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Патент USA US3092976

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June 11, 1963
A. A. KUZMITZ
3,092,966
GovERNoR FOR GAS TURBINE ENGINEs INCLUDING INLET
CONDITION BIAS DURING STEADY STATE OPERATION
Original Filed March 1, 1954
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INVENTOR.
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June 11, 1963
A. A. KUZMITZ
3,092,966
GOVERNOR FOR GAS TURBINE ENGINES INCLUDING INLET
CONDITION BIAS DURING STEADY STATE OPERATION
Original Filed March 1, 1954
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United States Patent 0
1
3,0§2,966
GDVERNOR FOR GAS TURBINE ENGINES IN
CLUDING INLET CONDITKGN BIAS DURING
STEADY STATE OPERATION
Andrew
Kuzmitz, South Bend, Ind., assignor to The
_Bend_ix Corporation, a corporation of Delaware
Continuation of application Ser. No. 413,318, Mar. 1,
1954. This application July 5, 1957, Ser. No. 670,347
3 Claims. (Cl. 60—39.28)
CC
3,®§Z,%ii
Patented June '11, 1963
2
substantially constant value irrespective of variations in
altitude temperature and/ or pressure.
In addition, the operating characteristics, as re?ected
in turbine inlet temperature and/ or percent of power out
put, of many such engines will normally vary at any
given part throttle position of the pilot’s control lever,
i.e. at any position between idle and maximum speed,
with variations in altitude and/or compressor inlet tem
perature. My invention provides means for maintaining
a substantially constant turbine inlet temperature or a
This invention relates to a fuel feed and power control
substantially constant percent of engine power output,
device for gas turbine engines and more particularly to
whichever is desired, at any given part ‘throttle setting
such a device utilizing an adjustable engine speed governor
irrespective of variations in altitude and/or compressor
having throttle assist means and various speed setting com
inlet temperature.
r
pensatlng means operably connected thereto. This ap 15 Furthermore, as will become later apparent‘ib those
pllcation is a continuation of my parent application Serial
skilled in the art, my invention is readily adaptable for
No. 413,318, ?led March 1, 1954, and now abandoned.
use with multiple spool engines wherein it may be de
In the copending application of Barry C. Zeisloft, Serial
lilo. 248,402, ?led September 26, 1951 (common as
sirable to control the turbine temperature or percent of
power output as a function of the speed setting on any
signee), there is disclosed a fuel scheduling type control 20 one of the spools; egg. in a twin spool engine the engine
for turbo-prop and turbo-jet engines with which a pilot
is free to accelerate to a selected power setting, and the
governor may be automatically reset during engine oper
ation as a function of the temperature and/or pressure
quantity or weight of fuel supplied to the burners is auto
conditions existent at the inlet of the second or high pres
matically regulated to permit maximum allowable rate
sure compressor to control the percent of power output
of acceleration within a safe turbine temperature limit 25 or turbine inlet temperature at any given pilot’s control
and to avoid compressor surge or stall. This fuel con
lever position.
trol generally comprises an engine speed governor which
It is therefore one of the primary objects of this in
is adapted to control the area of a Variable fuel metering
ori?ce across which a ?xed metering head is maintained.
Superimposed on the governing action are scheduled limi
tations on fuel ?ow which provide turbine temperature
and compressor surge protection during engine accelera
tion; ‘deceleration fuel ?ow limitations; and controlled
fuel flow for part load engine operation. All of these
scheduled limitations of fuel ?ow, with the exception of
the deceleration ?ow schedule, are functions of a tem
perature corrected three dimensional cam system which
controls the area of the metering ori?ce as a function of
various engine operating conditions, such as engine speed
vention to provide automatic governor adjustment means
for engines of the type speci?ed operable to control the
speed setting of said governor in such a manner that a
predetermined turbine temperature or percent of power
output is maintainable at steady state conditions and at
any given position of a pilot’s control lever irrespective
of variations in engine operating conditions.
