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Патент USA US3092191

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June 4, 1963
|_. BLAGG
3,092,182
BOREHOLE APPARATUS
Filed June 19. 1959
s sheets-sheet x
34
Leon .B/ayg'
INVEN TOR.
AÍTÚRNEY
June 4, 1963
L. BLAGG
`
3,092,182
BOREHOLE APPARATUS
Filed June 19. 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
¿ een B/qyy
INVENTOR.
AÍTÜR/VEY
June 4, 1963
L. BLAGG
3,092,182
BOREHOLE APPARATUS
Filed June 19. 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Ä ecn ß/agg'
1N VEN TOR.
June 4, 1963
L. BLAGG
3,092,182
BoREHoLE APPARATUS
Filed June 19. 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
Á een B/Ogy
JNVENTOR.
BY @JWM
3,092,182
f.
United States Patent O " ICC
i
Patented June 4, 1963
2
application thereto of a bending moment so as to bias
3,092,182
BQREHÜLE APPARATUS
Leon Riagg, Channelview, Tex., assigner to Schlumberger
Weil Surveying Corporation, Houston, Tex., a corpo
ration of Texas
Filed .inne 19, 1959, Ser. No. 821,636
19 Claims. (Ci. 16S-241)
o
the adjacent portions of the arms away from the support
assembly and toward the sidewall of the borehole.
The novel features of lthe present invention are set
forth with particularity in the appended claims. 4The
present invention, both as to its organization and man
ner of operation together with further objects and ad
vantages thereof, may best be understood by reference
to the following description .taken in connection with the
This invention relates to borehole apparatus and, more
particularly, pertains to new and improved apparatus lO accompanying drawings in which:
especially useful for maintaining an instrument in a
FIG. l is a view in side elevation of apparatus con
structed in accordance with the present invention shown
selected position relative to the borehole axis or side
in operative condition within a borehole drilled into the
wall during a traverse of the borehole.
Various mechanisms lare available either for centering
earth;
or for eccentering an instrument in a borehole or for
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view .taken along line 2_2
maintaining a wall-engaging instrument in contact with
of FIG. l;
the sidewall of the borehole as the instrument is passed
FIG. 3 is a view similar to the lone illustrated in FIG.
l, but taken in the direction of arrow 3;
through. One such mechanism, comprised of an array
FIGS. 4A and 4B are cross-sectional views taken along
of bowed springs, has been used heretofore with con
siderable success. For example, several springs dis 20 lines 4er-_4A and 4B-4B, respectively, of FIG. l;
tributed equally about an instrument can be used to
FIG. 5 is similar to FIG. 3, but illustrates the ap
paratus in diiîerent condition of operation;
center it in a borehole. However, bowed spring arrange
FIG. 6 is a greatly simplified representation of a por
ments are limited in their working range of borehole di
ameters. This is understandable because for a spring of
tion of the apparatus illustrated in FIGS. l-S;
given length, lateral biasing force decreases as a func 25
FlGS. 7 and 8 are graphs which are useful in explain
ing the operation of apparatus embodying the present in
tion `of borehole diameter. Thus, the bowed springs may
have to ‘be of prohibitive length in order to accommodate
vention;
FIG. 9 is a view similar to the representation in
large changes in diameter. in addition, for a wide range
FIG. l, but it illustrates another embodiment of the in
of borehole diameters, it is ordinarily necessary to utilize
springs whose restoring forces are relatively weak. Con 30 vention;
sequently, in a borehole section of appreciable inclina
FiG. l() is a view of the apparatus of FIG. 9 taken
tion, a spring on the low side of the instrument is
in the direction of arrow 1l);
FIG. ll is va cross-sectional view taken along line
almost entirely collapsed by the weight of the instrument,
and centering action is impaired. Further, a long bowed
.11»-1-1 of FIG. l0;
FIG. l2 is a view similar to FlG. 4, but illustrating
spring »may bend in several different modes so that center
ing action may not always be consistent.
still another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 13 is -a cross-sectional view taken along line
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to
provide new and improved apparatus for positioning an
1‘3-13 of FIG. l2; and
instrument in a borehole and useful in a relatively wide
FIGS. 14-17 represent various modilications which
40 may -be made to apparatus embodying the present in
range of borehole diameters.
Yet Áanother object of the present invention is to pro
vention.
vide new and improved apparatus for positioning an
In FÍG. 1 of the drawings, apparatus embodying the
instrument in a borehole and of comparatively small
present invention is shown to be comprised of a housing
or mandrel 10 suspended by ‘a cab‘le 11 in a borehole
longitudinal dimensions.
A further object of the present invention is to provide
12 which is drilled into earth formations 13. The bore
new and improved apparatus for positioning an instrument
hole 12 may or may not be íilled with the usual drilling
in a borehole and featuring a selected force versus
mud and by means of a winch (not shown) upon which
the cable 11 is spooled, the housing 10 is lowered and
lateral deiiection characteristic.
A still further object of the present invention is to
raised through the borehole 12 in a customary manner.
provide new and improved apparatus for positioning an 50 The housing 1G may be of conventional pressure-resistant
instrument in a borehole and añording a relatively constant
construction arranged to contain any of various types
force versus lateral deiiection chmacteristic over a given
of apparatus for exploring the borehole .or the earth for
mations. Apparatus for »these purposes is conventional
range of borehole diameters.
