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Патент USA US3092385

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June 4, 1963
|_. c. BlXBY
3,092,375
HEAT TREATING BASKET
Filed Jan. 27, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
PYLIKHWI
INVENTOR.
LEON C. BIA/6’ Y
’” wk; ‘W7
June 4, 1963
|_. c. BIXBY
3,092,375
HEAT TREATING BASKET
Filed Jan. 27, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
LEON C. BIA/BY
BY 0% zjwgé»?
HIS HTTOENE'YS
3,092,375
Patented June 4, 1963
2
3,092,375
HEAT TREATDIG BASKET
Leon C. Bixby, 234 Elm St., Wellington, Ohio
Filed Jan. 27, 1961, Ser. No. 85,390
12 Claims. (Cl. 2453-47)
This invention relates to improvements in baskets for
use in heat treating operations and the like and more par
ticularly to an improved ?oor construction for porous
26 cooperate with the upwardly turned ends of the frame
members 10, 12, 14 and 16 to form ends of the basket.
The ends 28 of each of the transverse rods 26 are upset
to secure them against removal. In addition another
transverse rod 30 is supported between the inner frame
members 14 and 16 midway between the pair of trans
verse rods 26. As with the rods 26, the ends of the rods
30 are upset as designated at 32. The central portion of
the uppermost rod 26 at each end of the basket is bent
heat treating baskets although not necessarily so limited. 10 upwardly to provide a pair of handles 31. The rods 26
and 30 also support U-shaped brackets 34 mounted on
In heat treating small articles, it is frequently the prac
the opposite ends of the basket, there being one U-shaped
tice to place the articles in a porous metallic basket, to
bracket 34 con?ned between the adjacent upwardly turned
expose the articles in the basket to the prescribed heat,
portions of each outer and inner frame member. That
and then to place the articles still in the basket in a suit
able cooling both. The basket is made porous to enable 15 is, there is one U-shaped bracket 34 disposed at each
corner of the basket. The purpose of the brackets 34 is
a sufficient movement of the cooling liquid into and out
to adapt the basket for engagement with conveyors used
of the basket. In this type of operation, the heat treat
in conventional heat treating ovens.
ing basket is repeatedly subjected to high and then rela
As noted earlier, the base of the sides of the basket
tively low temperatures, such that the metal of the basket
undergoes repeated expansion and contraction. It fol 20 are provided by the frame members 10 and 12. Also,
an upper side frame member 49 extends longitudinally
lows that the basket construction must be such as to allow
of the basket on each side thereof. Each end 42 of both
for substantially free expansion and contraction in all
side. members 40 is folded and apertured so as to be held
parts of the basket.
by the uppermost rods 26 between the upwardly turned
An object of this invention is to provide a porous
metallic basket for use in heat treating processes having 25 portions of the ?anges 22 and one side of a U-shaped
bracket 34. As with the frame members 10 and 12, the
an improved floor construction which permits expansion
side members 40 are made from angle stock, thereby pro
and contraction of the parts of the floor substantially
independently of one another.
viding an inwardly directed horizontal ?ange 44- having
Another object of this invention is to provide a metallic 30 apertures (not shown) through which the upwardly
turned ends of the tie rods 18 extend. The opposite ends
heat treating basket with an improved floor construction
of the tie rods are upset, as indicated at 46.
of simple and economic construction readily asembled
The brackets 34 serve to separate the outer frame mem
from conventional stock.
ber 10 from the inner frame member 14 and the outer
Other objects and advantages reside in the construction
of parts, the combination thereof, the method of manu 35 frame member 12 from the inner frame member 16.
Since the upper rods 26 pass through apertures in the
facture and the mode of operation, as will become more
apparent from the following description.
folded ?anges 42 and through apertures in the upturned
ends of the frame members '10 and 12, the members 40
are thus spaced one from the other. The inner frame
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment
of a heat treating basket made in accordance with this 40 members 14- and 16 are held in spacedrelation due to the
bent handle portion 31. Thus, the general outline of
invention with portions broken away to reveal structural
the basket is retained by the construction of parts as thus
detail.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary perspective view showing
the portion of the improved ?oor enclosed within the
far described. It is apparent however, that the shape
of the basket would not be retained upon prolonged use
arcuate line 2 in FIGURE 1.