Another object of this invention is to provide governor
control means for automatically resetting an engine gov
ernor as a function of certain engine operating param
eters whereby the governor speed setting may the auto—
matically varied at any given position of a pilot’s con
trol lever.
It is a further object of this invention to provide gas
turbine engine governing means automatically resettable
during operation of the engine as a function of varia
and compressor discharge pressure.
The present invention is primarily concerned with im
proved means for adjusting the engine governor to con
trol engine operation at any given selected speed, and
with means for automatically resetting the governor as
tions in pressure and/or temperature conditions at the
a function of certain engine operating conditions at a given 45 inlet of a single spool engine or at the inlet of any one
selected steady state engine operating condition so that
of the compressors of a multiple spool engine.
the engine may operate at maximum power or thrust at
A further object of this invention is to provide all-speed
said steady state condition irrespective of variations in
governing means for gas turbine engines automatically
compressor inlet temperature and/or pressure. My in
resettable during operation of the engine as a function
vention, as herein disclosed, is associated with a single
of a sensed compressor temperature and/or pressure for
spool, i.e. a single compressor-turbine combination, turbo
maintaining a predetermined maximum constant turbine
jet engine, but, as will become apparent, is readily adapt
able for use with a multiple spool, i.e. a multiple com
pressor-turbine combination, turbo-jet engine, with turbo
inlet temperature irrespective of variations in altitude
and/ or compressor inlet temperature.
An additional object of this invention is to provide
prop engines, or, for that matter, with any type of engine 55 manually actuable speed selection means for gas turbine
wherein governor resetting means, as hereinafter de
scribed, are utilizable for optimizing engine efficiency at
certain operating conditions.
engines including a throttle assist or power boost device
for minimizing the force or torque necessary to manually
select various engine operating speeds.
In many aircraft installations utilizing gas turbine en
Another object of this invention is to provide maximum
gines, it has been found desirable to maintain turbine 60 speed adjustment means for engines of the type speci?ed
inlet temperature at a ?xed maximum allowable value
operable to vary the maximum engine speed setting as
whenever the engine is controlled to operate at maximum
desired without disturbing the idle speed setting thereof.
steady state speed and power. However, the operating
The above and other objects and features of this in
characteristics of many such engines vary if a ?xed
vention
will become apparent from the following descrip
maximum speed is maintained, in such a way that turbine 65 tion of the device taken in conjunction with the accom
inlet temperature increases as compressor inlet tempera
panying drawings, wherein:
ture and/or pressure-decrease. I have found that by
FIGURE 1 is a sectional view of a turbojet engine
automatically resetting the engine speed governor as a
equipped with a fuel feed and power control device in
predetermined function of compressor inlet temperature
accordance with the invention;
and compressor inlet pressure, during high power opera
FIGURE 2 is a schematic sectional view of the fuel
tion at a pilot selected maximum speed setting, for ex
feed and power control device used on the engine of
ample, turbine inlet temperature may be controlled to a
FIGURE 1; and
3,092,966
FIGURES 3 and 4 are curve charts illustrating certain
modes of operation of the engine of FIGURE 1 when
equipped with the control device of FIGURE 2.
Referring now to FIGURE 1, a gas turbine engine is
generally indicated at 10 and includes a series ofv an
nularly disposed combustion chambers 11 mounted in a
casing having a header section 12, and a compressor 13,
shown as of the ‘axial flow type, which is driven by means
chamber 124 which is supplied with fuel under pressure
from the fuel inlet conduit 24 through a passage 126, a
constant discharge pressure valve 128 which maintains a
constant predetermined servo supply pressure in a passage
130 and a calibrated restriction 132. Fuel is discharged
by servo device 110 at a pressure determined by the posi
tion of half-ball servo valve 112 into a housing cavity 134
through a calibrated restriction 136 formed in the end of
a tube 138 which is ?xedly attached to sleeve 112-2 and
ofa turbine 14 through a shaft 15. Each of the com
bustion chambers is provided with a burner nozzle 16 to 10 forms a passage 14%. The housing cavity 13-4 is connected
to the inlet side of the pump through a conduit, not shown.