Another object of the present invention is to provide
and forms no part of the present invention; consequently,
new and improved apparatus for positioning an instru
a detailed description is deemed unnecessary. For the
ment in -a borehole in a consistent and highly eifective
purposes of the present discussion, lit is suíiicient to as
sume that housing 19 is to be maintained in -a given p0
manner.
Borehole apparatus in accordance with the present in
sition, for example, with its longitudinal axis 14 in align
vention is comprised of »a support assembly adapted to
ment with the longitudinal axis of borehole 12 as the in
be passed through a borehole. The support assembly 60 strument is passed through the borehole, and apparatus
includes a support member having a guide section extend
embodying the present invention is ideally suited to this
ing longitudinally relative to the borehole and a pair of
task.
mountings carried by the support member. One `of the
Slidably supported on mandrel 10 are upper and lower
mountings is operatively associated with the guide sec
collars 15 and 16. The interior dimensions of the col
tion for movement relative to the other mounting. The 65 lars 15 and 16 are arranged in a known manner so that
mandrel 10 acts as a guide constraining movement of
apparatus further comprises a .pair lof arms which include
the collars relative to one 4another along longitudinal axis
-adjacent portions pivotally connected to one another and
14. The portion of the apparatus thus far described con
opposed portions pivotally connected to respective ones
stitutes a support assembly of which mandrel 10 may be
of the mountings. The axes of at least two of the pivot-al
connections are non-parallel to one another and one of 70 termed a support member whose outer surface forms a
guide section on which mountings 15 and 16 are car
the arms includes a resilient portion. Thus, the arm con
taining the resilient portion is adapted to flex upon the
ried. The mountings 15 and 16 are, of course, opera
apparsa
4
.
tively associated with the guide section so that one is
condition with the arms substantially completely col
movable relative to the other.
Extending between the collars or mountings 15 and 16
are three arm assemblies 17, 18, and 19. As shown in
lapsed inwardly, a condition as shown in FIG. 5 lobtains
with the bow of much smaller radius R’. The resiliency of
the arms 20 and 27, or" course, tend to restore the assembly
17 to an unstressed conditionlrepresented in broken out
line in FIGS. l and 2) and thus the »arms 2d and 27
FIG. 2„these assemblies are spaced equally about hous
Y ing 10 and portions thereof extend away from the axis
14 toward the sidewall of the borehole 12. They are of
identical construction and thus only a single arm assem
are biased outwardly relative to support 1th. lIt is thus
Vapparent that as the apparatus embodying the present in
vention is passed through borehole, the arm assemblies
bly, namely Ithe one numbered 17, will be vdescribed in
detail.
17, 1S and 19 compress inwardly as the borehole diame
ter decreases but because of the action just described, a
resilient restoring force tends to expand the arm assem
blies and maintain them in contact with the sidewall
'
VAs best seen in FIG. 3, arm assembly 17 includes an
upper arm 20 having its upper end 21 ñtted into an ap
propriate recess 22 in collar 15. End 21 ássuita‘oly
shaped and is provided with an opening (not shown) that`
is aligned with complementary openings in the collar 1‘5
despite changes in borehole diameter.
all ’of winch receive a pivot pin 23. Thus, arm 20 is con
nected »at its end portion 21 to collar 1S by a pivotal
connection which constrains the arm for substantially
neotions'to be suiiiciently strong t0 withstand operating
Obviously, it is important for the several pivotal con- Y
onlyV pivotal movement, relative to the collar, about an
stresses and thus the collars 15 and 16 maybe con
structed of a steel of appropriate quality. This is also
true of the complementary end portions of the ‘arms 20
axis 24.
At its lower end arm 20 is provided with a yoke-shaped
and 27 and ofthe various pivot pins.
Because of the differences in thestructures of comple
portion 25 which receives an appropriately shaped up
mentary arm portions 25 and 26, the arms 20 and 27 may
not bend similarly. If similar bending movement is de
sired, the relative lengths of the arms can be appropri
per end pontion 26 of a lower -arm 27. Complementary
openings through the yoke 25 and end portion 26 of
arm 27 receive a pivot pin 28. The connection lthus
formed between the arms constrains them for substan
tially only pivotal movement relative to one another
ately chosen.
Further, the arms can be olîset relative to '
their end portions 21 and ‘31, as shown, so that as the
arms 2o and 27 bend, portions 25 and 26 move from one
side to the other of a vertical plane detined by the axis of
about an axis 29.
The lower end 30 «of arm 27 is received within a re
support 1t) and portions 21 and 31.
To' analyze the operationof apparatus embodying the
cess y31 in lower collar 16 and complementary openings
through the collar `and end portion 3l) receive a pivot pinl
32. This connection `constrains the arm 27 for pivotal
present invention, reference is made to FIG. 6 which is a
greatly simpliiied representation of upper arm 29, illus
movement relative to lower collar 16 about a given axis
33.
trating it as being movable between a horizontal plane and
vertical axis 14. Since the arms 20 and 27 are identical,
an analysis of the static conditions on a single arm will be
Assuming for the moment'that the arm assemblies 17,
18 and 19 are biased outwardly relative to support mem
Vsufficient for the purposes of the following discussion. eIn
FIG. 6, broken line U represents the unstressed position
K apparent that as the apparatus is lowered into Ithe bore
of arm 20, displaced by an angle C from the horizontal
hole, the collars 15 and 16 Will slide upwardly along
plane. As Will be evident from the discussion to follow,
the support 10 and to limit such movement, a stop or 40 position U may be selected to provide a desired range of
abutment 34 is secured to the housing for engagement
operation for arm 20.
by the upper surface of lower collar 16.` Likewise, when
It may be shown that the tangential restoring force Ft
the vapparatus is moved upwardly another stop or abut
maybe expressed as follows:
'
ber 10 and engage the sidewall of borehole 12, it will be
ment 35 engages the lower surface of upper :collar 15.
