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Патент USA US3092159

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June 4, 1963
w. Y. ROBE
Filed May 4, 1962
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
June 4, 1963
w. Y. ROBB
Filed May 4, 1962
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Qëwm 14W@
United States
rics having an embossed yor plain effect with or without
cut pile loop according to pattern requirements.
poration of Massachusetts
Filed May 4, 1962, Ser. No. 192,578
3 Claims. (Cl. 139-46)
Patented .lune 4, 1963
Walter Y. Robb, Whitinsville, Mass., assigner to Cromp
ton & Knowles Corporation, Worcester, Mass., a cor
And yet another object of the invention is to provide
the body member and the pile former respectively with
Ul forward «outside parallel sides Áand forward parallel sur
faces so correlated as to correspond and be co-extensive
to each other upon assembly to insure the same thick
ness of the pile wire from the point where the loops are
formed to its extreme forward end.
This invention in general relates to pile wire looms
operating with longitudinal pile wires utilized to produce
fabrics with pile loops and/or pile tufts, and it is the
A further object of the invention is to provide the
slot defined by said »forwardly extending arms with
bridging elements for locking coaction with comple
general object of the invention to provide a pile Wire
with a removable pile former to facilitate convenient and
rapid removal of the pile former for ready replacement '
mentary means on said pile formers.
A still further object of the invention is to make a
pile former with a forward and rear portion, said rear
thereof to effect a change in the face of one fabric from
portion being thinner than the forward portion and ex
tending into said slot for locking relationship to said
that of another.
The type of looms referred to above has already gone
into extensive commercial use, but these looms employ
unitary pile wires each of which has a pile former in
tegral therewith and having a depending rear end extend
ing below the usual shed forming warp threads so as to
be stationarily mounted on pile wire supporting means,
also below the Warp threads and rearwardly of the usual
reciprocating lay. When such a unitary pile wire re
`alrrns and said forward portion -being provided with
vertically transverse shoulders for abutment with the
extreme forward edges of said arms.
And yet a still further object of the invention is to
make a pile former with longitudinal extending shoulders
for engagement with the top surfaces of the arms.
With these and other objects in view which will appear
quires removal and replacement because of wear or 25 as the description proceeds, the invention resides in
the combination and arrangement of parts in the accom
other damage, which in most instances occurs to the pile
forming part, or because it is desired to Weave a pile
fabric different than that being woven, the complete pile
wire must be removed and then replaced by another com
plete pile wire. Replacement of unitary pile Wires has
the disadvantage of being expensive since the complete
pile wire must be discarded. Another disadvantage, which
panying Idrawings which illustrate the embodiments of
the invention and in which
FIG. 1 »is a fragmentary side elevation of a pile fabric
loom having the preferred 4form of the invention applied
thereto, certain lof the parts being in section and certain
of the parts being broken away,
FIG. 2 is «an enlarged elevational partial view of the
is most annoying and aggrava-ting as well as expensive,
two-part pile Wire, certain of the parts being broken
«is the unwanted down time of the loom when a pile wire
is to be replaced either >because of the aforementioned 35 away .and in section for clarity, and schematically show
damage or replacement to change the pile pattern. As
ing ‘a loop forming operation.
is well known, there are a great mmy pile wires extend
ing across the loom spaced from but close to each other
such that, because of their location with respect to the
shed and the lay and the manner in which the depending
FIG. 3 is a plan view looking in the direction of ar
row 3, FIG. 2,
ends are mounted, accessibility thereto and removal and
FIGS. 4 and 5 are enlarged cross sections taken re
spectively on lines 4-4 and 5_5 of FIG. 3,
-FIG. 6 is an operational view illustrating in what man
replacement thereof without disturbing adjacent pile wires
ner a pile for-mer lcan be removed from vthe pile wire,
FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate modified forms of pile formers
is most difficult and bothersome.
I-t is therefore a prime object of the invention to elimi 45 usable with the body member of the pile wire in the
nate or at least greatly reduce the disadvantages dis
preferred form of the invention,
FIG. 9 is an enlarged vertical section taken on line
cussed above by making a two-piece pile wire including
a main body member forming one piece of the two-piece
9-‘9 of FIG. 8,
pile wire and a pile former forming the other piece at
FIG. 10 is an enlarged partial plan view of the for
tached stationarily with respect to but readily remov 50 ward end tof the pile wire of the preferred form of the
able from said member if so desired or needed without
invention, minus a pile former,
disturbing or removing the main body member.