which metered fuel is suppliedrunder pressure by Way of
A spring 142 is anchored to sleeve ‘122 and abuts a slid
a conduit '17, ‘fuel manifold 18 and individual fuel lines
able member 144 to which is connected -a cage-like mem
19. The conduit 17 receives metered ‘fuel from a fuel
ber 146 which holds servo valve 112 in ?xed relation to
control device generally indicated at 20‘ in FIGURE 1
and shown in sectional schematic in FIGURE 2 which 15 the one end of member 144. The servo fuel pressure in
chamber 124, at, any given constant supply pressure in
will now be described.
passjageylSil, will vary only as a function of the area ratio
The mechanism of the fuel control device, 2% is en
of restrictions 132 and 136, the effective area of said
closed within a housing 22 which provides for the passage
latter restriction being a function of the position of servo
of pressurized ‘fuel through an inlet conduit 24, supplied
by a pump, not shown, and for the passage of metered 20 valve 112 which is directly controlled by lever 80*, throttle
fuel to the conduit 17, manifold 18 and nozzles 16 through
a discharge conduit 26. A reciprocable and rotatable
main metering valve 28 having ribbed guide lands 28’sand
setting cam 88‘ and levers V162, and .106. The spring 142
ports 34 in sleeve 30, metering restrictions 32', a chamber
36 and sleeve‘ports 38. A pressure regulator valve device
loosely mounted on the shaft 96 which, in operation, is
functions through levers 1116 and 1%2 to maintain cam
follower 160 in continuous contact with, cam 88 and a
second cam follower 148 in continuous contact with a
28", is contained within a hollow valve sleeve member 30
and includes a hollow metering element 32 which de?nes 25 contoured‘ ‘three-dimensional compressor inlet pressure
compensating cam 150 which is mounted on a pinion 152
a plurality of discriminately positioned metering openings
and the shaft 94, said latter cam, pinion and shaft being
3-2’. Fuel may flow from conduit 24 to conduit 26 through
rotated as'a function of engine speed by servo-mechanism,
40 is connected ‘to conduits 24 ‘and, 26 by passages 42gand 30 not shown, and which is drivably connected to a con
toured three~dimensional acceleration cam 154 and non
44- and is adapted to by-pass fuel from conduit 24 to the
drivably associated with cams 8S and 150.
pump inlet through a conduit 46, ‘as necessary to main
A pressure responsive bellows 155 is shown mounted
tain a constant fuel pressure di?erential across metering
within chamber 134 and is internally vented to compressor
valve element 32 under all conditions of ‘engine opera—
tion. 'A valve stem 48, having a guide land 49, is con 35 inlet air through a conduit 155'. An evacuated bellows
155” is connected to bellows 155 by link 156 for nullifying
nected to the valve ‘guide land 28' and extends through an
any effect that variations in chamber 134 pressure would
extension guide 5t) of sleeve member 30', being ?xedly
otherwise have on bellows 155. The bellows 155 is con
connected at its opposite end to a spring retainer 52 of an
nected to a rack 157 'for actuating said rack, pinion 152
all-speed engine governing means 54.,
‘ Governing means 54 comprises a speed reference means 40 and cam v150 as a function of compressor inlet pressure,
by means of a known type of servo device 158, including
in the form of a governer ‘spring 56 maintained between
the movable retainer 52 and aspring adjustment member
57 which is axially actuable along guide 59 by a bi
a fluid pressure actuated spring loaded piston 158' con
nected'to said rack, and, a half-ball type servo valve 158"
furcated lever 58 pivoted at 68‘ and connected to member
positionally ‘controlled by bellows 155 through a lever
57 by means of lugs 62 which extend outwardly from the
shell of said member. A pair of centrifugal weights 64
with relation to a ?xed restriction 1160 in a branch con- .
