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Патент USA US3092889

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June 11, "1963
Filed March '7, 1961
v 5 Sheets-Sheet 1
June 11, 1963
Filed March 7, 196,1
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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June 11, 1963
Filed March 7, 1961
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June 11, 1963
Filed March 7, 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
June 11, 1963
Filed March 7, 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
United States
Patented June 11, 1963
Ferdinand Bauer, Tamworth, England, assignor to Foseco
International Limited, Birmingham, England, a com
pany of Great Britain
Filed Mar. 7, 1961, Ser. No. 94,076
Claims priority, application Great Britain Mar. 11, 1960
6 Claims. (Cl. 22-31)
then inserted between the slabs and the inner surface of
the mould mouth to force the slabs tightly against one
It may be noted however that the cost of hanger straps‘
or brackets of the type just described is substantial and
is frequently out of proportion to the cost of the slabs
It is accordingly an object of the present invention to
provide a new method and means for mounting lining
‘This invention concerns improvements in or relating 10 slabs in a mould mouth.
to moulds for the production of castings and ingots of
molten metal and more particularly relates to the prepa
ration or setting-up of such moulds prior to the casting
According to one aspect of this invention, there is pro~
vided a method of mounting a liner made up of slabs
in a mould mouth such method comprising supporting
the slabs in position in the mould mouth so as to contact
When molten metal is cast in a mould the surface of 15 closely the inner surface thereof on supports which are
the metal tends to cool ?rst. Premature solidi?cation of
pivotally connected to a member located within the mould
the surface metal however may prevent a natural flow
mouth, ?xing the slabs in such position and thereafter
of metal to accommodate the shrinkage of the metal, so
removing the said member, with the said supports pivoted
that imperfections may appear in the cast metal. To avoid
inwardly away from the slabs, out of the mould through
this it is the practice to provide a so-called hot top to 20 the mouth thereof.
the mould. This is normally an extension to the upper
It will be appreciated that, using the method according
part of the mould which is provided with means for pre
to this invention, the liner is, in use of the mould, held
venting premature solidi?cation of the metal in the hot
top. A free flow of metal downwards is thus made pos
sible and a casting or ingot substantially free from im
perfections, and more particularly cracks and ?ssures,
may result.
In order to prevent the premature solidi?cation re
ferred to, it is common to provide a lining to the head
of the mould (or to a hot top unit superimposed on the
mould) which will have the effect of preventing or re
versing flow of heat away from the molten metal. Thus
the lining may be of a heat-insulating refractory material.
However a method which has secured widespread ap
in position without the use of support brackets.
According to a further aspect of this invention, there
is provided a jig for supporting the slabs of a sectional
liner in a mould mouth prior to the wedging of the slabs
in the latter, such jig comprising a central support mem
ber adapted to extend axially downwardly into the mould
mouth, a member movable relatively to the central sup—
port member, a plurality of supports for a slab or slabs
spaced outwardly from, and arranged at suitably spaced
positions around, the central support member, and a link
age coupling each support to the central support mem
ber and to the member movable relatively thereto, the
proval and extensive use is to provide as a lining in the 35 arrangement being such that the two members may be
hot ‘top a layer of a composition which is ignited by the
held relatively to one another in a position in which the
molten metal and the constituents of which react exo
said linkages maintain the supports in the correct posi—
thermically to provide heat for holding the metal in the
molten condition for as long as the particular circum
stances require. Such an exothermic composition may
contain aluminium, a quantity of oxidising agent stoichio
metrically insufficient to oxidise completely all the alu
tions for supporting the slabs and thereafter one mem—
ber may be moved relatively to the other member to
cause collapsing movement of the linkages to move the
supports inwardly towards the central support member
so that, after wedging of the slabs, the jig may be col-.
minium present and a small proportion of a ?uoride,
lapsed and removed through the mould mouth.
e.g. an alkali metal or calcium ?uoride, aluminium ?uo 45
To support the jig whilst this is in position in the mold
ride, silico?uon'de or boro ?uoride. Compositions of
mouth and during the wedging of the liner sections, the
use in this connection are described in British Patents
Nos. 627,678, 769,719, 774,490, 774,491, and 812,583.
