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Патент USA US3092231

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June 4, 1963
R. L. PARSONS ErAL
3,092,221
METAL ROOF-SUPPORTING CONSTRUCTION
Filed Aug. 7, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
ATTORNEY
June4, 1963
3,092,221
R. L. PARSONS Erm.
METAL RooF-suPPoRTING CONSTRUCTION
Filed Aug. 7, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2 mwM5
Dn0„wm L
Q eW.E HB.M
A
ORNEY
3,Ü-9Z,ZZ1
El
United States Patent O ice
1
Patented .lune 4, 1953
2
IFÍÍGURE 5 is a similar view on line 5-5 of
3,092,221
IFIGURE 3;
METAL ROÜF-SUPPÜRTING CGNSTRUCTION
Robert L. Parsons and Grover H. Bays, Parkersburg,
FIGURE 6 is a similar View on line 6_6 of FIG
URE 3;
W. Va., assigner-s to Parkersburg-Aetna Corporation,
Parkersburg, W. Va., a corporation of West Virginia
Filed Aug. 7, 1959, Ser. No. 332,293
6 Claims. (Cl. 189-36)
FIGURE 7 is a perspective view of ka purlin tie extend
ing horizontally at the ridge of the roof structure;
FÍGURE 8 is a similar view of one of the other purlin
ties;
This invention relates to a metal roof-supporting con
struction and has primarily to do with the means for
FIGURE 9 is a side elevation of one of the purlin
sections; and
connecting the purlins to each other and to associated
elements of a metal building.
-FlGURE 10 is a perspective of a connection employed
for securing each end of the ridge purlin tie to adjacent
pnrlin ties.
An important object of the construction is to provide
means for tying adjacent roof purlins to each other to
prevent them from deflecting in the plane of the roof
while erecting and to help take the horizontal corn
poncnt of load such as snow and Wind, in the iinished
Referring to FlGURE 1, there are shown in broken
lines opposite columns 1t) of a building structure,
columns at each side of the structure being connected
by any suitable type of girts l1. The columns support
girders l?. shown in the present instance of the rigid
bent type. lt will Ibecome apparent, however, that the
present invention is not limited to use with a girder of
this type, since the girder may be of other types, for
example, the top chord of a truss.
At each side »of the structure is diagrammatically
shown in FIGURE l an eave strut 14, and this particular
building construction.
A further obiect is to provide a no fel combination
of purlins and purlin ties which so function that tension
loads are carried throughout the purlin ties from one
side of the building to the other side thereof.
A further object is to provide novel means for con
necting the purlin ties on opposite sides of each purlin
to each other through the purlin to prevent deñection
of the purlin in the plane of the roof.
A further object is to provide among the purlin ties
element, extending longitudinally of the building, may
be of any desired or suitable type. Extending longi
tudinally of the building and bolted or otherwise se
cured to adjacent girders 12 are a plurality of purlins,
one which extends across the ridge of a roof to transfer
tension loads between opposite sides of the roof.
each indicated as a -whole ëby the numeral l5. The
A further object is to provide such a construction 30 number of these purlins rWill depend, of course, on the
wherein the novel connection of the purlin ties to each
span of the root”, and three of the purlins have been
shown in FIGURE 3. Each purlin comprises a vìeb
other, in combination with the tie extending across the
16 perpendicular to the plane of the roof and provided
ridge of the roof, so functions that loads or forces in the
planes of the roof will be transferred from the roof
at its upper longitudinal edge with a yharige 17 parallel
covering to one or more purlins which, in turn, will bear 35 to the plane of the root" and a down-turned ñange ‘lâ
against shoulders of purlin ties to be transferred through
parallel to the web le. The bottom of each purlin
comprises a ilange 19 parallel to the slope of the roof,
the connection of such ties to higher purlin ties, thus
distributing tension loads.
and it is these flanges which are secured to the girders,
More speciñcally, a further object is to provide novel
such ñanges being directly seated on the girders, as
means for so connecting adjacent purlin ties through a 40 will be apparent in `FIGURE 2. The flanges 19 terminate
purlin therebetween as to overcome a tendency of the
at their edges remote from the webs 16 in ilanges 2i)
corresponding to the ilange 18 and arranged parallel
purlin to turn or «otherwise be displaced from normal
position.
to the webs 15. The web of each purlin is slotted as
at 22 intermediate and perpendicular to its longitudinal
A further object is to provide such a combination of
purlin and purlin ties extending from the ridge of a
edges, as shown in FIGURE 9, for a purpose to be de
scribed.
roof to points spaced from opposite eave struts or equiv
lt will be apparent that the purlin sections 15 extend
longitudinally of the building and the ends of these
alent constructions and to connect the eave struts to
the adjacent purlins by threaded sag rods, thus prevent
sections are suitably bolted together, preferably in over
ing dispiacement of the eave struts and permitting the
mounting of the latter in straight lines.