159 for controlling the effective ‘area of an ori?ce 159’
duit 166' of servo supply passage 13!). A variation in
compressor inlet pressure results inv a corresponding varia
tion in the extension of bellows 155; the operation of servo
a rotatable plate 72, said plate being drivably connected
to the engine shaft ‘15 by means of geared member 74, 50 device 158 is such‘that earn 150 is rotated to an angular
position which is always a function of existing compres- ‘
gear 76 and governor drive shaft 78 (see FIGURE 1).
sor inlet pressure. Abutting the end of pinion 152 is the
A pilot or manually controlled lever 80 is operatively
bifurcated end of a lever ‘1'62 pivoted at 164- and actuable
connected to engine governor 24-, [and more particularly ‘to
in a clockwise direction with increases in compressor inlet
governor spring'56, by means of a lever 84 pivoted at 86
and arranged to rotate a contoured three-dimensional 55 temperature by a liquid ?lled temperature responsive bel
are in continuous abutment with spring retainer 52 at 66
and are pivoted at 68 on lugs 71} which are connected to
throttle or governor setting cam 88 through a rack and
pinion 90, 92, said pinion 92 being telescoped on shafts
94 and 96 and being independently rotatable of said
shafts and connected to cam 88 at 98, a cam follower
109, a cam follower lever 102 pivoted at 164, a servo
control lever 106 pivoted at 108, a travel type servo de
vice llt? including a ?uid pressure controlling half-ball
serve valve 112 selectively positionable by levers 8-0 and
166 and a fuel pressure actuated servo motor member
lows 166 connected to one ‘end of'said lever and to a
temperature probe 168 by a tube 17 t}. A ‘fuel temperature
compensated ‘bellows arrangement, such as disclosed and
, claimed in the copending application Serial No. 222,001 of
George
Widell, ?led April 20, 195-1 (common as
signee), is preferred to the ‘simple bellows 166.
,
Shaft 96 is stepped at 172 and, shaft 94'is maintained
in abutting relation to a shank of pinion 92 at '174. It
should be understood that with the disclosed arrange- .
ment of telescoped shafts and pinions which support cams
oted at 117 and in continuous contact with member 114 65 88, 150 and 154, clockwise movement of lever 162, for
example, as a result of an increase in compressor inlet
at 1-18 and with'lever 58‘ at 120. vThe member 116, the
temperature, results in leftward or axial movement of all
pivot point 117 and, hence, the e?ective lever arm acting
of said cams ‘so that they are always maintained in ?xed
on lever>58 are adjustable by means of athreaded mem
spaced relation with respect to each, other. Each of
ber 121 which extends through the wall of housing 22.
The servo device 119 functions to minimize the throttle 70 cams 88, 150 and 154 is contoured according to a differ;
ent function of compressor inlet temperature. In addi
e?’ort necessary to compress governor spring 56 through
' tion, it should be noted that each of the cams is rotatable
the operative connection from lever 80 to said‘spring and
independently of each of the other cams; i.e. shaft 96
includes, in addition to servo valve 112 and‘ servo motor’
rotates acceleration cam 154 as a predetermined function
member 1114, a sleeve and spring retainer member 122
forming, with member 114, an expansible ?uid pressure 75 of engine speed but in no way affects the position of cam
114, ‘and a maximum speed adjustment member 116 piv
'
3,092,966
6
88 or cam 150; throttle setting cam 88 may be inde
pendently rotated along a different contour for each com
pressor inlet temperature to reset engine governor 54 by
at idle speed and at any given condition of compressor
inlet temperature (T1) and compressor inlet pressure
(P1). In this condition of operation, pilot’s lever 80 is
in a relatively retracted position and governor setting
levers 80, 84 and rack and pinion 90, 92; and cam 150
is rotatable independently of each of earns 88 and 154
cam 88 is rotated to a position of relatively low cam
as a result of a change in length of pressure responsive
rise, thereby permitting spring 142 to actuate servo valve
bellows 155, said cam 150 vbeing contoured to compensate
112 and lever 166 into contact with idle stop lever 206.
the setting of governor 54 with changes in compressor
A relatively low fuel pressure now exists in chamber 124
inlet pressure at any given compressor inlet temperature,
as a result of a relatively large area ratio between re
as will be more fully hereinafter explained.
