
erably internally reinforced, basic roof brick with lnte
gral hangers and with hanger location being the only
difference between the two different brick.
In addition, it is an object of the present invention
roof for an open hearth furnace in conneciton with
which the invention will be described in detail. How
ever, it is understood that the improved construction may
be used for the roof of any other metallurgical furnace.
The roof 1 includes a plurality of adjacent arched courses
2 of bricks 3. Each course of bricks includes a plurality
of similar regular wedge bricks 3 which are separately
attached to an arched support beam 4. A plurality of
beams 4 are disposed at longitudinally spaced intervals
to provide a new basic open hearth roof construction in 10 across the top of the furnace roof 1 and have ends se
cured at front and back walls in a similar manner.
which burn-off of the ?ame exposed surfaces of the
For example, as shown in FIG. ~l, the courses 2 of
erected roof does not cause excessive deterioration of
bricks 3 rest upon skew brick 5 which rest upon a front
the roof, or spalling and dropping out of portions of
individual brick.
wall 6 and similarly on the back wall (not shown) of the
provide a new basic open hearth furnace roof construc
beams 4 are ?xedly attached to the upper ?ange 7 of a
tion which may be readily and easily patched with a
channel member 8 above the skews 5. The bricks 3 in
Likewise, it is an object of the present invention to 15 furnace. In addition, the lower front ends of the arched
courses 2 are ‘solely, individually, and directly supported
minimum of time and expense, and which may be erected
by the spaced beams 4 and do not depend upon any other
to rebuild a furnace roof in substantially one-half the
elapsed furnace down time heretofore required in rebuild 20 furnace supporting or reinforcing member for their sup
port, such as furnace superstructure 9.
ing basic open hearth furnace roofs.
As shown in FIG. 3, each regular brick 3 is composed
of a solid, unnotched block, internally plated or rein
forced if desired, of refractory material 10, such as mag
tion which accomplishes the foregoing objects and de
siderata in a simple, effective and inexpensive manner. 25 nesite, contained within a metal casing ~11 on the sides
11a and edges 11b of the brick. The upper and lower
These and other objects ‘and advantages, apparent to
ends of the brick as shown are not encased. In addition,
those sldlled in the art from the following description
the casing 1E1 is provided with two hanger members or
and claims, may be obtained, the stated results achieved,
hooks 12 projecting upward from the sides 11a of the
and the described di?iculties overcome, by the apparatus,
constructions, arrangements, combinations, subcombina 30 brick, which are preferably integral with the casing 11.
However, the hangers 12 may be separate metal pieces
tions, elements, parts, and principles, which comprise the
secured to the casing as by welding, where the hooks 12
present invention, the nature of which is set forth in
cannot be fabricated readily as integral parts of the casing
the foregoing general statements, preferred embodiments
11.
of which—illustrative of the best modes in which appli
The brick 3 has a wedge shape with the upper end be
cants have contemplated applying the principles—are set 35
Finally, it is an object of the present invention to
provide a new basic open hearth furnace roof construc
tween sides 11a thicker than the lower end so that when
placed together the bricks form the arched courses 2 as
shown in FIG. 1. Although the bricks 3‘ are preferably
provided with two hooks as ‘shown in FIG. 3, the bricks
In the drawings which illustrate the new roof con
struction diagrammatically:
40 may include only one hook 12, such as shown in FIG. 1.
Two hooks '12 are preferred to enable placement of each
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a roof
brick 3 in a balanced position on the beam 4 although
of an open hearth furnace constructed in accordance with
one book is su?icient for holding a brick in place
the invention showing the manner in which the basic
The manner in which the bricks 3 are attached to .the
‘brick are separately attached in place directly to arched
arch beams 4 is more particularly shown in FIG. 2, in
support beams;
which each beam 4 is composed of a tubular member or
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view
pipe 13 having an inverted ‘T-beam 141 secured to the
showing one embodiment of the bricks and the manner
undersurface of the member '13, such as by welding. In
in which they are assembled;
the alternative, the beam '4 may comprise an H- or I
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an unnotched, metal
forth in the following description and shown in the draw
ings, and which are particularly and distinctly pointed out
and set forth in the appended claims forming part hereof.
encased, wedged basic open hearth brick of regular con 50 beam preformed to the radius of the ‘desired arch.
In FIG. 2 each regular brick 3 is secured by the hooks
12 to a ?ange 15 extending from one of the opposite
sides of the axis of the beam 4. In that manner the bricks
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a generally similar key
in adjacent courses abutting each other between each pair
brick having differently located hanger means used to
of beams 4 hold each other in place to prevent them from
complete and lock each arch course of brick;
55 slipping out of hooked engagement with the ?anges 15.