Whether the lining is formed of heat-insulating refrac
tory material or exothermic material or consists of lay
ers of both, it is convenient in practice to prefabricate the
lining in slabs and to wedge the slabs into position to
constitute a complete lining, the slabs being placed in
position through the open upper end of the mould or hot
top (which open end is hereinafter generally referred to 55
as the “mou ” of the mould).
When the mould is
jig advantageously includes a cross beam extending trans
versely of the central support member and carried at its
ends by legs adapted to rest on the lip of the mould
mouth. Conveniently, the said cross beam is adjustable
vertically on the legs so as to vary the distance of this
cross beam above the mould, and thus the extent to which
the central support member extends into the mould mouth.
Preferably, each support is carried at the outer end of
an arm, the inner end of which is pivoted to the central
support member or the member movable relatively there
large the slabs ‘may be of substantial dimensions and
to, and a link is pivoted to such arm between its ends
weight and there is considerable dif?culty in holding them
and to the other of the two members.
in position while they are ?xed by wedging them.
Where the support-carrying arms are pivotally mounted
Various methods have been proposed to overcome this 60 on the member movable relatively to the central support.
di?iculty, for example the provision of rods passing
member, the said member may be the said cross beam
through loops on the slabs, the rods lying across the
and the central support member may be mounted on
mouth of the mould so that the slabs are suspended. In
the cross beam for movement vertically relatively to the
another method the slabs are supported in the mould
mouth by a plurality of brackets which are arranged at 65
In the preferred construction of jig according to this
spaced positions around the latter and each of which
invention, however, the support-carrying arms are piv
comprises a ?at plate lying closely adjacent the inner
otally mounted on the central support member and the
surface of the mould mouth and having, at its lower end,
said links are coupled to a member movable relatively
an inwardly extending ?ange on which the lower edge
to the central support member. Advantageously, accord
of the. slab rests and, at its upper end, an outwardly ex 70 ing to a further feature of this invention, the said cen
tending ?ange which rests on the lip of the mould mouth
tral support member comprises a shaft to the lower end‘
to suspend the bracket within the latter. Wedges are
of which the support carrying arms are pivoted and the
member movable relatively to the central support mem
wing nut 13, for preventing accidental removal of the pin
ber is a sleeve or bush slidably mounted on the said
shaft, the arms being coupled to this sleeve or bush by
the said links so that movement of such sleeve or bush
12 from the bores in which it is engaged.
Each leg 7 preferably has at its lower end, as shown, a
foot 14 extending transversely of the leg to give greater
stability to the jig when this is in use.
axially along the shaft causes pivoting of the arms about
their pivots at the lower end of the shaft. 7
At its lower end, the shaft 5 has, projecting outwardly
therefrom or equiangularly spaced positions around the
To hold the sleeve or bush ?xed relatively to the shaft
shaft, four lugs 15 to each of which is pivoted an out
Wardlyv extending arm 16 having at its end 'a substantially
leasable locking means may be used. In a preferred con 10 triangular plate 17 forming a support for the slabs. At a
in the position in which the supports carried by the arms
are in their slab-supporting positions, any suitable re
struction, the sleeve or bush carries an abutment which
normally engages an element ?xed relativelyrto the shaft,
but which is manually movable out of engagementwith
position between its ends, each arm v16 has pivoted thereto
a link 18 which extends upwardly and inwardly towards
the central shaft 5 and which is pivoted at its upper end to
the abutment to free the sleeve or bush for movement
a lug 19 projecting outwardly from a sleeve 20 s-lidable on
15 the shaft. The sleeve 20 has welded thereto at each of.
along the shaft.