10 striction 136 and restriction 132, which pressure acting
A lever 176, pivoted at 178 and spring loaded by a
on the face of servo motor member 114 is balanced by
tension spring 180 which maintains a cam follower 182
in continuous contact with the contoured surface of ac
celeration cam 154, has a lug 184 at one end thereof
which is continuously positioned as a function of the con
tour of cam 154 for a purpose which will be hereinafter
explained.
the force output of governor spring 56 acting through
setting member 57, lever 58 and maximum speed adjust
ment member 116. The thereby selected degree of ex
tension of governor spring 56 results in a force output
opposing the force output of centrifugal weight 64, which
forces reach equilibrium at idle speed, at which speed
Fixedly connected to land 28" of metering valve 28
valve 28 is positioned as shown.
is an internally threaded member 186 from one side of
It has been found desirable in the operation of gas
which extends a lug 188 and into which is threaded a rod 20 turbine engines that a given engine idle speed setting be
190 having a ?anged section 192 at the one end thereof
maintained invariable at all times. It has also been
which is movable between a minimum or deceleration
found desirable to provide maximum ‘speed adjustment
stop 194 and lug 184 of acceleration control lever 176.
means so that the maximum operating speed of any given
The angular position of a rotatable shaft 196 is con
engine may be varied, within limits as desired by a fuel
trolled to vary as a function of compressor discharge 25 control adjustment. Heretofore, an adjusted variation
in maximum operating speed has resulted in an unde
pressure by means of servo-mechanism, not shown, which
is supplied with fuel from conduit 130. Servo-mecha
sired variation in idle speed. The combined arrange
nism which may be readily adapted to rotate shaft 196
ment of the idle adjustment means 206, 212, the maxi
as a function of compressor discharge pressure and shaft
mum speed adjustment means 116, and a secondary idle'
96 as a function of engine speed is disclosed and claimed 30 adjustment thread 213 on retainer 52 avoids this de?
in the copending application of Harry C. Zeisloft, supra.
ciency. It is apparent that as member 116 is adjusted
A bevel gear 198 on one end of ‘shaft 196 is in mesh with
leftwardly the maximum operating speed will be de
a gear sector 200 of an annular element 202 which is
creased as a result of the decreasing distance between
telescoped within sleeve 30 and which de?nes a slot 294
abutment point 126 and pivot 117 which results in a
in registry with lug 188. Lug 188 may move up and 35 somewhat lesser degree of compression of governor
down in slot 204 with metering valve 28. Whenever a
spring 56 at maximum speed. Irrespective of variations
change in compressor discharge pressure occurs, as dur
in the adjusted position of member 116, however, the
ing acceleration, deceleration or steady state running of
idle speed adjustment will not be varied inasmuch as
the engine at varying altitudes, gear 198 rotates element
lever 206 is always adjusted to axially align member 116
202 thereby causing engagement of one or the other sides 40 with its screw adjustment member and pivot 117 at an
of slot 264 with lug 188 to rotate metering valve 28 in
idle setting of the control. The upper collar of retainer
sleeve 36. The metering openings 32’ in valve element
52 may then be adjusted as desired on thread 213 to
32 are so positioned that as valve 28 is rotated with an
vary the idle setting of spring 56 without affecting the
increase in compressor discharge pressure, an increasing
setting of member 116. With this arrangement it is pos
number of metering openings come into registry with 45 sible therefore, to vary adjusted maximum speed without
ports 34 to increase the fuel ?ow to the engine burners
affecting the idle speed adjustment and vice versa. The
as a function of discharge pressure, whereas rotation of
effect of this arrangement is illustrated in the curve chart
valve 28 in the opposite direction with decreasing dis
of FIGURE 3, wherein governor spring compression is
charge pressure has a reverse effect. In addition, When
plotted against pilot’s lever angle. As illustrated, maxi
ever metering valve 28 is actuated downwardly so as to 50 mum spring compression (or engine speed) may ‘be ad
accelerate the engine to a new selected speed, ?ange 192
justably decreased by actuating member 116 leftwardly,
contacts lug 184 of the acceleration lever 176 and the
and such adjustment has no effect whatever on the idle
axial, as distinguished from the rotational, position of
setting, as shown by curves 226', 222 and 224.