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a fusion plate which is
A new roof is preferably installed by inserting the bricks
installed at spaced intervals of three or more bricks in
in the space between the beams 4 and engaging the hooks
each course and spanning two adjacent courses;
12 over a ?ange 15 as shown in the drawings.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the
Installation of each course of bricks starts from op
manner in which the key bricks are locked in place in 60
posite skews of which only the front skew 5‘ is shown,
the various arch courses;
and continues upwardly to the center of the arch where,
FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic view showing the manner in
struction having metal integral hanger members and used
in the improved roof construction;
which a water coolant system for the roof may be in—
stalled in conjunction with -a coolant system for furnace
doors and door frames;
FIG. 8 is a plan view showing the manner in which the
ends of adjacent arch beams are bolted in place;
FIG. 9 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line
because of space limitations, one or more key bricks 16
(FIG. 4) are placed. The Wedge key brick 16 is similar
in all respects to the regular wedge brick 3 except that
65 the key brick is provided with a single hanger member
or hook '17 extending upwardly from one edge 11b of
the brick rather than from one or both sides 11a of the
brick 3, as shown in FIG. 3. By such construction the
9—9 of FIG. 8; and
key brick 516 may be laterally inserted into place without
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary elevational view of a por 70 the necessity of sliding the ‘key bricks both longitudinally
tion of the ?ame exposed ends of the roof brick after
and transversely of the beams 4 as is necessary for hang
some ‘burn-off has occurred.
Similar numerals refer to similar parts throughout the
several ?gures of the drawings.
ing the wedge bricks 3 in place. With the regular Wedge
brick 3 additional room is needed for inserting the brick
laterally to engage the hangers 12. with a beam ?ange 15
In FIG. 1 a roof 1 is generally indicated as a basic 75 and then sliding the hooks 12 into place along ?ange 15.
3,092,051
7
8
However, the key bricks 16 may be inserted by sliding
eliminated in prior attempts to provide all-basic ‘brick
roofs in metallurgical furnaces, and particularly for open
laterally into place and when in place a short rod 18 is
inserted beneath the books 17 with opposite end portions
of the rod resting upon the flanges 15 of adjacent beams 4.
As shown in ‘FIG. 1, a number of key bricks 16, such as
three or more, may be installed in each arch course,
preferably at the center or uppermost portion of each
course 2 of bricks.
hearth furnaces where very high temperatures of opera
tion are involved.
The roof construction of the present invention solves
the long-existing problems of expansion in an all-basic
brick open hearth furnace roof in the manner described. ,
Where no means are provided to prevent expansion of an
Each course 2 of bricks is provided with a plurality of
arch course of basic brick, as the lower end portions of
fusion plates 19 which are situated as shown in FIG. 1, 10 the brick expand, the bricks tend to rise upward, and the
at spaced intervals preferably of three bricks, although
upper portions of the brick necessarily move out of con
any desired fusion plate spacing may be used, depending
upon the furnace design, size, operating conditions, etc.
The fusion plate ‘19 preferably includes a lower rec
tact with each other, leaving a wedge-shaped ‘space usually
between each pair of bricks. Simultaneously the entire
arch course heaves upwardly out of its original shape and
tangular portion which is disposed between the bricks 3, 15 location. As a result, the weight 'of the load of the entire
having a length equal to the length of the brick 3 and a
width equal to the width of two bricks 3. ‘In addition,
the plate 19 includes an upper ?n portion 20 of substan
tial area separated from the lower portion of the plate
arch course is borne by relatively small end portions of
expanded brick which, being weaker at the higher tem
perature of operation of the furnace, crack and spell 01?.
This process continues until entire bricks drop out and the
by oppositely inwardly extending siots 2.1. The ?n por 20 roof ultimately fails.
tions above the slots serve as books for engaging oppo
As shown in FIG. 2, the upper ends of each brick 3 are
sitely disposed ?anges I15 of two adjacent beams 4 (FIG.
in ?at surface abutment with the undersides of the ?anges
2). The fusion plates 159 are formed of much heavier
‘E5 of the l-beams l4; and, as shown in FIGS. 1, 8, and 9,
gauge metal than the gauge of the brick casing metal.
the opposite ends of the beams 4 are secured by the bolts
Thus the thick fusion plates 19 conduct heat outwardly 25 25 to the channel members 8 so that each beam 4 is held
from the bricks to the ?n portions 20 and arch beams 4
in place. Thus it is impossible for the bricks themselves
which dissipate the heat into the atmosphere above the
or the arched courses 2 of bricks 3 to rise due to any ex
roof.