45 due to the difference in thermal expansion between the
various parts as. the basket is repeatedly heated and
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary front elevational View of
cooled. To retain the shape of the basket during use, the
the same portion of the ?oor shown in FIGURE '2.
vertical upturned portion of the rods 18, the rods 26 and
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view of another embodi
the rods 30 are encircled with coiled wire elements 48,
ment of a heat treating basket made in accordance with
this invention. Again portions are broken away to reveal 50 which serve as spacers for the sides and ends of the
basket. The coiled wire elements 48 encircle all exposed
structural detail.
vertical portions of most of the rods 18 and all of the
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary front sectional view of a
exposed portions of the rods 26 but for the handle por
portion of, the ?oor taken along the lines 5-5 of FIG
URE 4.
FIGURE 6 is a sectional view of a side frame struc
ture for the heat treating basket taken along lines 6‘—-6
of FIGURE 4.
Referring to the drawings in greater detail, the basket
tions 31 and all exposed portions of the rods 30 with the
55 result that all looseness inherent in the structure of the
basket is taken up. The coils 48 are tightly wound so
that there is little or no clearance for the compression
of the coils, thus producing a basket structure which is
substantially rigid. The structure and function of the
in FIGURE '1 includes a pair of outer frame members
10 and 12 and a pair of inner frame members14- and 16. 60 coils 48 is more fully explained in my copending applica
tion for US. ,Letters Patent, Serial Number 764,965,
?led October 2, ‘195 8, now US. Patent No. 3,012,766.
The tie rods :18 are passed through aligned apertures
49 in the innerframe members 14 and 16 to provide a
providing downwardly extending ?anges 22 and inwardly
horizontally extending ?anges 24. The ends of the tie 65 frame for the basket floor. The floor is completed by
a plurality of wire elements 50, which are formed with
rods 18 are turned upwardly to project through apertures
equispaced loops 52 throughout their entire length through
provided in the inwardly directed ?anges ‘24. The oppo
which the tie rods 18 are passed. Thus, the wire ele
site ends of the ?anges 22 of the outer frame members
Transverse to these frame members are spaced parallel
tie rods 18. The outer frame members 10 and 12 in
clude elongate base members 20 made from angle stock
.10 and 12 are turned upwardly as are the outer ends of
ments 50, along with the tie rods =18 form a mesh or
the inner frame members 14 and 16. The upturned ends 70 lattice work upon which the articles to be treated are
placed. Note that, as shown in FIGURES 2 and 3, the
of each of these frame members are apertured to sup
tie rods 18 are considerably thicker than the wire ele
port a plurality of transverse end rods 26. These rods
3,092,375
3
ments 50‘. No attempt has been made to show the dis- I
tinct dilference in size between the wire elements 58‘ and
rods 18 in the perspective view in FIGURE 1.
In order to preserve the shape of the lattice ?oor struc:
ture, some means must be provided to space the loops in
the wire elements on the tie rods 18.
In, the past, Wire 7
elements, such as those designated at 50, have been
spaced by comparatively expensive and heavy sleeves or
the like located between each loop 52. With this inven
tion, however, the spacing‘of the wire elements 50' is
greatly simpli?ed. As most clearlyindicatcd in FIG
URES 2 and 3, the tie rods 18 in addition to being in
serted through the loops 52 are also coursed through a
pair of washers or discs 54 on each side of each loop 52.
After the assembly of the basket has been completed, an 15
abutment or bead 56 is welded onto each rod 118 on the
sides of the washers 54 opposite each loop 52, thus con
?ning each of the loops 52 between a pair of washers or
discs 54 and a pair of abutments or beads 56. A similar
construction is placed adjacent the sides of the frame
members 14 and 16.
,
_
'
.
.
'
'