_EI sin2 A cos 6 sin 9
Accordingly, movement through the borehole in both di
IIt has been discovered that the arm assemblies may
be biasedV outwardly in a relatively simple and efticient
manner by constructing fthe arms of a resilient material
such as steel permitting the arms to bend While maintain
(l)
L21/ l-sin2 A sin2 0
where Eis the modulus of elasticity of the arm material, I
rections isV facilitated.
is the moment of inertia of the arm, L is the length of the
arm, and 0 is the angular displacement of the arm from .
50
ing essentially -Íixed lengths and orienting the axes 24, 29
and 33 so that at least two are not parallel to one an
the unstressed position U, A being the angle deíined in
FIG. 4A. To simplify the problem, it is assumed that
the modulus of elasticity of steel is 3X1()7 pounds per
other. In particular, as seen in F'IGÃ 4A, the orthogonal
square inch, that the arm has cross-sectional dimensions
projections of axes 24 and 29 inV a plane perpendicular
of ‘BÃ1 inch by 3%; inch providing a moment of inertia of
to-arm 20 ì(when arm' 20 is unstressed) deñne a given 55 .00275 in_4, that the angle A is 10°, and that the arm is l()
ang-le A while the corresponding orthogonal projections
inches in length. Accordingly, Formula 1 above may be
of axes 29 and 33 in a' plane perpendicular to arm 27
simpliíied as follows:
(when arm 27 is unstressed) denne a similar angle A'
Fa: 24.8 sin 0 cos 6
(2)
(FIG. 4B); Thus, axes 24 and 29 are nonparallel and
1/1~.os01 sini’ a
axes 29 and 33 are nonparallel. As seen in FIG. 3, the 60
axis 24' makes an angle B with a plane 36 perpendicular
From FIG. 6 it may be seen that the radial or >lateral re
to longitudinal axis 14 and axis 33 defines a similar
storing force P is:
Y
'
angle B’ with another plane 37 perpendicular to longi
P=E¢s sin 0
Itudinal axis 14. The angles B and B’ will be discussed
more fully hereinafter.V
'
into Equation 3 it will be seen that
Ingoperation, as .the apparatus moves through bore
hole 12 and the borehole diameter decreases, arm assem
_ 24.8 sin2 9 cos t2>
blies 17-19 are driven inwardly. Of course, collars 15
and 16 are displaced away from one another to accorn- c
modate such movement. Considering exemplary arm as
sembly 17, because of the nonparallel relationship of axes
(3)
and substituting the expression for Ft from Equation 2
'
70
t/l-.oaol S1112 e
Y
(4)
In FIG. 7, the relationship expressed in Equation 4 is
represented graphically by curve 38 which demonstrates
that the lateral force in pounds increases as the angular
24 and Y29 and axes 29 and 33, the arms 2@ and 27 flex
displacement increases. It reaches a maximum value in
or bend sideways as assembly 17 moves inwardly toward
the neighborhood of 50 to 60 degrees and then decreases
support 10. In the condition shown in FIGS. 1-3, arms
20 and 27 form a bow of radius R; while in‘ an extreme 75 toward zero as the displacement approaches 90 degrees.
3,092,182
5
It is also evident that the lateral force becomes negative
6
longitudinal axis 48 of mandrel 41 is perpendicular to
the longitudinal axis 48. At its lower end 49, arm 45 is
pivotally connected to upper end portions 5t) and 5l of
If, for example, it is desired to obtain a relatively con
lower arms 52 and 53. These pivotal connections have
stant force over a desired range of angular displacement,
a selected portion of the characteristic represented by DI a common pivotal axis 54 whose orthogonal projection
irl a plane containing axis 4S is perpendicular to axis
curve 38 may be used. For example, let it be assumed
4S. The lower ends 55 and 56 of arms 52 and 53 are
that a range of borehole diameters from 6 inches to 16
pivotally connected to lower collar 43 for movement
inches is to be accommodated. In FIG. 8, curve 39 rep
about axes 57 and 5S, respectively. Assuming that the
resents the lateral extent of a 10-inch arm as a function of
arms 52 and 53 are in their unstressed conditions, the
angular displacement from vertical axis 14. For a lateral
orthogonal projections of the axes 57 and 58 land the
change of íive inches (which is the maximum change re
orthogonal
projection of pivotal connection 54 in a plane
quired for the selected range of diameters), a 30 degree
perpendicular to the arms 52 and 53 denne equal but
change in arm displacement is required. Referring again
opposite angles E and F as represented in FIG. ll. [Fur
to FIG. 7, it will be observed that the portion of curve 39
ther, as seen in FIG. l0, the axes 57 and 58 deline with
of most desirable shape occurs over a 30 degree change
respect to a horizontal plane 59 angles G and H of equal
in 6 from 40 degrees to 70 degrees.
and opposite values. It is evident that by constructing
If arm 20 is in its unstressed condition when aligned
beyond 90 degrees.