FIG. 11 is an enlarged fragmentary bottom view look
It is another object of the invention to provide lock
ing in the direction of arrow 11, FIG. 2, with certain
ing means to hold the two pieces removably together to
parts removed,
FIG. 12 is an elevational view of the pile former shown
prevent any relative movement therebetween, the locking 55
means including coacting counterparts on the body mem
in FIG. 8,
FIG. 13 is an enlarged plan view looking in the direc
ber and the pile former capable of effecting a locking
relationship such as to permit easy unlocking to replace the
tion :of arrow '13, FIG. 12,
FIGS. 14 and l5 are fragmentary elevations of fur
pile former.
Another object of the invention is to provide the body 60 ther modiiications of the invention, and
FIGS. 16-20 inclusive are fragmentary views illustrat
member with a pair of transversely spaced forwardly
ing, by way of example, various fabrics which can ‘be
extending longitudinal arms to define a slot therebetween
produced according to the present invention.
to receive therein the rear portion or shank of a pile
Referring now particularly to FIG. 1, a pair of loom
former in locking relationship with said arms, the for
Ward portion of the pile former extending forwardly 65 side frames 1 and 2 suitably journal therebetween a
reciprocating shaft 3 which mounts a reed supporting
beyond said arms for operative connection to the fabric
lay 4 holding a series of reed dents S in transverse spaced
being woven.
relationship across the width of the loom. As is usual
Still another object of the invention is to provide
during loom operation, the idents will be reciprocated
pile formers of varing heights with or without loop 70 forwardly and backwardly between the full and dotted
cutting blades #capable of being utilized with a pile body
member common to said pilev formers to produce fab
line positions to effect beat-up of the fillingv thread `6 intro
the fell of the pile fabric `generally designated respec
tively by the reference numerals 7 and `8.
`46 and 47 engage the pile former in a manner to retain
The fabric `8 is advanced forwardly over a cloth board
the latter removably attached to the body member 32.
It is to be understood that the locking means 46 and 47
need not be as specifically described in that they may be
9 by a fabric takeup mechanism, not shown but well
known in the art. Extending rearwardly from the well 7,
altered and relocated with respect to the arms 34 and 35
upper and lower sheets of warp threads, represented
by lines 12 and 13 respectively, `form the ground wea've
without departing from the spirit and scope of the inven
tion as would also be true of the U-shaped part of the
of the fabric and are periodically raised and lowered by
the usual harness frames 14 and 15 respectively to pro
slot and edges 37-40 inclusive and edges 43 and 44.
Referring once again to FIGURES 1-6 inclusive, pile
former 48, considered as the other piece of the two-piece
pile wire, is provided with a forward snub-nose 49 adja
vide new sheds, one of which is shown at 16, for the
insertion of the filling thread 6 to be incorporated into
the ground weave.
As shown in FIG. 1, a pile yarn comb generally desig
nated by numeral 17 has depending therefrom a set of
teeth 18 which extend across the loom and between each
of which a pile forming yarn 19 is raised by a harness
frame 22 in usual fashion after which the comb is moved
transversely to shift the pile yarns to one or another
cent to which a loop cutting blade 52 is añixed in well
known manner to cut the loops to form cut loops or tufts
as oftentimes called. Pile former 48 has a forward thick
ened portion 53, usually operatively connected to the
fabric being woven, from which a rear portion or shank
54 thinner than portion 53 extends rearwardly into slot
36 between arms 34 and 35 for locking relationship sta
of the sides of the pile wires, yet to be described, where
tionarily with respect thereto via stud 46 and projection
upon the pile yarns are lowered to form pile loops one
47. Portion 53 extends forwardly from said slot and
of which is shown in FIG. 2 for example as at 23. The
portion 54 extends into the slot. Portion 53 and shank
loops then are progressively moved forwardly by the
54 provides a pair of vertically transverse shoulders 55
reed to be incorporated into the fabric.
and 56, see particularly FIG. 11, for abutting engagement
Still referring to FIG. l, a pile wire support located
with edges 43 and 44 respectively. Shank 54 is provided
rearwardly of lay 4 below shed 16 and generally desig
with a pair of notches one of which is a downwardly
nated as at 24 extends across the loom and is attached to 25 open notch 57 and the other an upwardly open notch
the lioomside frames 1 and 2 by bolts 25, only those be
58 formed by lugs 59 and 6i), the notches 57 and 58
ing shown with reference to frame 1. A pair of pile wire
being the counterpart means respectively for stud 46
clamping bars 26 and 27 fixed to support 24 in any ap
and projecting tongue 47 to complete the locking means
proved manner acts to firmly clamp and hold the pile
to hold the pile former stationary with respect to the
wires in vertical disposition across the loom stationarily
member 32 and removably attached thereto to permit
with respect thereto.
ready removal and replacement of pile formers to effect
a change in the face of a fabric.