4
considerably reduce the weight of the basket and addi
tionally, the time and expense required to make the bas
ket. One change that is made is that the coiled wire
elements 48 which insure rigidity of the basket construc
tion are not used. Instead, the shape of the basket is
retained by placing washers 60 adjacent both internal
sides of each of the brackets 34 surrounding the rods
26. These washers are then welded to the rods 18.
Similarly, washers 62. are welded at the opposite ends
of, the transverse rods 30 and 26 on the opposed .facesof
the frame members 14 and 16 so as to insure proper spac
ing therebetween. Further, as shown most clearly in
FIGURE 6, washers 66 are provided adjacent the outer
frame members 10 and .12 and the upper frame members
40 associated therewith on the opposed faces of the ?anges
24 and 44 respectively. The washers 66 are then welded
as indicated at 68- to separate the members 10 and 12
form the members 40'. Again the weld material is pref
erably made from the. same material as the material of
the tie rods 18 and transverse rods 26 and 30 so that
even if the weld to the washers should fail, the washers
In practice, thewashers 54 are initially welded to the
could not slip over the remaining weld abutment. This
rods 18 so as to be rigidly a?‘lxed thereto. It would be
has been found to be much cheaper and, of course, pro
readily apparent to those skilled in the art that an, ordi
duces a lighter basket than the basket employing the coil
nary weld between the washers 54 and the rods 18 would 25 wire elements 48 in FIGURE 1.
fail during use due to the constant expansion and con
Another distinction between the basket shown in FIG
traction of the various elements upon heating and cool
URES 4 through 6 and that shown in FIGURES 1 through
ing. However, it has been found that by utilizing a weld
3 relates to spacing of the loops 52. As shown in FIG—
material made from the same material, as the tie rods 18,
URE
5, the loops 52 on the tie rods 18 are spaced by
the abutments may be permanently fused to the tie rods 30 providing elongate welded abutments 70 between adja
18 in the welding operation. Thus, even though the weld
cent loops. It has been found just as easy to provide
is destroyed between the washers 54' and the beads 56 as
the elongate abutments 70 as it is to provide a pair of
illustrated in FIGURE 3, the beads ‘56 will remain fused
heads adjacent the loops 52 as in the previously described
to the tie rods 18. That the weld connection between
embodiment. Furthermore, in practice it is possible to
the beads 56 and the washers 54 fails is not deleterious.
provide an elongate welded abutment 70 between the
In fact, this is bene?cial. While it is necessary to con
loops 52 without engaging the loops during the welding
?ne the loops 52 within a comparatively small portion of
operation. Thus, there is no necessity in this case for
each of the rods 18, it is desirable to permit room for
the use of washers 54. While the welded abutments 70
expansion for the loops. As is clear from FIGURE 3, 40 are illustrated as being on the bottom of the ?oor or
with this construction, each of the parts may undergo
lattice work provided by the wires 54} and the tie rods
expansion during heating and contraction during cooling
18, it would, of course, be possible to provide. the welded
without harmful effects since each of the parts may ex
pand independently. If the parts could not expand inde
pendently, there would be a great danger that localized
abutments 70 on top of the tie rods 18.
iIn fabricating the heat, treating baskets made in ac
cordance
with this invention, it has been found preferable
stress would occur at the points where the loops 52 are 45 to .pre-form the wire elements 50 from a suitable alloy
connected to the rods 18.
such as Inconel. Also, as noted above, the tie rods 18
It is to be understood that all of the various parts of ,7 are preferably made from Inconel along with the welded
the basket illustrated in FIGURE 1 are made from metal.
abutments and transverse rods 26, 30. Thus, the abut
While any one of numerous metals may be used to make
ments when fused by welding with the rods, become in
50
the tie rods 18 and the beads 56, it has been found satis
tegral therewith. The remaining elements making up
factory to use Inconel, an alloy of approximately 6.5%
the basket may be made from iron or steel or any other
iron, 13% chromium, and 79.5% nickel, for the rods 18
suitable material.
and accordingly an Inconel weld material is used in
It is recognized that in the past welding has been used
forming the beads or abutments 56. It should be ap
to. secure .together the various parts of heat treating
parent that, since the weld connection between the discs
baskets. in fact, muct elfort has been made to dispense
or washers 54 and the beads 56 is destroyed during the
with welding in heat treating baskets, because of the
use of the basket without any deleterious effects, the
danger of weld failure during repeated heating and cool
washers 54 are not necessary. In fact, the primary pur
ing. Also, the welded parts could not expand and con
pose ‘of the washers 54 is to insure that a direct weld is
tract with freedom, whereupon undesired stresses were
not made between the loops 52 and the tie rods 18. If
produced. at the welded joints. .Accordingly, it is to be
such a weld were made, the loops, which are much
emphasized that, aside from the joints formed between
thinner than the rods, might be broken or otherwise
the washers and the rods, which are destroyed in use,
harmed if a?ixed to the rods 18 during repeated heating
no parts of the baskets described above are secured to
and cooling. The washers 54, accordingly, are placed on 65 gether by welding. Thus, the objections to ordinary
opposite sides of the loops 52 since it is dif?cult to place
welds do not apply to the present invention. Also, it is
a small welded bead closely adjacentthe loops 52 without
to be emphasized that the weld material is added to the
actually touching the loops 52 during the welding opera
rods 18. This is preferable to drawing abutments from
tion.