valve 28 becomes a function of engine speed and com
Referring now to the curve chart of FIGURE 4, the
pressor inlet temperature as contoured into acceleration 55 effect of variations in compressor inlet temperature (T1)
cam 154 until such time as centrifugal weights 64 de
and/or pressure (Pi) on turbine inlet temperature at a
velop su?icient force at the new selected speed to over
constant 100 percent engine speed and at a variable maxi
come governor spring 56 and actuate valve 28 in a clos
mum ‘operating speed is illustrated. To obtain maximum
ing direction, whereby the engine is governed to said
new selected speed.
‘
During an engine deceleration, on the other hand, stem
190 is actuated against deceleration stop 194 and valve
steady state power from a gas turbine engine it is, of
60 course, desirable to operate at maximum allowable tur
bine inlet temperature. If such an engine is operated at
a constant 100 percent speed irrespective of variations in
28 assumes a ?xed axial position while decreasing com
compressor inlet temperature, however, maximum allow
pressor discharge pressure functions to rotate said valve
able turbine inlet temperature Will be exceeded throughout
in a closing direction.
65 the greater part ‘of the range of variation of compressor
An idle speed adjustment lever is shown at 206, said
inlet temperature, as illustrated by the vertical distance
lever being pivoted at 208 and connected at 210 to an
‘between curve 226 and curve 228. If a constant maxi
extension of an idle adjustment screw 212. At any given
mum adjusted speed is to be maintained Without exceed
position of adjustment screw 212 the position of lever
ing maximum allowable turbine temperature at all con_
206 is ?xed, the one end thereof functioning as a stop 70 ditions of T1 and Pi, a {turbine temperature variation will
for lever 106 and servo valve 112 and thereby determin
‘be encountered with variations in T1 as illustrated by the
ing a maximum effective area of restriction 136 at said
constant 90 percent maximum speed curve 230. From
given adjustment of screw 212. All parts of the control
this curve it is apparent that an increasing amount of
26 are illustrated in the approximate relations which
available thrust is lost with increasing compressor inlet
they would assume if the engine 10 were being operated 75 temperature, and that the engine ‘operates at the desired
3,092,966
maximum allowable turbine temperature only when com—
pressor. inlet temperature decreases to about minus 90° F.
To avoid this undesirable condition, I have contoured gov
power
ernor setting’
position
cam
of 88
‘throttle
in such
lever
a manner
60 the that
selected
at apercentage
of maximum allowable engine speed will vary from about
92 per'cer'it't'o '100 percent as cam 88, along with cams
150 and 154, is actuated leftwardly by temperature respon
8
cam 88 through pinion 92 to a position of maximum
cam rise at the existing compressor inlet temperature,
thereby resulting in a counterclockwise rotation of lever
102 about follower 143 and a clockwise rotation of lever
106 about pivot 108 to move servo valve ‘112 in a closing
direction with respect to restriction 136. As the eifective
area of restriction 136 is thereby greatly reduced, the
fuel pressure in chamber 124 increases a substantial
amount and actuates servo motor member 114, speed
perature increasing from, say, minus 90° F. to plus 200° 10 adjustment member 116, lever 58 and spring retainer 57
‘downwardly to compress governor spring 56 to the se
F. Such a control ‘of engine speed setting with changes
sive bellows 166 and lever 162 with compressor inlet tem
in compressor inlet temperature results in a variation in
turbine inlet temperature from the desired maximum be_
tween minus 90° F. and plus 60° F, as illustrated by
curve 232. In other words, under certain ‘conditions of
lected speed setting. Compression of spring 56 results
bine inlet temperature, particularly in the lower T, and P,
in an inward movement of centrifugal weights 64 and
would actuate metering valve 28 to a wide open position
but for the interference of acceleration cam and lever
154 and 176. An immediate increase in fuel flow results
through valve element 32 to the engine burners which ini
tiates acceleration of the engine. As the engine accel
range.