The matter thus far described is of well known con
struction and operation and forms no part of the present
'From an inspection of FIGS. 3 and l0, it will be
invention except insofar as it relates to the pile wires.
noted that member 32 has forward outside parallel sides
In carrying the present invention into effect and with 35 63 and 64 which correspond to and coincide respectively
reference to FIGS. 1-~6 inclusive, a two-piece longitudi
with forward outside parallel surfaces 65 and 66 of
nal pile wire generally designated by 28 is provided with
portion 53 so as to maintain the thickness of the two
a depending rear end 29 for stationary attachment to the
aforedescribed support 24. End 29 may also be consid~
part pile wire the same at the points where the loops are
formed and along the path lof travel thereof during pro
ered as a downwardly extending leg. The pile wire in 40 . gressive forward movement of the loops by the reed as
described hereinbefore.
cludes an upwardly extending flat body member 32 in~
tegral with rear end 29 and an 'opposite forward free
As will be noted in FIG. 6, the height H of the greater
end generally designated by 33 for operative connection
length of portion 53 and shank 54 is the same as the
to the fabric 8. Member 32 may be considered as one
height h of arms 34 and 35 to form loops of the same
piece of the two-piece pile wire 28.
height, but the invention is not limited to this particular
`End 33 extends forwardly from member 32 and is
height since it is obvious that, by reason of the vertical
formed with a pair of longitudinal transversely spaced
elongation of slot 36 as at 67, height H of different pile
arms 34 and 35 to define therebetween a vertically dis
formers may be varied as described to produce pile loops
posed longitudinal slot 36 therebetween, see particularly
of varying heights without necessarily changing the
height lz.
FIGS. 3 and 4. As can readily be seen in FIGS. 3, 6
and 10, slot 36 is open-ended on three sides as defined
In all forms of the invention, member 32 is substan
by top edges 37 and 38, opposite bottom edges 39 and
tially the same except as noted -hereinafter with regard
40, and extreme forward edges 43 and 44 all respectively
to the modified forms of the invention described below.
of arms 34 and 35. Slot 36 extends rearwardly into end
‘In the modified form of the invention shown in FIG. 7,
33 in a manner so as to be closed at its upper end as at
45 to partially close slot 36. Slot 36 is open-ended on
member 32, its end 33 and its arms 34 and 35 and the
locking means thereof are utilized with a pile former 72
three sides throughout the greater part of its length, the
remaining length of the slot being closed at its upper
having a rounded nose 73 which may or may not have
end so that slot 36 for said remaining length is of inverted
U-shaped configuration.
a cutting blade adjacent thereto as indicated by broken
lines 74 depending upon whether the loops are to be
cut or produce tufts.
Pile former 72 has a top surface
Arms 34 and 35 are provided with forward and rear
75 coextensive with top edges 37 and 38 and extending
slot bridging elements 46 and 47 respectively, element 46
from nose 73 in a manner such that the pile former 72
being in the form of a stud and element 47 in the form
throughout the entire pile forming length is of a height
of a projecting tongue integral with and extending down
equal to height lt mentioned hereinbefore. Except for
wardly from closure 45 with respect to end 33 into and
the matter just described, the remaining structure of pile
adjacent the one end of slot 36 while forward element
46 is anchored to arms 34 and 35 at the other end of
former 72 is identical to pile former 48 and therefore
it is deemed unnecessary to further elaborate on the struc
the slot adjacent edges 43 and 44. Stud 46 and project
ture of pile former 72 with reference to a thickened
ing tongue 47 act as locking means in cooperation with
portion, a shank and the locking means with reference
their counterparts on a pile former to lock the latter to
to end 33. From an inspection of FIG. 7, it will be seen
said body member and generally indicated by reference
numeral 48 to be more fully described hereinafter. Mem
ber 32 forms one piece of the two~piece pile wire and
that the pile loops formed will be of the same height and
will be readily incorporated with the pile fabric because
of rounded nose 73 as opposed to snub nose 49 when a
pile former 4S forms the other piece. Bridging elements 75 loop cutter is not employed. In the event that the pile
9. Top surface 123 of thickened portion 122 extends
forwardly and converges substantially downwardly as at
loops are to be cut to produce tufts, blade 74 can be
attached to pile former 72 in any approved manner.