A further object is to provide an arrangement îof pur
lin ties relative to intervening purlins having webs per
pendicular to the plane of the adjacent portion of the
roof; to connect adjacent purlin ties through the purlin
50
lapping relationship (not shown) over the top flanges
of the girders 12, thus providing in eíîect continuous
purlins from end to end of the building. Two of the
purlins, indicated as a whole in FIGURE 2 by the nu
meral 24 and identical with those described, are ar
web by the use in each case of a single bolt, and to 55 ranged on opposite sides and slightly spaced from the
provide purlin ties having, in edect, shoulders engaging
the web ‘of the purlin to provide bracing of the top and
bottom ilanges of the purlins.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will
become apparent during the course of the following
description.
ln the drawings we have shown one embodiment of
the invention, In this showing:
-FlGURE l is a partial plan View, largely diagram
matic, of a portion of a roof-supporting structure em
bodying the present invention;
FÍGURE 2 is an end elevation of the same;
FIGURE 3 is a section taken substantially on line
3_3 of FIGURE l, parts being broken away;
ridge of the roof. A purlin tie 25 of the type shown
in detail in FÉGURE 7 extends between the purlins 24.
Such tie has squared ends and includes a ‘web portion
26 and longitudinal flanges 27 which preferably diverge
slightly from each 'other away from the web 26. Each
end of the web 26 of each purlin tie 25 is provided
centrally of the width thereof with a bolt opening 2.8.
The purlin tie 25 is tied to the next adjacent purlin tie
outwardly of the purlins 24 in a manner to be described.
The purlins at each side of the ridge of the roof are
equidistantly spaced from each other as shown in FIG
URE 2, such arrangement being preferred so that the
purlin ties extending between adjacent pairs of purlins
may be identical in the interest of economy in manu
70 facture. Between each adjacent pair of purlins at oppo
>FIGURE 4 is a detail fragmentary sectional view 0n
site sides of the ridge is arranged a purlin tie or” the type
line »4i-»4i of FIGURE 3;
shown in FIGURE 8 and indicated as a whole by the
3,092,221
3
4
Y
numeral 30. Each such purlin tie is similar in construc
tion to the tie 25, being provided with a web 31 and
upper and lower flanges 32, preferably slightly diverg
ing from each other away from the web 31.
Each of
the purlin ties 3i?, of course, is longer than the purlin
tie 25 land has the ñanges at one end thereof cut away
as at 33 to form shoulders fora purpose to be described.
Operation
In the assembling of the structure and assuming that
the columns and girders are in position, the purlins 24
’will be placed in position yand 4the Shanks 45 of the tie
plates 40, bolted to the` purlin »ties 25, will be inserted
through the proper slots 22 in the webs 16 of the purlins
24 at opposite sides of the ridge. The next adjacent
The .cutting-away of the flanges 32 leaves the web 31
purlin tie ‘30 will be bolted as at 47 to the shank 45, and
with a tongue or projecting web portion 34 having a
fthus the two purlins 24 fwill be held in position. The
bolt opening 35 therein, the web 31 at the opposite end 10 tongues 34 of the uppermost purlin ties 30 willthen be
of the tie being provided with a similar bolt opening 36.