erates, shaft 96 rotates. acceleration cam 154 in propor
engine operation T, compensation alone has an 'over
compensating effect on engine speed and therefore tur
'
lit has been further found that the variation of turbine 20 tion to existing engine speed, the contour of which cam
is such as to control the rate of opening movement of
inlet temperature along curve 232 will vary somewhat
with wide variations in'altitude or compressor inlet pres
sure. 'In order, therefore to substantially meet the de
valve 28 so that accelerating fuel flow is'metered to the
burners to meet the maximum turbine inlet temperature
and/ or compressor surge or stall limitations of the engine
sired maximum turbine temperature throughout the range
of illustrated compressor inlet temperatures, as shown 25 at any given compressor inlet temperature. In addition,
as the engine accelerates shaft 196 is rotated as a func
by ‘curve 228, I provide the 'cam 150 which may be con
tion of compressor discharge pressure to rotate valve 28
toured around its periphery at any ‘given compressor inlet
in a fuel increasing direction.
temperature below plus 60° F. to vary the maximum
As engine speed approaches maximum the centrifugal
speed setting of governor 54 as bellows 155, acting
through servo device 158 and rack and pinion 157, 152 30 force generated by weights 64 begins to overcome spring
56 and move valve 28 in a closing ldirection and ?ange 92
' rotates said cam with variations in altitude, thereby caus~
Ioii of acceleration lever lug 184, whereby the engine is
ing cam follower 148 to follow said peripheral contour.
‘governed to said speed. If, at said maximum speed, the
With such an arrangement, that portion of curve 232
engine is taken to a high altitude, compressor inlet tem
which lies between the illustrated minus 90° F. point and
the plus 60° F. point may be caused to coincide with
perature and pressure responsive bellows 166 and 155,
respectively, will actuate setting earns 88 and .150 in
curve 228.. The ‘desired result of maintaining maximum
such a manner that servo valve 112 will slightly increase
allowable turbine inlet temperature at maximum ‘or take
the eifective area of restriction 136 resulting in a required
oil power operation irrespective of variations in engine
operating conditions is therefore obtained by varying the
lower maximum speed setting of governor 54 to main
maximum speed setting of governor 94 as a predetermined 4:0 tain maximum turbine temperature at said lower maxi
function of compressor inlet temperature and/ or pressure.
It is apparent that earns 88 and 150 may also be con
toured for substantially maintaining any given desired
turbine temperature or constant percent of maximum
power at part throttle operation. The maximum or 100
percent power point of operation was chosen for detailed
discussion because the problem is most acute at this con
dition where it is mandatory, that maximum allowable
turbine inlet temperature be not exceeded.
If in any
mum speed, as hereinbefore explained.
'
Although only one speci?c embodiment of my inven
tion has been included in the description it will be under
stood that many variations may be made without depart
ing from the scope of the invention.
‘
I claim:
1. An engine speed governor comprising a ?yweight
device producing a force variable with instantaneous
values of engine speed and a speed reference device in
given installation it is found that operation at part throttle
cluding a throttle, a cam contoured for both axial and
need not be controlled with respect to maintenance of 50 rotational movement movable in one of said directions ,
a given percent of maximum power or a given turbine
by said throttle, and a governor spring producing a force
inlet temperature, cam 88 need be contoured in two
opposing said ?yweight force, a servo-‘mechanism inter
dimensions only instead of three, as shown.
posed between said throttle and said governor springin
Obviously, all of the foregoing recited speci?c values
cluding a hydraulically actuable servo motor member
of temperatures and speed percentages are illustrative only
and, may be varied‘ as desired to meet the various operat_
ing requirements ‘of different engines ‘by contouring came
88 and 150 as required.