124 to form a somewhat triangular nose 125. As in all
FIGS. 8, 9- and 12 illustrate another form of the inven
forms of the invention, the height HC, FIG. 15, may be
tion which also utilizes member 32 and its end 33» as in
the preferred form ofthe invention. As described here- 5 varied in order to form different height loops and may
also be provided with a loop cutting blade if so desired,
inbefore, end 33 is provided with slot 36 and vertical
which would also be true of FIG. 14. When a blade is
elongation thereof 4as at 67 to receive fully therein the
used with pile formers in any form of the invention, the
shank 76 of a pile former generally designated as at 77.
pile former may be considered as tuft forming means.
Pile former 77 has a rounded nose 78 similar to nose
FIG. 16 shows a fragmentary view of a tufted pile
73 and is provided with a thickened portion 79 similar 10
fabric generally indicated at FA. which could be made
to thickened portion 53 in the preferred fo-rm of the in
by using pile formers of any form o-f the invention of the
vention, thickened portion 79 extending rearwardly as at
same height with blades to cut the loops into tufts T
80 to overlap arm 34 and 35 with elongated shoulders 82
formed by the pile fonmers. This type of fabric may be
and 83 respectively which engage surfaces 3,7 and 38
of arms 34 and 35. 'Shank 76 is provided with a down- 15 considered as a plain tufted fabric, i.e., having tufts of
the same height.
wardly open notch 84 and an upwardly open notch 85
FIG. 17 is a fragmentary view of part of another pile
for locking relationship respectively with stud 46 and
fabric FB in which -the loops L are uncut and may be pro
projection 47 on end 33. Pile former 77 is also provided
duced with any of the modified types of pile formers
with a pair of transverse shoulders "86 which abut edges
43 and 44 similarly as in the preferred form of the in- 20 when the loop cutting blades are omitted from the pile
formers; and, as can be seen, this fab-ric would be indi
vention and the modified form of FIG. 7. Notch 85 is
cative of a plain, uncut loop pile fabric.
defined by a pair of lugs 87 and 88 similar in many re
FIG. 18 shows a fabric FC having cut and uncut loo-ps
spects to lugs 59‘ and 60l of the preferred form of the in
of varying heights to produce an embosed effect capable
vention. It will be noted that height HA is the same as
that of vertical elongation 67 so that the height of the pile 25 of being produced by utilizing the vario-us types of pile
formers set fort herein.
loops formed by pile for-mer 77 will be somewhat higher
FIG. 19 further illustrates a type of fabric FD having
than those loops formed by pile fonmers 48 and 72. It
an embossed effect in which all the loops are cut to form
is to be understood, of course, that various heights of
various heights of tufts, this type of fabric, of course, re
pile wires may be formed to cover the range between
heights H and HA. Also pile former 77 may carry, if 30 quiring that the type of pile former disclosed herein be
desired, a pile loop cutting blade indicated by reference
provided with a pile cutting blade.
~FIG. 20 illustrates a fabric FE having an embossed ef
numeral 89 by dot and dash lines as shown clearly in
fect formed by various heights of uncut loops which
FIG. 8. In both forms of the invention shown in FIGS.
would be formed by the type of pile formers shown in
7 and 8 the usage of a cutter blade is optional and is
merely illustrated to indicate that the loops formed can 35 the modified forms of the invention minus the loop cut
be cut to produce tufts of varying heights in a range be
Referring »to FIG. 6, in the event a pile former is
tween those heights of loops formed ‘by FIG. 7 and those
damaged or wears, or is to be replaced in order to change
formed by FIG. 8.
the face of the fabric, removal of a pile former is a very
FIG. 14 shows another form of the invention in which
a 2-piece pile wire generally indicatedvby the number 9i) 40 simple matter. By turning the pile former in the direc
tion of arrows A and B and then moving it along in the
has a forward end 91 having a pair of arms 93, only one
direction of arrow C, removal of the pile former is readily
of which is shown, similar to arms 34 and 35 of the pre
accomplished. Thereafter a new pile former may be sub
fered form of the invention. A slot 94 similar to slot 36
stituted by inserting it generally reversely in the direction
and open-ended on three sides is formed by the arms 93
and has a closure 95 to form a U-shaped slot of inverted 45 of the arrows just discussed. This general procedure of
removal and replacement would also be true in all forms
configuration at the rear end of slot 94. End 91 is
of the invention. Hence, there will be no need to disturb
formed with a locking tongue 96 extending into a com
or detach a complete pile wire when replacement of a pile
plementary notch 97 in a shank 98 extending rearward
former is needed or desired.
ly from thickened portion 99 of a pile former generally
From the foregoing it will be seen that the invention
indicated at 10i). Pile former 100 is provided with a rear- 50
provides a simple Z-piece pile wire with which a pile
wardly extending thickened portion 10‘1 to straddle arms
93 in a manner similar to thickened portion 8l)y of FIG.