with the horizontal plane (FIG. 6), angle B (FIG. 3) is
arms 52 and 53 of a resilient material such as steel and
by utilizing pivotal connections of appropriate strength
equal to angle A of FIG. 4A. In order to operate the
arm in the desired range from 4() degrees to 70 degrees, it 20 the action of arm assembly 44 is essentially like the action
of arm assembly 17 of the embodiment of FIGS. l-5.
is necessary to displace the unstressed condition by an
Since angles E and F are of opposite sign, the arms 52
angle C, represented in FIG. 7 as 20 degrees. Angle B
and 53 bow away from one another as the arm assem
of FIG. 3 (as well as angle B') may be calculated from
bly 44 is deliected inwardly and the resilient restoring
the following relationship:
25 force in the arms tends to bias the arm assembly outward
ly, thus causing its outer extremity to @follow the wall of
a borehole. IFurther, by suitably selecting angles E and
F a desired amount of force, within the elastic limit,
If angle A is assumed to be 1() degrees to provide a rea
can be obtained. Moreover, an appropriate selection
sonable limit to the stresses developed in the arm, from
angles G and H will provide an unstressed condition
Equation 5, angle B may be found to have a value of 8 30 of
for the arm assembly at a selected position. Accord
degrees, 40 minutes. With these values, the lateral force
ingly, a substantially constant lateral force may be ob
developed by arm 26 as a function of angular displace
tained over a desired range of borehole diameters in
ment 0 exhibits a characteristic represented by broken
essentially the same manner explained in connection with
line 40 in FIG. 7 and the useful range of displacement oc
FIGS. 6-8.
curs from 60 to 90 degrees. It will be noted that the lat
Referring now to the embodiment of the invention
eral force developed through this range varies between
illustrated
in FIG. l2, mandrel 6G“ slidably carries a pair
71/2 and 10 pounds. Obviously, a relatively constant wall
of collars 61 and 62 to which an arm assembly 63 is
engaging force is featured over the desired range of bore
connected at its upper and lower ends. The arm assem
hole diameters.
bly
63 is comprised of an upper arm 64 and the lower
40
It is therefore evident that apparatus embodying the
arm 65 whose upper and lower ends, respectievly, are
present invention may be employed to center an instru
pivotally connected to the collars 61 and 62 for move
ment within a borehole while operating efliciently and ef
ment about axes `66 and 67. The orthogonal projections
fectively over a relatively large range of borehole diam
of the axes 66 and 67 in a plane containing longitudinal
eters. In addition, it is evident from the example given,
in which arms l0 inches in length are employed, that the 45 axis 68 are perpendicular to the axis 68. Adjacent end
portions of the arms 64 and 65 are connected together
apparatus embodying the invention is relatively small in
Tan B=____COS_C___
(5)
voor? A-l-sin2 C’
its longitudinal dimensions. Further, apparatus embody
for pivotal movement about an axis 69.
In the un
stressed condition of the arms 64 and 65, the orthogonal
ing the invention can be arranged to provide a selected
projection yof the axis 69 in a plane perpendicular to either
force versus lateral deliection characteristics. It may be
of the arms 64 and 65 is inclined relative to the orthog
arranged to be relatively constant or it may be designed to 50 onal projection of the corresponding one of the axes
provide a variety of different characteristics. For ex
65 or 67 in the corresponding plane. With this non
ample, by appropriate selection of the angles A and B it
parallel axis arrangement, it is obvious that the same
is possible to obtain an action which produces an outward
type of action described in connection with the embodi
biasing force over one range while upon reaching another
ment of lEIGS. l-5 is achieved. However, it is evident
55
range an inward biasing force is eiïected (note the nega
that a relative torque will be developed between collars
tive region of curve 38 in FIG. 7). It is further evident
6l and 62 so that in order to retain a desired lateral
that apparatus embodying the present invention is rela
biasing
force, it may be desirable to provide keyed con
tively simple to construct while operating consistently to
nections between the collars 61; and 62 and the mandrel
provide accurate centering of a borehole instrument de
60 6i), for example, in a manner to be described later in
spite the changes in the borehole diameter.
It is also evident that angles A and A’ while of equal
value are of opposite sign (FIGS. 4A and 4B). Accord
connection with FIG. 14. Thus, the collars are con
strained against rotational movement relative to the man
drel 6G while sliding longitudinal movement is permitted.
ingly, although the arms 21) and 27 dei‘lect sideways as
Relative torque between the collars 6l and 62 may be
the apparatus operates, relative torque between the collars
avoided by the use of another arm assembly 7l), illus
65
15 and 16 is essentially Zero. ~Further, within the limits
trated in FIG. 13, positioned on a side of the mandrel
of the strength of the materials, by increasing angle A
69 opposite to arm assembly 63. In arm assembly 70,
the lateral force may be increased to any desired value.
a pivotal connection between the upper and lower arms
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG.
has a pivotal axis 71 which ‘has essentially the same in
9, a support for mandrel 41 carries upper and lower
clination as axis 69 but is of opposite direction. Accord
slidable collars 42 and 43 and an arm assembly 44 ex
tends between the collars. The assembly 44 is com
prised of an upper arm 45 pivotally connected at its
upper end 46 to collar 42 so that movement relative
to the collar is constrained about a pivotal axis 47 (FIG.
ingly, relative torque developed by the arm assemblies
63 and 7G is fully counterbalanced.