two diametrically opposed positions a thin rod 21 which
Preferably, the number of the supports of the jig, and
extends upwardly from the sleeve 20 parallel to the shaft 5,
the arrangement of these supports, is such that, in use
the two rods carrying at their upper ends a collar 22'
of the jig, a support is located below each junction of
which is a sliding ?t on the shaft;
slabs. Thus, where the mould mouth is of substantially
Just below the cross beam6 is located a cranked handle
square cross-section, as is frequently the case, and four 20
23 which is of a ?at plate form located with its plane horia
liner sections are provided, one to line each side of the
zontal and is pivoted at one end to a post 24 secured to the
square, the jig will have four supports and the arms will
cross beam adjacent the centre of, the length thereof.
be arranged at positions around the central support mem~
The other end of the handle 23 is supported on a
her or shaft at an angular spacing of 90°.
In order that
invention may more readily be under 25 bracket 25 secured to the cross beam and at an intermedi
ate position -a tension spring 26 secured to the handle and
stood and further features appreciated, reference will now
the cross beam urges the handle towards the shaft 5.
be made to the accompanying drawings in which:
In use of the jig described above with reference to
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of
FIGURES 1 to 3 the sleeve 20 is located in the position
jig according to the invention, the jig being shown in
position supporting liner slabs
a mould mouth, part 30 on the shaft 5 shown in FIGURE 1 such that the arms
16 extend substantially horizontally outwardly from the
of which is broken away, whilstsuch slabs are being
wedged therewithin;
shaft and the supports 17 are in horizontal planes at the
appropriate distance from the shaft to be adjacent the
inner surface of the mould mouth when the lower part of
the jig is inserted into the latter. With the sleeve 20 in
this position, the collar 22 is positioned, just below the cross
beam 61and is held in this location, as shown in FIGURE
, FIGURE 2 is a plan view of the jig of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a view corresponding to FIGURE 1, but
showing the jig in a collapsed condition for removal from
the mould mouth after wedging of the liner slabs therein;
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrat
ing second embodiment of jig according to this invention,
this being a modi?cation of the embodiment of FIGURES
1 to 3; and
1, by the handle 23 on which the collar 22 rests. v
The legs 7 are mounted on the lip of the mould mouth
40 so that each of the plates 17 is located at a cornerof the
inner surface of the mould mouth and the cross beam 6 is
FIGURES 5 and 6 are perspective views similar to FIG
URE 1 illustrating
and fourth embodiments of jig
adjusted in position vertically on the legs 7 until the plates
17 are located at the desired depth in the mould mouth.
’Ihe liner slabs 3 are next inserted into the mould mouth
'l‘he jigs illustrated in the drawings are designed for use
in supporting within a substantially square cross-sectioned 45 so as to be supported on the plates 17 of the jig, each plate
17 supporting two adjacent slabs at the junction of the
mouth 1 of a mould 2 a sectional liner comprising four
latter, and the wedges 4' are then forced between the outer
slabs 3 whilst the latter are ?xed in position, one lining
surfaces of the liner slabs and the inner surface of the
each side‘ of the inner surface of the mould month, by
mouth as shown in FIGURE 1 to secure the liner slabs in
wedges 4 forced between the liner slabs 3 and such inner
according to the invention.
mould mouth surfaces.
The jig illustrated in FIGURES 1 to 3 comprises a cen
tral shaft 5 which, when the jig is erected in the position
shown in FIGURE 1 for supporting the liner slabs 3,
extends vertically downwardly into the mould mouth 1.
When the liner slabs are secured, the jig is collapsed as I
shown in FIGURE 3 by moving the handle 23, against
the biasing provided by spring 26, away from the collar
»22 so that the assembly of collar 22, rods '21 and sleeve
This shaft 5 is secured at its upper end to a cross beam 55 20 slide down the shaft 5 under gravity and cause links
1-8 to swing the arms 16 and plates 17 downwardly and
inwardly away from the liner so that the jig may be re
moved from the mould.