the rods by heating or staking them. If the abutments
Referring now to FIGURES 4 through 6 which dis 70 were drawn from the rods, repeated heating and. cooling
close another embodiment of the instant invention, the
would produce localized stresses in the rods due to the
basket structure is much the same as that shown in FIG
uneven thermal response resulting from their dis?gure
URES 1 through 3 and the parts are accordingly identi
ment. By adding weld material to the rods made from
?ed by identical reference characters. In the case of
the same metal or alloy as the rods, the variations in
the basket of FIGURE 4, two changes are, made. which 75 thermal response are minimized.
.
3,092,375
7. The combination of claim 6, wherein said abutment
means comprises an elongate weld fused to each rod be—
tween each pair of wires.
8. The combination of claim 7, wherein the welds are
Although the presently preferred embodiments of the
invention have been described, it will be understood that
within the purview of this invention various changes may
be made in the form, details, proportion and arrangement
made from the same material as the rods.
of parts, the combination thereof and mode of opera
9. The combination of claim 6, wherein said abutment
means comprises a plurality of beads of Weld material
and said spacing means further comprises a plurality
of washers which encircle the support rods, there being
1. In a heat treating basket, a support structure in 10 one washer con?ned adjacent each side of each loop by
said beads.
cluding a plurality of spaced, substantially parallel sup
10. The combination of claim 9, wherein the beads are
port rods, a plurality of substantially parallel wire ele
made from the same material as the rods.
ments extending normal to said support rods, each of
11. In a heat treating basket of the type employing
said wire elements having spaced loops therein encircling
spaced
tie rods, a side wall structure comprising a pair
15
successive support rods, and spacing means adjacent each
of vertically spaced frame members having a plurality
of said wire elements including abutment means inte
of aligned apertures therein, vertical supporting posts
grally added to said support rods which limit movement
extending through each pair of aligned apertures, said
of the wires along the length of the rods.
posts being formed from upturned ends of said tie rods,
2. The combination of claim 1, wherein said abutment
means comprises an elongate weld fused to each rod be 20 each of said posts having enlarged ends cooperating to
secure the posts to the frame members and means sepa‘
tween each pair of wires.
rating the frame members including abutment means in
3. The combination of claim 2, wherein the welds are
tegrally added to each of said posts.
made from the same material as the rods.
I12. The combination of claim 11, wherein said abut‘
4. The combination of claim 1, wherein said abutment
means comprises a plurality of beads of weld material 25 ment means comprises a pair of welded beads between
said frame members, there being one bead near each end
and said spacing means further comprises a plurality of
of each post, and said means separating the frame mem
washers which encircle the support rods, there being one
ber further includes a washer con?ned between each weld
washer con?ned adjacent each side of each loop by said
and its adjacent frame member.
beads.
30
'‘5. The combination of claim 4, wherein the beads are
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
made from the same material as the rods.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
tion, which generally stated consist in a device capable
of carrying out the objects set forth, as disclosed and
de?ned in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
6. In a heat treating basket, 2. support structure in‘
cluding a plurality of spaced substantially parallel sup
port rods, a plurality of substantially parallel Wire ele
35
ments extending normal to said support rods, a plurality
of connecting means on said wire elements encircling each
of said support rods for ?xing the rods thereto and
spacing means adjacent each of said connecting means
including abutment means integrally added to said sup 40
port rods which limit movement of the wires along the
length of the rods.
557,706
Riviere ______________ __ Apr. 7, 1896
‘985,113
Conrad ______________ __ Feb. 21, 1911
1,231,022,
Headley _____________ __ June 26, 1917
1,646,716
Wheeler ____________ _... Oct. 25, 192.7
2,176,072
Harris ______________ __ Oct. 17, 1939
2,249,219‘
2,420,428
2,430,521
Narn et a1 _____________ __ July 15, 1941
Hill et a1 _____________ .__ May 13, 1947
McCormick _____ __..__.._ Nov. 11, 1947
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