Although slidable collars on a mandrel have been illus
trated in connection with the embodiments of the inven
l0) whose orthogonal projection in a plane containing 75 tion ydescribed hereinbefore, obviously other mounting
apparsa
.„
!
.
`
7
.
.
arrangements are entirely suitable in the application of
sidewall of a borehole 97 by the action of arm assembly
the present invention. For example, as shown in FIG.
14, an upper mounting 72 maybe provided with a down
'90.
wardly-extending, integral shaft 73 that is slidably re
ceived .within a closely-ñtting opening or bore 74 in a
lower mounting 7S. A key 76 on shaft 73 cooperates
with Va keyway 77 cutV into the wall of bore ’74 to pre
vent relative rotation -between'the mountings ’72, 7 5 while
permitting relative longitudinal movement. - One or moreY
arm 'assemblies such as the one» designated 17 (corre
sponding to the similarly-identiñed arm in the-embodi
ment of FIGS. 1-5) may be connected between the
mountings 72 and 75 to provide the unique action de
10
i
`
'
Vin contact with opposite sidewall portions of the borehole
97. 0n the other hand, the mandrel 93'may itself be main
tained against the sidewall of the boreholeand appropriate
wall-contact members or bumpers 93 and 99' may be pro
vided for this purpose. Wall-engaging device 95 may
carry any of a variety of sensing elements in the form of
either electrodes or other means for investigating the char
acteristic of the earth formation penetrated'byV the bore
scribed in connection with the present invention.
If desired, appropriate means may be included for
hole 97.
It is evident from the illustration of FIG. 16, that appa
ratus embodying the present invention may be utilized
to maintain a device such as the pad V95 in engagement
with the sidewall of the borehole or for maintaining an
instrument contained within mandrel 93 in an eccentered
i displacing the mountings 72 and 75 away from oneran
other thereby to retract the arm assembly 17 and fa
Vcilitate its passage through a borehole. Any of various
formsY of mechanical or hydraulic mechanisms of well
lknown construction may be employed. For example,
the lower end of shaft 73 may be provided with an ap
position relative to the axis of the borehole. ' ' '
,n
Obviously, since the lateral'position of an arm assem
propriate rack 78 and a pinion 79 supported for mesh
bly featuring the presen-t invention is dependent upon the
diameter oiga borehole through Ywhich it is passed, that
parameter may be measured. Thus, either the position of
ing engagement with the rack 78 is arranged to be driven
l‘by an electric motor 8G.
'
lf‘desired, a similar arrangement may be provided on
-the side of mandrel 93 opposite to arm assembly 99
-so that two wall-engaging members may be maintained
Appropriate electrical connec
tions -(not shown) extend Yto the surface of the earth 25 an arm relative to the mandrel »or the relative spacingbe~
tween the mountings or collars may be sensed by any
connected to energize the motor. Thus, at the option of
of various conventional devices to provide indications
Yan operator, the motor 89 may be energized to drive
of borehole diameter. For example, an arrangement such
the rack 78 upwardly and an appropriate locking mecha
Yas disclosed and claimed in Patent No. 2,712,697 is illus
nism (not shown) may Ibe provided so that the motor 30 trated in FiG. 17. A lower collar 16 is slidable on a
Vmay be 4cle-energized While the mountings 72 and 7S re
modified housing 1li’ constructed of a nonmagnetic mate
Vmain in a selected longitudinally spaced condition.
rial. Collar 16 is connected to another collarltltl con
Any of various forms of wall-engaging members
structed of a ferromagnetic material and provided with
may be associated with the embodiments of the invention
helicoidal slot 191. Rotatably supported within the Vhous
described herein. For example, either or both of the
mg is a horse shoe shaped magnet 102 mechanically
'where a source of electrical energy (not shown) may 'he
arms may be appropriately shaped so as to provide` a pad
-connected to a variable resistor 193i.
like `extension positioned to engage the sidewall of the
Leads 164 extend
from variable resistor 193 through an electric cable 105 to
la resistance-measuring circuit 106 at the surface` of the
' borehole and thus -avoid or minimize fouling of the pivotal
connection between the upper and lower arms by Wall rn a
earth. Circuit 196 is connected to an appropriate record
'terial. Alternatively, the pivotal connection may be en 40 er 107 in which the recording medium is displaced in a
cased in a suitable huid-tight housing such as illustrated
conventional manner in proportion to movement of the
in FIG.V15. Thus, the pivotal connection between the
housing 1li’ through a borehole '108.
`
upper and lower arms of arm assembly 17 is encased ina
As the instrument passes through the borehole, varia
molded rubber housing S1 which has a portion 82 of re
'tions in the borehole diameter produce movement of the
duced cross-sectional area in a plane transverse tothe 45 collar 16 and thus magnetic element 166 is positioned lon
pivotal axis 29. In this way, pivotal movement between
the arms 20 and 27 is unimpeded. Portions 83‘ and S4 of
the housing 81 which are above and below the reduced
section 82 extend outwardly toward the wall of the bore
gitudinally relative to housing 10’ as a function of bore
hole diameter. Because of the> presence of helicoidal
Vslot 191, magnet 102 likewise is positioned in rotationk
as a function of borehole diameter yand resistance element
hole and thus provide appropriate wall-contact portions 50 193 exhibits a corresponding resistance value. Resist
which are displaced longitudinally from the axis 29. It is
ance-measuring circuit 196 develops a voltage dependent
thus evident that the pivotal connection between the arms
"upon the resistance value of element 193' and thus re
29 and 27 is protected, appropriate wall-engaging portions
corder 197 provides a record of borehole diameter as a
are provided and, at the same time, pivotal movement be
tween the arms is not impaired.