The embodiment of jig illustrated in FIGURE 4 is a
parallel strips '8 arranged in vertical planes and secured
together byv three cylindrical bushes, namely two outer 60 modi?cation of that of FIGURES ‘1 to ‘3 and is similar to
the latter except in that the assembly of collar 22, rods
bushes 9 and a central bush 10, which are located between
21 ‘and sleeve 20 of the embodiment of FIGURES 1 to
the strips 8 and to which the latter are welded.
3 is replaced by a bush 27 which carries the lugs 19 and’
The shaft 5 is secured to the cross beam 6 by passing
is slidable on the shaft 5., This bush 27 has a cross bore
into and being welded to, the central bush 10, whilst the
legs 7, which comprise rods of circular cross-section, ?t 65 28 adapted to register with a hole (not shown) through
the shaft when the supports 17 of the jig are in their liner
into the'end bushes 9. The latter have transverse bores
supporting position. To hold the supports in this position,
therethrough and the legs 7 have a vertically spaced series
a pin 29 passes through the registering bore 28 and hole
of cross bores 11 therethrough so that the cross beam 6
in shaft 5. When it is desired to collapse the jig, the'
can be mounted on the legs 7 in any one of a number of
70 pin 29 is pulled out of the bore 28 and hole in shaft 5.
vertically ‘adjusted positions by registering the appropriate
To facilitate removal of the pin 29 and to prevent its
cross bore 11 in each leg 7 with the transverse bore in the
accidental loss, such pin is carried by a chain 30 having
corresponding end bush 9 and inserting a pin 12 through
‘its upper end secured tothe cross beam.
the registering bores. As shown, the pin 12 may conven
In the embodiment of jig illustrated in FIGURES, the
ien?y have a screw-threaded end to receive a nut, e.g. a 75 bush'27 of the jig illustrated in, FIGURE 4 is replaced .
6 which is spaced above the mould and is mounted at each
end on a leg 7 adapted to rest, as shown, on the lip of
the mould mouth. The cross beam 6 is formed by two ?at
by a tube 31 slidable on the shaft and extending along the
latter for most of the length thereof, whilst each support
17, instead of being carried by the described arrangement
of arm 16 and link 18, is carried on a bracket 32 to which
are pivoted two similar links 33, one of which is pivot
ally mounted on a lug 34 on the lower end of the shaft 5
and the other of which is pivotally mounted on a lug 35
on the lower end of the tube 31. The tube 31 is welded
to the bush 10 and the shaft 5 is free to slide therein. It
2. The jig speci?ed in claim 1 in which each of said
legs has a series of cross-bores arranged in a row extend
ing longitudinally of the leg, each of said cross-bores
being selectively registrable with a bore in the cross beam,
and the jig includes a pin extending through the latter
bore and the leg bore registered therewith.
3, A jig for supporting the sections of a sectional liner
in a mould mouth prior to the wedging of the sections in
the latter, such jig comprising: a cross beam adapted, in
will be appreciated that, with this arrangement, sliding of 10 use of the jig, to extend across the top of the mould mouth
the shaft 5 within tube 31 causes movement of each sup
and to be supported on the lip thereof; a shaft secured at
one end to the cross beam and extending transversely
port radially of the shaft. The shaft 5 extends upwardly
thereof so as, in use of the jig, to project downwardly into
through the centre boss 10 ‘on the cross beam 6 and
the mould mouth; bush means mounted slidable longi
carries at its upper end a handle 36 by which the shaft
may be moved within the tube 31.
tudinally on the said shaft; a plurality of arms, each piv
To enable this embodiment to be used with a variety
of mould mouth widths, the shaft 5 is arranged to be se
curable relatively to the tube 31 in a number of alterna
oted at one end to the end of said shaft remote from said
tive positions. In FIGURE 5, this is shown as being
cross-beam, the said arms being arranged at spaced posi
tions round the central shaft and having free ends spaced
outwardly therefrom; a plurality of ?at plate supports car
achieved by having a transverse bore 37 in the tube 31, a
series of vertically spaced bores 38 in the shaft 5 and a
pin 39 engageable in such bores. If desired the shaft 5
could be provided with a single bore and the tube 31 pro
ried one at the free end of each of said arms and each
having a liner supporting surface; a plurality of links ar
ranged at spaced positions around the central shaft cor
responding to the positions of said arms, each link being
pivoted at one end to the said bush means slidable on the
vided with the series of vertically spaced bores.