inserted in the next 4webs 16 of the adjacent purlins 15, ,
Each of the tongues 34 projects through one of the slots
whereupon the next purlin ties 30 will be placed in posi
22 in the adjacent purlin web 16 with the shoulders 33
tion and bolted to the tongues 34 of the preceding purlin
abutting the web 16. 'I'he'right-hand end of the next
ties as at 38. This procedure is followed throughout suc
lower purlin tie, as viewed in FIGURE 8, has the flange
cessive purlins until the lowermost purlins at opposite
portion thereof forming shoulders abutting the opposite
sides of the roof are in position. The latter purlins are
side of the .purlin web 16. The projecting tongue 34 fits
then ñxed with respect to the remaining structure by bolt
within the channel of the next adjacent purlin tie, being
ing the tongue 34 of the adjacent tie 30 to the flange 54
equal in width to »the space between the flanges 32 adjaf
(FIGURE 5) as at 56. The sag rod 50 performs an
cent the web 31 to provide a rigid joint between the 20 important function in the structure. It is desired, of
purlin ties at opposite sides of each purlin to prevent any
course, that each eave strut 14 be maintained straight,
rocking movement lbetween adjacent purlin ties in the
and due to manufactuning tolerances, etc., »there will be
plane of their webs 31. A bolt 3S secures each project
some variation in the distance from each iìange 52 to the
ing tongue 34 to the adjacent end of the next adjacent
ñange 49 of the adjacent eave strut. By employing the
purlin tie, the bolt'38 projecting through the bolt opening 25 sag rod 50, the nuts 51 and 55 may be suitably tightened
35 of the tongue 34 and through the bolt opening of the
to take up any slack between the elements and to
web of the next adjacent purlin tie, as will be apparent
straighten .the eave strut 14 at each side of the building.
in FIGURES 3 and 4.
After the assembling has been completed as described,
At each side of the ridge of the roof, the purlin tie
the roof coveringshee-ts are placed over the flanges 17
adjacent each of the purlins 24 has -its squared end (the 30 and secured in position. It will be noted that the sloping
right-hand end in FIGURE 8) abutting the web 16 of
top of the eave strut 14 in FIGURE 3 lies in the plane
such purlin. A T-shaped connecting plate 49 (FIGURES
of the purlin ñanges 15 to support the outer edge portions
3 and :140) has its head portion 41 provided with bolt
of the roof covering sheets.
openings 42, one of which receives a bolt 43V to secure
Each sag rod is a tension member and prevents the
it against the outer face of the web 26 of the adjacent 35 eave strut from spreading away from the adjacent purlin
end of Ithe tie 25. The shank 45 of the connection 41
due to any load directed toward the eave in the plane of
projects through one of the slots 22 of the adjacent pur-lin
the roof. Moreover, 'tension in either sag rod will place
web 16, »and such shank corresponds in shape and size
in tension the .purlin ties entirely across the building,
to each of the tongues 34 to lie within the channel of the
such tension being transmitted through bolts 56, 38, 47
adjacent purlin tie 3i). The shank 45 has a bolt opening 40 and 43. The equal spacing of the purlins permits the
46 Vadapted lto register with the bolt iopening 36 of the
manufacture of quantities of identical purlin ties for pre
adjacent purlin tie 30, and a bolt 47 connects these ele
determined roof loadings. The use of the sag rod has
ments together, as »shown in FIGURES 3 and 6.
-the additional advantage of >eliminating the necessity of
As previously stated, the purlin ties 30 are preferably
using a purlin tie between Veach eave strut 1'4 and the
identical to each other in the interest of economy in manu 45 adjacent purlin and also eliminates the problem which
facture. Therefore, it seldom occurs that the space be
would be involved in connecting such elements together.
tween the outermost purlin at each side of the roof and
The equal spacing of the purlins will vary with diiîer-`
the eave strut 14 is equal to the space between adjacent
ent roof loadings depending upon the strength of the
pairs »of purlins. Thus it is impracticable for this reason
to use a purlintie between each eave strut and the adja
cent purlin, and it is also impracticable for an additional
reason ‘to be referred to.
‘ Each eave strut 14 may be of the cross~sect~ional type
roof covering. For example, some roofs may be designed
50 for 20 pounds per lsquare foot of snow load and others for
30 pounds per square foot. With the same roof covering,
the purlins will have to be spaced closer. -for 30-pound
loading than for 20~pound loading, as will be apparent.
shown «in FIGURE 3, terminating at the top thereof in a
In each case, however, the purlin spacing will be kept
depending flange 49 at a slight angle to the vertical, as 55 equal from the ridge toward the eave by means of identi
shown. A sag rod 50, threaded at both ends, projects
cal purlin ties. These ties are primarily tension mem
through the flan-ge 49 and has a nut 51 threaded thereon.
bers, but will withstand sorn‘e vcompression and bending.