Apparatus embodying the present invention may also
Vbe used for maintaining a wall-engaging instrument in a
desired position with respect to the sidewall of the bore
hole as'it is passed through the borehole. For example,
function of depth.
55
.
I
As described earlier in connection with the embodiment
of FIGS. 1-5, an arm assembly constructed in accordance
with the present invention is consistently maintained in
engagement with the sidewall of the borehole. Accord
ingly, the arm assemblies in the embodiment of FIG. 17
as shown in FIG. 16, an arm assembly 90 which may be 60 eiiiciently and eiiectively respond to changes in borehole
diameter and accurate indications are provided.
While particular embodiments of the present invention ,
similar to arm assembly 44 in the embodiment of FIGS.
v9--11 is pivotallypconnected at its upper and lower ends
` to collars 91 and 92 which are slidably supported Yon a
have been shown and described, it is apparent that changes
mandrel 93. Another arm 94 positioned above the up
and modifications may be made without departing from
per arm of the arm assembly 9&3 is pivotally connected to 65 this invention in its broader aspects, Iand therefore the aim
the collar 91 at one end and is pivotally connected at its
in the appended claims is Yto cover all such changes and
outer end to the rear of a wall-engaging‘device 95.' An
modiñcations as fall within `the true spirit and scope of
extension 96 of the upper arm of arm assembly 9€) is
this invention.
'
also pivotally connected to the rear of the wall-engaging
What is claimed is:
device 95. The upper arm of Vassembly 9d and arm 94
1. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a l
have their pivotal connections arranged to form a parallel
given position relative to the central axis of a borehole
arm linkage of a type such as described in Patent No.
comprising: a support member ladapted for use in a bore
2,876,413. Thus, the wall-engaging device 95 is main
` tained in a predetermined relationship relative `to man
drel'93 as it is urged into biasedengagement with the
hole fand having a guide section extending longitudinally
relative to the borehole; a pair of mountings >carried by '
said support member, one `of said mountings being oper
3,092,182
10
atively associated |With said guide section for movement
6. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a
given position relative to the central axis of a borehole
relative to the other of said mountings; and a pair of
arms including adjacent portions pivotally connected to
one another and opposed portions pivotally connected
comprising: a support member adapted for use in a bore
hole and having a guide section extending longitudinally
relative to the borehole; a pair of mountings carried by
said support member, one of said mountings being oper
tatively associated With said guide section for movement
to respective ones of said mountings, the axes of at least
two of the pivotal connections being nonparallel to one
another, and one of said arms being formed of a bar of
resilient material.
relative to the :other of said mountings; at least one pair
2. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a
of arms including adjacent portions pivotally connected
given position relative to the central axis of a borehole
to one another and opposed portions pivotally connected
comprising: ya support member ‘adapted for use in a bore
to respective ones `of said mountings, the axes of »at least
two of -the pivotal connections being nonparallel to one
another, and one of said arms being formed of a bar of
hole and having -a guide section extending longitudinally
relative to the borehole; a pair of collars carried by said
support member, said collars being slidably associated
resilient material; and means for obtaining indications
with said guide section for limited movement relative to
each other; land three pairs of arms, each of said pairs
in response to relative movement between said mount
ings.
including adjacent portions pivotally connected to one
Vanother and opposed portions pivotally connected to and
equally spaced about respective ones of said collars, the
given position relative to the central axis of fa borehole
comprising: a support member adapted for use in a bore
7. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a
axes of at least two of lthe pivotal connections being
hole and having a guide section extending longitudinally
relative to the borehole; a pair of mountings carried by
pairs being formed of a bar of resilient material permit
said support member, one of said mountings being oper
ting said one a1m to ñex upon the application thereto
Iatively associated with said guide section for movement
of a bending moment so as to bias said adjacent portions
relative to the other of said mountings; and a pair of
of said arms away from said support member and toward 25 Iaims including adjacent portions pivotally connected to
the sidewall of the borehole.
one another and opposed portions pivotally connected to
3. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a
respective ones of said mountings, the axes of the two
given position relative to the central axis of a borehole
last-mentioned pivotal connections being nonparallel to
nonparallel to one another, and one arm of each of said
comprising: a support member adapted for use in a bore
one another and to the iirst-mentioned pivotal connec
hole and having la guide section extending longitudinally 30 tion, and one of said arms being formed of a bar of
resilient material.
relative to ythe borehole; a pair yof mountings carried by
said support member, one of said mountings being oper
8. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a
atively associated with said guide section for movement
given position relative to the central axis of a borehole
relative to the other of said mountings; and ‘a pair of
arms including adjacent portions pivotally connected to
one another and opposed portions pivotally connected to
35
comprising: a support member adapted for use in a bore
hole and having a guide section extending longitudinally
two of the pivotal connections being nonparallel to one
relative to the borehole; a pair of mountings carried by
said support member, one of said mountings being opera
tively associated with said guide section for movement rel
another, one of said yarms being formed of a bar of re
ative to the other of said mountings; and a pair of arms
respective ones of said mountings, the axes of at least
silient material, and one of said adjacent portions of
said arms having a Wall-engaging member movable there
with.