The jig illustrated in FIGURE 6 comprises, as before, 25 shaft and at the other end to the arm at such position and
intermediate the ends of the arm; and readily releasable
a central shaft 5', a cross beam 6 supported on adjustable
locking means for holding the bush means in one position
legs 7 and a plurality of supports 17 spaced outwardly of
on the shaft, the length of the said links and the orientation
the shaft. In this embodiment, the shaft 5 is slidable in
of the said supports on said arms being such that, in said
bush 10, each support 17 is carried by an arm 40 which
extends upwardly to, and is pivotally mounted on, the 30 one position of the bush means, the said arms make an
angle with the shaft not less than 90° and the said sup
cross beam v6 and the arm 40 is coupled at, or adjacent,
port surfaces of the supports are substantially perpen—
its lower end to the lower end of the shaft 5 by a link
41 pivotally mounted on a lug 42 at the lower end of
the shaft. Downwards sliding of the shaft 5 relatively to
the cross beam '6 causes the support carrying arms 40 to
pivot about their upper ends and the supports to move
downwardly and inwardly towards the shaft.
I claim as my invention:
1. A jig for supporting the sections of a sectional liner
in a mould mouth prior to the wedging of the sections in
the latter, such jig comprising: a central shaft member; a
‘sleeve member mounted on said shaft member and di
mensioned so that free relative longitudinal sliding move
dicular to the shaft.
4. The jig speci?ed in claim 3, in which said locking
means comprises a pin insertable through a hole in the
bush means and a registering bore in the shaft.
5. The jig speci?ed in claim 3 and including a collar
slidable on said shaft to the side of said bush means nearer
the said cross-beam and means connecting the said collar
to said bush means for movement therewith and so that
the collar is spaced from the bush means a distance such
that, when the said bush means is in said one position,
the said collar is adjacent said cross-beam, in which said
locking means comprises a handle pivoted to the cross
extending transversely of the shaft and sleeve members 45 beam and trained to a position in which the handle en
gages the collar on the side thereof remote from said
and ?xedly secured intermediate its ends to one only of
cross beam.
these members; legs at each end of the cross beam extend
'6. The jig speci?ed in claim 3 and including legs at
ing to one side thereof parallel to the said shaft member
ment between the two members can occur; a cross beam
and having a length less than that of the latter; a plurality 50 each end of the cross-beam extending therefrom in the
same direction as the said shaft and parallel thereto, each
of liner supports spaced outwardly from, and arranged at
of said legs having a series of cross-bores arranged in a
spaced positions around, the said shaft member to that
row extending longitudinally of the leg, each of said
side of the cross beam to which the said legs extend; and
cross-bores being selectively registrable with a bore in the
a linkage coupling each support to the said shaft mem
cross-beam, and two pins, one extending through each of
ber and to the said sleeve member and acting, on relative 55 said bores in the cross-beam and the leg bore registered
movement occurring between these two members by
movement relatively to the said cross beam in a direction
to that side of the cross beam to which the said legs ex
tend of that one of said shaft and sleeve members not
connected thereto, to move the supports from a liner sup 60
porting position in which said liner supports are widely
spaced from the shaft member to a collapsed position in
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Mazarakis ___________ __ Sept. 20, 1960
Marburg _____________ -_ Feb. 27, 196-2
Great Britain _________ __ July 3, 1957
which the supports are retracted towards the shaft mem
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