pansion ‘of the lower end portions of the bricks, as was
The plates 19 also serve a purpose of facilitatiing ex
the case heretofore in prior basic brick roofs. Thus the
pansion of flame exposed ends of the brick 3 by minimiz 30 bricks are held in complete surface-to-surface contact be
ing the effect of such expansion. As shown in FIG. 10,
tween their wedge sides lla with each other.
the bricks 3 when the roof is erected have original lower
The fusion plates 19 cooperate with the beams 4 to
?ame exposed end surfaces indicated by the dot-dash line
prevent
the arch courses 2 of bricks 3 from heaving or
22. After the furnace has been heated and in operation
at temperatures above 3000" F. and usually at 3100 35 swelling upwardly. As indicated, the lower ends of the
fusion plates 1%‘ ‘melt away and recede upwardly at a
3250" -F., the ?ame exposed refractory material ends of
faster rate than the bricks 3, thereby providing space into
the brick 3 may burn oif or burn back somewhat as in
which the lower end portions 24 of the bricks may swell
dicated in full lines in FIG. 10 at 23. At the same time,
or expand.
the inner ends of the individual metal casing for the
The beams 4 perform the double function of holding up
brick may‘burn back further, between adjacent bricks,than 40
and holding down each individual brick. Moreover, if
the refractory burn-off, as indicated in full lines at 23a
for any reason, one or more bricks should drop out of
in FIG. 10. Similarly, the thicker metal fusion plates may
place, each of the remaining bricks is held in place sepa
burn back further than the refractory burn-off, as indi
rately by the hooks 12 as well as by the edge-to-edge
cated at 23!) in FIG. '10.
abutment between adjoining bricks in adjacent courses.
This burn-off or burn-back of both refractory material
The beams 4 are each rigid members composed of a
and metal at the ?ame exposed surface of the roof is ac
durable material such as steel and each has a shape of
companied by a rearrangement of the components and
complex reactions under the high operating temperatures
involved.
Reactions between iron oxide originating from the metal
of the metal casings and metal fusion plates and from the
furnace atmosphere, and the brick refractory material
may cause a swelling or expansion of the inner, hotter
ends of the brick at and adjacent the ?ame exposed sur
faces, as indicated at 24 in FIG. 10. In prior construc
tions, such swelling as well as the high expansion rate of
basic brick sometimes resulted in a build-up of crushing
pressures between the lower ends of the brick longitu
dinally of each arch course, which contributed to an in
a tube over an inverted T-beam as shown in the drawings,
or of an H-beam or an l-beam of suitable height. Where
the beam 4 has the con?guration shown in the drawings
including a tubular member or pipe 13, the beam 3‘ not
only has a rigid structure but the pipe 13 provides a pas
sage for fluid cooling means for each beam as well as
for adjacent bricks 3‘ and fusion plates 19.
When the roof is installed each beam ii is placed in
position and secured in place by the bolts 25 at each end.
For receiving the bolts 25, each end of the beam prefer
ably is provided with an angle member 26‘ having a bolt
slot 27 (FIG. 8) extending transversely to the axis of the
beam 4. Bolt slots 23 are also provided in the upper
However, in the improved construction of the inven 60 ?ange 0f the channel members 3, which slots extend per
pendicular to the slots 27‘ in the angle members 26. This
tion, with the heavy fusion plates located as described,
arrangement of slots 27-28 permits the ends of the arch
the spaces left (see 241: between dot-dash lines indicating
beams 4 to come and go incident to expansion and con
spaces occupied by plates 19 before burn-elf) in zones
traction of the beams as the furnace is heated and cooled.
where there has been fusion plate burn-back, at intervals
65
As shown in FIG. 7, the tubular portion 13 of the
along each arch course of brick, provide space for swell
ing 24 of the ?ame exposed and burnt-back brick re
beams 4 may be connected with a water coolant system
fractory material ends. Thus there is no build-up of
by providing interconnecting conduits 29 at the rear ends
damaging, crushing forces incident to swelling or ex
of the beam 4; and by providing conduits 3t} and 3-1 con
pansion of the refractory at the ?ame exposed ends of
nected with the conventional water cooling means for an
the brick and spalling thereof is substantially reduced, the 70 open hearth door 32 and 'door frame 33. In the alterna
surfaces fusing to form a ‘hard, efficient, integrated, ?ame
tive, the pipe 13 may be used as an air-conducting con
creased spalling effect.
exposed surface.