4. Apparatus for maintaining ‘borehole equipment at a
given position relative to the central axis of -a borehole
including adjacent portions pivotally connected to one an
other and opposed portions pivotally connected to re
spective ones of said mountings, the axis of the first-men
tioned pivotal connection and the axis of one of the last
mentioned pivotal connections being nonparallel to one
ll5
comprising: ya support member adapted for use in a bore
another as viewed in orthogonal projections on a plane
hole and having a guide section extending longitudinally
4substantially perpendicular to a corresponding arm, and
relative to the borehole; a pair of mountings carried by
one of said arms being formed of a bar of resilient ma
terial.
said support member, one of said mountings being oper
atively associated with said guide section for movement
9. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a
relative to the other of said mountings; and at least one 50 given position relative to the central axis of a borehole
pair of arms of substantially íixed length including ad
comprising: a support member adapted for use in a
jacent portions pivotally connected to one another and
borehole and having a guide section extending along a
opposed portions pivotally connected to respective ones
longitudinal axis oriented in substantially the same di
of said mountings, the axes of at least two of the pivotal
rection as the vert-ical axis of the borehole; a pair of
connections being nonparallel to one another, and one
mountings carried by said support member, one of said
of said arms being constructed of a resilient material and
im
thereby adapted to flex upon the Iapplication of a bending
moment.
mountings being operatively associated with said guide
section for movement relative to the other of said mount
ings; and a pair of arms including adjacent portions piv
5. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at a 60 otally connected to one another and opposed portions
pivotally connected to respective ones of said mountings,
given position relative to the ‘central axis `of a borehole
comprising: a support member adapted for use in a bore
hole iand having a guide section extending ‘along a longi
tudinal axis oriented in substantially the same direction
as lthe vertical axis of the borehole; a pair of mountings
carried by said support member, one of said mountings
being operatively associated with said guide section for
movement relative to the other of said mountings; >and a
pair of arms including Iadjacent portions pivotally con
nected to one another and opposed portions pivotally
connected to respective ones of said mountings, one of
said `arms being formed of a bar of resilient material and
the :axes of at least two of the pivotal connections being
nonparallel to one another as viewed in orthogonal pro
jections upon a plane containing said longitudinal axis.
one of said arms being formed of a bar of resilient ma
terial, the axis of the íirst-mentioned pivotal connection
and the axis of one of the last-mentioned pivotal con
65 nections deñm'ng a given angle when said one arm is in
an unstressed condition, and the axis of one of said first
mentioned and said one last-mentioned pivotal connec
tions deñning another angle with a plane perpendicular to
said longitudinal axis of a value different from the value
of said given angle.
l0. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at
a given position relative to the central axis of a bore
hole comprising: a support member adapted for use
in a borehole and having a guide section extending lon
gitudinally relative to the borehole; a pair of mount
3,092,182
Y
1l
ings carried by said support member, one of said mount
ings being operatively associated with said guide section
for Vmovement relative to the other of said mountings;
an arm pivotally connected to one of said mountings;
« and two coextensive arms separately and pivotally con
nected to the other of. said vmountings, adjacent portions
`of said coextensive arms being jointly and pivotally con
nected to Yan adjacent portion of said first-mentioned
arm, the .axesrof the three last-mentioned pivotal connec
tions being nonparallel to one another, and each of said 10
coextensive arms be-ing formed of a bar of resilient ma
terial.
l1. Apparatus for maintaining borehole equipment at
a given position relative to the central asis of a bore
'hole comprising: a support Vmember adapted for use in
l2
of said collars; Áand a third pivotal connection mechan
ically coupling said iirst and said second pivot arms, at
least twovof said pivotal connections having pivot axes
nonparallel relative to one another.
l5. Borehole lapparatus comprising: a mandrel adapted
to be passed through a borehole; a pair ot collars
mounted on said mandrel, at ‘least one of said 'collars be
Vving slidable thereon for movement relative to the other
collar along a lfixed path having a longitudinal axis rela
tive to the borehole; ñrst and second pivot arms each
constructed of a resilient material permitting iiexurey
upon the application of a bending moment, said pivot
Iarms being of substantially iixed length; -a iirst pivotal
connection mechanically coupling said first pivot arm and
one of said collars; a second pivotal connection mechan
-arborehole and having a guide sectionextending longi
tudinally relative to the borehole; a pair of mountings
Vcarried by said support member, said mountings being
operatively associated with said guide section for lim
ically coupling said second pivot arm and another of
said collars; and a third pivotal connection mechanically
¿coupling said iirst and said second Vpivot arms, said íirst
including lirst end portions disposed adjacent to respec
4a corresponding one of sai-d arms define a given angle
when said one arm is in an lunstressed condition.