'It is also apparent that temperature and pressure re
sponsive bellows 166 and 155 may be sensitive to the
temperature or pressure existent within any given stage
!of a compressor and that the functional relation between
a temperature and pressure sensed, say, in the ?fth stage
of a compressor and the temperature and pressure ex
istent at the inlet of the compressor may be taken care
of by proper contouring of cams 88 andiStl. In twin
operably connected to said governor spring, a hydraulic
pressure chamber formed on one side of said member, a
servo valve for controlling the e?ective pressure in said
chamber, said servo valve being controlled by said cam,
for varying the hydraulic pressure in said chamber, means
responsive to an engine operating temperature for actuat
ing said cam in the other of said directions and inde
pendently of said throttle to vary the force of said gover
nor spring means for ?xing the'idle speed setting of said
governor spring irrespective of theadjusted position of;
said throttle, means for adjusting the maximum select
able speed setting of said governor spring including a
spring retainer for said governor spring, lever means for
control the ‘speed of the high pressure compresscr~turbine
transferring the force from said throttle to said spring
combination, bellows 155 and 166 may be responsive to
the pressure and temperature, respectively, at the inlet to 70 retainer, and means for adjusting said leverrmeanssuch
that the effective lever arm acting on said spring retainer
the high pressure compressor.
spool gas turbine engines where it may be ‘desirable to
In operation, if the pilot desired to quickly accelerate '
is varied to effect a corresponding variation in the maxi
mum speed setting of said governor spring and at idle
the engine from idle to maximum speed, throttle lever 80
speed there is no effective change in said lever arm.
is rapidly actuated to its most advanced position to actu
2. In a fuel feed and power control system for a .gas
ate rack 90 downwardly which rotates governor setting 75
3,092,966
10
turbine engine having a burner, a fuel conduit for con
ducting fuel to the burner, engine speed governing means
including spring means for controlling fuel ?ow through
Said conduit, manually controlled means for adjusting
said spring means to select an operating speed for the
manual means, means for adjusting the maximum speed
setting of said spring means including lever means for
transferring the force from said manually controlled
means to said spring means, and means for adjusting said
lever means such that the eifective lever arm acting on
said spring means is varied to effect a corresponding
engine, means for ?xing the idle speed setting of said
spring means irrespective of the adjusted position of said
variation in the maximum speed setting of said spring
manual means, means for adjusting the maximum select
means and at idle speed there is no eifective change in
able speed setting of said spring means including a spring
said lever arm.
retainer for said spring means, lever means for transfer 10
ring the force from said manually controlled means to
said spring retainer, and means for adjusting said lever
means such that the e?ective lever arm acting on said
spring retainer is varied to eifect a corresponding varia
tion in the maximum speed setting of said spring means 15
and at idle speed there is no e?ective change in said
lever arm.
3. In a fuel and power control system for a gas tur
bine engine having a burner, a fuel conduit for conduct
ing fuel to the burner, engine speed governing means in 20
cluding spring means for controlling fuel ?ow through
said conduit, manually controlled means for adjusting
said spring means to select an operating speed for the
engine, means for ?xing the idle speed setting of said
spring means irrespective of the adjusted position of said 25
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,422,808
2,536,158
2,545,856
2,720,751
‘2,720,752
2,750,734
2,759,549
2,782,769
2,846,846
2,857,739
3,032,986
Stokes ______________ __ June 24,
Chamberlin ___________ __ Ian. 2,
O-rr ________________ __ Mar. 20,
Kunz _______________ __ Oct. 18,
Chandler ____________ __ Oct. 18,
Anxionnaz et al. ______ __ June 19,
Best ________________ __ Aug. 21,
Best _________________ __ Feb. 6,
Mock ______________ __ Aug. 12,
Wright _______________ __ Oct. 28,
Wright _______________ __ May 8,
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