'I'he other end of the sag rod 50 (FIGURE 5) projects
The tendency for the purlins to deflect or bend in the
through one ñange 52 of an angle rail 53, the other flange
plane of the roof will be prevented by the horizontal
54 of which seats against the web 16 of the adjacent 60 purlin tie at the ridge and the sloping ties at either side
purlin 15. Within ythe ñange 52. a nut 55 is threaded on
of the ridge. The loads or forces in the plane of the
the sag rod 50'. The next adjacent purlin tie 30 has its
roof will be transferred from the roof covering to the
tongue 34 projecting through the adjacent slot 22 of the
purlins which, in turn, will bear `against the ñanges of the
web 16 and bolted as at 56 to the flange 54. rI‘he free
squared ends of the purlin ties (the right-'hand end ín
end of the ila-nge 54 forms, in effect, a shoulder engaging 65 FIGURE 8) and tension loads will be transferred through
against the adjacent face of the web 16, while Ithe shoul
the tongues 34 of the next higher purlin ties.
ders 33 of the flanges 32 of the next purlin tie 30 seat
It will be noted that the reduced ends or tongues 34
against the opposite face of the web 16. Such web is
»and
the width of the shank 45 (FIGURE 10) are the
arranged between engaging shoulders in the »saune manner
as the remaining purlin webs 16 are engaged by adjacent 70 same as the inside dimension of the purlin ties between
the edge ñanges thereof. Accordingly, when the bolts 38
end portions of adjacent purlin ties 31. Thus the sag
and 47 are tightened, the ends 34 or 45 will be wedged in
rod 50 and its angle rail 53 constitute, in eiîect, a purlin
the channels of the purlin ties, thus preventing rocking of
tie. Similarly, eac’h purlin tie 25 (FIGURES 3 and 7)
the purlin ties in the planes of their Webs. The shoulders
and its associated tie plates 40 constitute a purlin tie con
nected lbetween the webs of the purlin-s 24.
75 formed on the ends of the purlin ties bear against the webs
3,092,221
6
5
provided with a web lying in a perpendicular plane and
16 of the purlins and accordingly tend to resist the slight
est rotation or rocking of the purlin webs.
The degree of resistance to rotation `afforded by the
bearing of the shoulders of the purlin ties on the purlin
edge ñanges, the purlin ties between said two purlins being
horizontal and each having tongues at opposite ends
thereof forming continuations of the web thereof project
ing through and fitting slots in the respective purlins of
webs is dependent upon the depth of each tie as well as
proper orientation of the tie. In the present construction,
the depth of each tie is suñìcient to overcome purlin rota
said two purlins, each of the other purlin ties having a
tongue in the plane of the web thereof at the end thereof
tional tendencies without overstressing the shoulders of
the purlin ties which are in bearing. Moreover, the orien
remote from said two purlin ties projecting through and
litting one of said slots and overlying the web of the next
tation of each purlin tie is with the web of the tie per 10 adjacent purlin tie, and bolts passing through each tongue
pendicular to the longitudinal center line of the adjacent
and the purlin tie web which it overlies, adjacent ends of
each adjacent pair of purlin ties at each slope of the web
purlin, this being the most etîective arrangement of parts
having shoulders engaging the purlin web therebetween.
for maximum resistance to rotation of each purlin. The
4. A construction according to claim 3, wherein the
location of each purlin tie with its end centrally of the
width of each web 16 provides lateral bracing for the top 15 ñanges of each purlin tie project from the same side of
the web thereof whereby each purlin tie is of channel
and bottom ñanges of the purlins.
The present construction not only resists loads from
section, each of said tongues being of a width equal t0
the distance between said flanges to be engaged thereby
the roof covering due to snow, wind and erection, but
to prevent relative rocking of ladjacent purlin .ties in the
also resists the weight of workmen or other loads on the
purlins between the girders. Such loads cause undue 20 planes of the Webs thereof.
5. In a roof construction wherein the roof slopes down
rotation and bending of the flanges of the purlins. The
wardly in opposite directions away from a ridge, a plural
purlin ties hold the purlins in alinement and prevent rota
ity of purlins larranged `at each side of said ridge, and
tion, to facilitate the installation of the- roof covering and
spaced from and parallel to each other and to said ridge,
provide increased safety for workmen.