8. Portion 1011 has a pair of elongated shoulders 102,
former removably attached thereto can be readily re- . ’
moved and different pile formers substituted therefor in
the event of damage or wear thereto or replacement be
only one of which is shown, and similar to shoulders S2
and 83. An undercut surface 103 as shown in FIG. 14, 55 cause of the requirements in a change in the pattern of
the pile fabric. Also, it will be seen that simple locking
extends into slot 94 and is below a top surface 104 which
means have been provided in all forms of the invention
extends forwardly to an arcuately sloping nose 10S.
such that removal and substitution of a pile former is
Arms 93 are provided with a stud 106 similar to stud 46
accomplished quite easily with the minimum amount of
for cooperation with a notch 107 in shank 9S. As in all
forms of the invention, the height HB, FIG. 14, may be 60 loom down time. Further it will be seen that various
combinations of pile formers may be utilized to vary the
varied to form loops of different heights.
heights of the loops or the tufts in order to change the
FIG. 15 shows another form of the invention quite
face of the fabric to form plain fabrics and/ or embossed
similar to tha-t shown in FIG. 14 with the exception that
fabrics with or without cut loops. Aliso it will be seenV
a locking tongue 1105 is on a shank 111 for coaction with
a complementary notch 112 in end 113 of a pile wire 65 that the pile formers are made in such a manner so as not
to exceed the thickness o-f the forward ends of the flat
generally designated at 114. End 113 has a closure 115
body members so that the same number of removable
similar to closure 95» and an undercut surface 116 not
pile formers per inch may be utilized as that previously
unlike undercut surface 10=3 of FIG. 14. Shank 114 has
employed when weaving with a unitary pile wire.
a thickened part 117 which extends forwardly thereof
Having now particularly described and ascertained the
and above a pair of arms 118 (only one shown) similar 70
of the invention and in what manner the same is
to arms 93 and arms 34 and 3-5. A stud 120l coacts with
to be performed, what is claimed is:
a notch 121 to complete the locking means with tongue
1. In a two-piece pile wire for a loom operating to
110‘ and notch 112. Thickened portion 117 extends rear
a pile fabric having cut and/ or uncut pile loops,
wardly as at 122 to straddle arms 118» similarly as thick
(a) a liat body member comprising one piece o-f said
ened portion 80 straddles arms 34 and 35- relative to FIG. 75
pile wire and having a pair of longitudinal arms eX
tending from said 'member forwardly to define a
rear depending end thereof fixed Stationarily with
vertically disposed longitudinal slot open-ended on
three sides throughout the greater part of its length
and bounded respectively by top, bottom and for
vided with a longitudinal slot, and
(b) a pile former forming part of said pile wire and
respect to the loom and an opposite forward end pro
having a rear portion extending into said slot and a
forward portion operatively connected to the fabric
being Woven, the pile former being provided with or
without a loop cutting blade as desired,
ward edges of said arms,
(b) a pile former comprising another piece of said pile
wire and having a shank provided with longitudinal
and vertically transverse shoulders to respectively
abut said top and forward edges to position said pile
former stationarily with respect to said arms, and
(c) said pile former and said body member forming a
two-piece pile wire in which the pile former is sta
tionary with respect to the body and removably at
tached thereto,
(d) said opposite end having a pair of longitudinal
arms extending from said body to deñne said slot,
said slot being vertically disposed between the arms
(c) locking means on said arms and pile former coact
ing to maintain the pile former stationarily anchored
to said arms in a manner to permit ready removal
and replacement of the pile former if needed or
(d) said slot being provided with a closure at one end
thereof to form a U-shaped slot in which part of the
llocking means is located.
2. The pile wire set forth in claim 1 wherein
(a) said slot as defined by said edges and said closure
is capable of receiving, one at a time, pile formers
and open-ended on three sides throughout the greater
part of its length, the remaining length of the slot
`being closed at its upper end to for-m a slot of in
verted U-shaped configuration extending said re
having Shanks of varying heights.
3. In a pile wire for a loom capable of weaving fabrics
having an embossed effect as well as a plain etïect with 25
and without cut piles,
(a) a relatively thin, ñat body member including a
maining length, and
(e) said slot being so formed as to be able to receive
individual pile formers of different heights.
References Cited in the file of this patent
Robb ________________ __ Jan. 13, 1959
Sparling _____________ _.. Feb. 14, 1961
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