These swelling and expansion problems encountered in
the use of basic brick for open hearth furnace roofs here~
tofore have presented di?iculties that have not been
duit for an air cooling system rather than for a water
cooling system.
Accordingly, the present invention provides a basic brick
3,092,051
10
roof construction for open hearth furnaces that eliminates
prior art difficulties by providing means for not only hold
ing up the brick separately and individually but also for
ments, combinations, subcombinations, elements, parts,
holding down each individual brick and for preventing
obvious to those skilled in the art are set forth in the
by; the new and useful apparatus, constructions, arrange
principles and discoveries, and mechanical equivalents
arch courses of basic brick from ‘rising due to expansion
appended claims.
which occurs at elevated temperatures.
What is claimed is:
Shch means also includes the rigid arch beam, the op
v1. In an all basic furnace roof, a series of spaced brick
posite ends of which are secured in place on opposite
supporting and hold~down beams extending over the fur
sides of the furnace. With each brick individually at
nace and having opposite ends secured to opposite side
tached to a beam and with ‘the upper end surface of each 10 walls of a furnace, a series of adjacent courses of solid,
brick in abutment with the undersurface of the beam, the
unnotched, basic material bricks, each brick having a
bricks during any tendency of expansion are maintained
metal casing for the ‘four sides of the basic material of
in their original position. Moreover, the means includes
the fusion plates which not only dissipate heat from the
said brick, the casing being provided at its upper end with
surfaces ‘of the bricks but also upon burn-off provide ex
pansion or swelling space for the ?ame exposed end por
tions of the brick.
at least one beam-engaging hook, the hook being secured
15 directly to one of the beams, each hook projecting up
ward from the side of the brick and being integral with
the casing, each hook being .engageable with and disen
In addition, the arched beam may be provided with
gageable from one side of the beam, the series of courses
either water or air cooling means that may or may not
of bricks being grouped in pairs of adjacent courses in
be used in conjunction with the typical water cooling 20 which all of the bricks of one pair of courses are secured
system for the doors and door frames of open hearth
to one beam and all of the bricks in an adjacent pair of
furnaces.
courses are secured to an adjacent beam, the bricks in
Furthermore, the new basic brick roof construction pro
one course of a pair of courses being in edge-to-edge sur
face abutment at one edge with edges of bricks in the
expense because of the elimination of the need for tem 25 adjacent course of the pair of courses, the bricks in said
porary forms for holding the bricks in the proper arch
one course also being in edgeeto-edge surface abutment at
another edge with edges of bricks in another adjacent
location during erection, as well as the elimination of the
need for skilled brick masons, because the improved con
course of another pair of courses, each beam having an
vides for the installation of a new roof at a minimum of
struction may be installed by relatively unskilled labor.
Other important aspects of the invention are the use
undersurface of substantial area extending in opposite
directions from a plane passing through said edge-to-edge
of unnotched, metal-encased, wedged basic brick with
hangers integral with the casing, and the cooperative rela
surface abutment of bricks in a pair of courses, the upper
end of each brick in each course being engaged in sur
iface-to-surface abutment with the undersurface of the
tion thereof to the arch beams which hold each brick
down and from which each brick hangs. The unnotched
character of each brick provides a solid refractory body
of maximum strength, eliminating the weakness intro
duced into the refractory material of prior basic open
hearth furnace roof brick by notches or cavities always
present in prior constructions.
Further, since each brick is suspended through its
casing and held down by top end abutment with the arch
beam, the dead weight of each brick is supported by
the wedge shape of its casing and not through the body
of the refractory material itself. Thus each brick is sup
ported and held in ?xed position in its arch course with
out introducing any tensional stresses in the refractory
body of the brick.
Also, during burn-off of the ?ame exposed ends of
the brick, brick casing material and fusion plates, and the
complex reactions occurring, there may be some bonding,
beam to which the brick is secured, and said edge-to-edge
35 surface abutment of the bricks in a course of one pair of
courses with bricks in a course of another pair of courses
holding said bricks in hooked engagement with the beams
to which the bricks are secured, whereby each brick in
every course is held down in position by its surface-to
40 surface abutment with the undersurface of the beam to
which the brick is secured.
2. The construction de?ned in claim 1 in which the
undersurface of each beam is in substantial horizontal
alignment at any section with the undersuriface of the
45 adjacent beams.