¿and said third pivotal connections having pivot laxes
ited movement relative to each other; a pair of arms 20 Whose orthogonal projections in a plane perpendicular to
'tive ones of said mountings, said arms extending Vaway
from said support member toward the sidewall of the
16. Borehole apparatus comprising: a mandrel adapted
to be passed through a borehole; >a pair of collars
25 mounted on said mandrel, at least one of said collars
cent to one another; means for connecting each of said
being slidable thereon `for movement relative to the other
íirst; endV portions of said arms to a respective one of
borehole _and including other second end portions adja
said mountings and for constraining said first end por
tions for substantially only pivotal movement relative
to said mountings about respective, given axes; means 30
'for connecting said second end portions of said arms to
one another and for constraining said second end por
tionsy for substantially only Vpivotal movement relative
to one another about another given axis, at least two of
the aforesaid axes being nonparallel to one another, and
one of said arms being formed of a bar of resilient ma
terial.
l2. Borehole apparatus comprising: a support adapted
to be passed through a borehole; a pair of mountings
carried by said support for movement relative to one
another along a fixed -path; a iirst pivot arm; a second
pivot Yarm being constructed of a resilient material per
mitting said second pivot arm to tien upon the applica
tion of a'bending moment; a iirst pivotal connection be
tween said íirst pivot arm and one of said mountings;
a second pivotal connection between said second pivot
arm and another of said mountings; and a third pivotal
connection between said first and said second pivot arms,
-at least two of said pivotalY connections having pivot axes
nonparallel relative torone another.
13. Borehole apparatus comprising: a mandrel adapted
collar along a iixed path having an axis extending longi
tudinally relative to the borehole; la first pivot anni; a
Asecond pivot arm constructed of a resilient material per
mitting said second Vpivot arm to flex upon the Iapplication
of a bending moment; a iirst pivotal connection mechan
ically coupling said ñrst pivot arm and one of said col
`lars; a second pivotal connection mechanically coupling
said second pivot arm and another of said collars; and
a third pivotal> connection mechanically coupling said
tirst and said second pivot arms, said second and said
third pivotal connections hav-ing pivot axes Whose orthog
onal projections in a plane perpendicular to the corre
sponding one of said arms define a lgiven angle when
said one arm is in an unstressed condition, and the pivot
axis of one of said second and said third pivotal connec
tions deiining «another angle with a plane perpendicular to
said longitudinal axis of a value ditferent from the value
of said given angle.
17. Borehole apparatus comprising: a support adapted
to ‘be passed through a borehole; a pair of mountings
carried by said support for movement -relative to one
another along a 'fixed path; a ñrst pivot arm; second
and third coextensive pivot arms, each of said arms con
structed of a resilient material permitting iiexure upon
the application of a bending moment; a pivotal connec
to be passed through a borehole; a pair of collars mount
ytionibetween »said tirst pivot arm and one of said mount
ed on said mandrel, at least one of> said collars being
ings; a pair of adjacent pivotal connections between said
slidable thereon for movement relative to the other col
Vlar along a iixed path; a iìrst pivot arm; a second pivot 55 second and third pivot arms and another of said mount
ings; and another pair or" adjacent pivotal connections be
arm constructed of a resilient material permitting said
tween said ñrst pivot arm and said second and third pivot
second pivot arm to ilex upon the application of a bend
ing moment; a ñrst pivotal connection between said íirst
arms, said ynist-mentioned pair of pivotal connections
having pivot axes nonparallel relative to one another.
pivot arm and one of said collars; a second pivotal con
128. In combination: a support; a pair of mountings
60
nection between said second pivot arm and another of
carried by said support for movement relative to one
said collars; and a third pivotal connection between said
another along a .fixed path; a iirst pivot arm; a second
first and »said second pivot arms, at least two ot said
pivot arm constructed of a resilient material permitting
pivotal connections having pivot aXes nonparallel rela
said second pivot arm to »flex upon the application of a
tive to one another.
bending moment; a -first pivotal connection between said
14. Borehole apparatus comprising: ya mandrel adapted
iirst
pivot arm and one of said mountings; a second piv
to be passed through a borehole; a pair of collars
otal connection between said second pivot arm and anoth
mounted on said mandrel, Kat least one of said collars be
`er of‘said mountings; and a third pivotal connect-ion be
ing slidable thereon for movement relative to the other
tween said first and said second pivot arms, at least two
collar along a lìxed path; iirst and second pivot arms
each constructed of a resilient material permitting flex 70 of said pivot-al connections having pivot axes nonparallel
relative to one another.
Y
ure upon the application of ka bending moment, ‘said pivot
19. In combination: a mandrel; a pair of mountings
anms .'being of substantially iixed length; a iirst pivotal
carried by -said mandrel, one of said mountings being
connection mechanically coupling said iiirst pivot arm
mounted for movement relative to the other along a
and one of said collars; a second pivotal connection me
iixed path; a :first pivot arm; a second pivot arm con
75
- chanically coupling »said second pivot arm and another
8,082,182
14
13
structed of a resilient material permitting said second
pivot 4arm to flex upon the application of a bending mo
ment; a first pivotal `connection between said first pivot
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,898,074
2,248,160
2,311,768
2,695,820
2,812,587
ythird pivotal connections having pivot axes inclined rela
2,886,111
tive to one another as viewed «in orthogonal projections
in a plane perpendicular -to said second arm when said 10 2,899,633
am and one of said mountings; -a second pivotal connec
tion between said second pivot arm and another of said 5
mountings; and `a third pivotal connection ‘between said
iirst and said second pivot arms, said second »and said
second arm is in an unstressed condition.
1933
1941
1943
1954
1957
1959
Smith et a-l. _________ __ Aug. 11, 1959
Bailey _______________ __ Feb. 21,
Crawford _____________ __ July 8,
McCray _____________ __ Feb. 23,
Segesman ____________ __ Nov. 30,
Roussin _____________ __ Nov. 12,
Hall _______________ __ May 12,
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