It is to be understood that the form of the invention 25 two of said purlins being arranged at opposite sides of
said ridge and equidistantly spaced therefrom, all of said
purlins having webs perpendicular to their respective
shown and described is to be taken as a preferred example
of the same and that various changes in the shape, size,
slopes of the roof and provided with sets `of slots trans
versely of such webs, the slots of each set lying ina com
and arrangement of the parts may be made as do not
depart from the spirit of the invention or the scope of
the appended claims.
30
We claim:
1. In a roof construction wherein the roof slopes `down
wardly in opposite directions away from «a ridge, a plural
mon vertical plane, purlin ties connecting adjacent pairs
of purlins at each side of said ridge, horizontal purlin ties
associated with the slots of said two purlins, said horizon
tal purlin ties being connected to the adjacent ends of the
adjacent purlin ties through the -slots in said two purlins,
ity of purlins arranged at each side of said ridge and
spaced lfrom and parallel to each other and to said ridge, 35 each of the remaining purlin ties having a squared end
two of said purlins being arranged at opposite sides of said
engaging the web of the ‘adjacent purlin, the other end of
each such purlin tie having a tongue forming -a continua
ridge and equidistantly spaced therefrom, said two purlins
having webs perpendicular to the respective slopes of the
tion of its web and projecting through the adjacent slot
in the adjacent purlin, and overlying the web of the next
roof and provided with sets of slots transversely of such
webs, purlin ties connecting adjacent pairs of said purlins, 40 adjacent purlin tie, each tongue ñtting the associated slot
horizontal purlin ties associated with each of said slots
and being of a width less than the width of the web of
and extending between said two purlins, all of said purlin
which it forms a continuation, whereby portions of each
such web beyond the edges of the associated tongue seat
ties having webs lying -in vertical planes, a tongue at each
against the web of the associated purlin, and means ñxing
end of each horizontal purlin tie forming a continuation
45
each tongue to the purlin tie web which it overlies where
of the web thereof projecting through and fitting one of
said slots, and means connecting said tongues to the re
spective purlin ties at the remote sides of said two purlins,
the ends of the webs of said purlin ties at the remote sides
by said purlin ties act in eifect as `a continuous tension
member from side to side of the roof.
6. A construction according to claim 5, wherein each
of said two purlin .ties abutting the webs thereof offset to 50 purlin tie is provided with longitudinal edge flanges pro
one side of the respective slots.
jecting from the same side of the web thereof, whereby
2. A construction according to claim 1 wherein each
each purlin tie is of channel section, each of said tongues
purlin tie extending between said two purlins is horizontal
being of a width equal to the distance between said ñanges
and comprises a horizontal purlin tie body and a T-shaped
to be engaged thereby to prevent relative rocking of adja
plate connected to each end of such body having a head
cent purlin ties in the plane of the webs thereof.
portion connected to the web of said purlin tie body and
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
having its shank constituting the tongue of the last-men
tioned purlin, the heads of Said plates abutting the adja
UNITED STATES PATENTS
cent sides of said two purlins.
1,225,727
Brogden ______________ __. May 8, 1917
3. in a root construction wherein the roof slopes down 60
1,843,356
Carlough ______________ __ Feb. 2, 1932
wardly in opposite directions away from a ridge, a plural
2,549,816
Johnson _____________ __ Apr. 24, 11951
ity of purlins arranged at each side of said ridge and
2,689,630
Drury
_______________ __ Sept. 21, 1954
spaced from and parallel to each other and to said ridge,
2,692,033
Jayness ______________ __ Oct. 19, 1954
two of said purlins being arranged at opposite sides of
said ridge and equidistantly spaced therefrom, each purlin 65
having a web perpendicular to the adjacent slope of the
roof and provided with spaced slots transversely of such
webs, each slot in each purlin web lying in `a common
plane with slots in the other purlin webs, purlin ties -aI
ranged between each adjacent pair of purlins and each 70
2,722,901
2,815,831
2,871,997
2,903,z104
Johnson et al, _________ __ Nov. 8,
Hield et al ____________ __ Dec. 10,
Simpson et al ___________ __ Feb. 3,
Brown _______________ __ Sept. 8,
1955
1957
1959
1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
434,281
Italy ________________ __ Apr. 24, 1948
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