3. In an all-basic furnace roof arch, a series of spaced
arched brick-supporting and holddown beams extend~
ing over the furnace and having opposite ends secured to
opposite side walls of the furnace, a series of arched
50 courses of solid .unnotched basic material wedge bricks,
welding or fusion between any two or all of the refrac
each brick in any course having a metal casing for the
tory material, metal casing material and fusion plates,
four sides of the basic material of said brick, the casing
which, coupled with the wedge shape of each brick cas
being provided at its upper end with at least one beam
ing tend to hold the refractory material intact, even
engaging hook, each beam having a center web por
though some spalling or cracking of the refractory ma 55 tion and having ?anges extending horizontally in op
terial may be initiated. These characteristics of the im
posite directions from the web portion, said flanges hav
proved construction, coupled with the space accommoda
ing an undersurface of substantial area, the beam-engag
tion for swelling during burn-off provided by the heavy
ing hook of each brick being directly secured to and on
metal fusion plates, result in a minimum of deteriora
one side of a ?ange of the beam, the series of courses of
tion, spalling, cracking and dropping out of refractory 60 bricks being grouped in pairs of adjacent courses in which
material at the flame exposed surface of the roof dur
all of the bricks of one pair of courses are secured to one
ing high temperature ‘furnace operation and heating and
beam and all of the bricks in an adjacent pair of courses
cooling periods.
The description of the improved open hearth roof con
are secured to an adjacent beam, the bricks in one course
of a pair of courses being in edge-to-edge surface abut
struction is by way of example and the scope of the in 65 ment at one edge with edges of bricks in the adjacent
course of the pair of courses, the bricks in said one
the speci?c sizes of brick, fusion plates and roof shown,
course also being in edge-to~edge surface abutment at
or to the particular refractory composition of the basic
another edge with edges of bricks in another adjacent
brick described, since these details, sizes and composition
course of another pair of courses, the upper end of each '
may be varied to suit the conditions or speci?cations of 70 brick in each course being engaged in surface-to-surface
any particular furnace involved.
abutment with the undersurface of the beam to which
Having now described the features, discoveries and
the brick is secured, and said edge-to-edge surface abut
vention is not limited to the exact details illustrated or to
principles of the invention, the construction and opera
ment of the bricks in a course of one pair of courses
tion of the new basic brick open hearth furnace roof, and
with bricks in a course of another pair of courses holding
the advantageous, new and useful results obtained there 75 said bricks in hooked engagement with the ?anges, where
3,092,051
12
11
by each course ‘of bricks is held down in place against
upward movement by the beam during furnace opera
tion.
4. In an all-basic furnace root‘, a series of spaced brick
hold-down beams extending over the furnace and having
opposite ends secured to opposite side Walls of a furnace,
a series of adjacent courses of solid, unnotched, basic
material bricks, each brick having a metal casing for the
four sides of the basic material of said brick, the series
beam, and said edge-to-edge surface abutment of the
bricks in adjacent courses holding the bricks in lateral
alignment with their corresponding beams, whereby each
brick in every course is held down in position by its sur<
tace-to-surface abutment with the undersurface of its
corresponding beam.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
of courses of bricks being grouped in pairs of adjacent 10
1,463,240
Biglow ______________ __ July 31, 1923
courses, the bricks in one course of a pair of courses
1,472,945
1,896,769
1,948,093
2,781,006
2,930,601
Strachota ____________ __ Nov. 6,
Davis et a1 _____________ __ Feb. 7,
Baird et al ____________ __ Feb. 20,
Heuer _______________ __ Feb. 12,
Heuer ______________ __ Mar. 29,
courses, each brick in a given course having a beam-en
2,932,265
3,005,423
Heuer _______________ __ Apr. 12, 1960
Longenecker _________ __ Oct. 24, 1961
gaging hook extending above and integral With the eas
3,005,424
:I-Ieuer _______________ __ Oct. 24, 1961
523,620
938,265
1,014,200
Italy _______________ __ Apr. 18, 1955
Germany ____________ __ Jan. 26, 1956
France ______________ __ 'May 28, 1952
1,072,449‘
1,187,813
France ______________ .._ Mar. 17, 1954
France ______________ __ Mar. 9, 1959
being in edge-to-edge surface abutment at one edge with
the edges of bricks in the adjacent course of the pair of
courses, the bricks in said one course also being in edge
to~edge surface abutment at another edge with edges of
bricks in another adjacent course of another pair of
ing and being engageable with and disengageable from
one side of the beam, each beam having an undersurface
of substantial area extending in opposite directions from
a plane passing through said edge-to-edge surface abut
ment of bricks in a pair of courses, the upper end of each
brick in each course being engaged in surface-.to-surface
abutment with the undersurface of its corresponding 25
v1923
1933
1934
1957
1960
FOREIGN PATENTS
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