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Патент USA US3093074

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June 11, 1963
Original Filed July 9, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
June 11, 1963
Original Filed July 9, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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United States Patent 0 ” 1C6
Patented June 11, 1963
beets and the like, are described and claimed in copend
ing application Serial No. 670,743, ?led July 9, 1958, and
assigned to the same assignee as the present application.
Referring to the drawings which illustrate a preferred
Andre H. Burner, Piqua, Ohio, and Richard T. Syrnes,
Jeanerette, La, assignors to The French Oil Mill Ma
chinery Company, Piqua, Ohio, a corporation of Uluo
embodiment of apparatus used for effecting the present
process, a conveyor 10 delivers raw cane 11 to opposed
Original application July 9, 1957, Ser. No. 670,742, now
crushing rolls 12 which have serrated or otherwise suit
ably formed working surfaces to 'break the cane and de
Patent No. 3,037,445, dated June 5, 1962. Divided
and this application Get. 19, 1961, Ser. No. 146,261
4 Claims. (Cl. 100-37)
This invention relates to ya method and apparatus for
expressing liquids from moisture containing ?brous ma
terials and more particularly to improvements in the
method and apparatus for expressing sacchn‘nous juice
liver it onto a second conveyor 13 with 40% to 70% of
the original juice content removed therefrom. The juice
taken from the cane at this point can be collected in a
receptacle 14- for subsequent handling or it can be com
bined with juice extracted in later operations. The sec
ond conveyor, 13, is positioned to dischareg the crushed
from sucrose bearing ?brous materials such as sugar cane 15 cane into the nip of the mill rolls 15 of mill 16. Cane is
and the like.
The recovery of sacchrinous juice from sugar cane,
sorghum and other related canes, is usually accomplished
by running the cane through one or more roller mills hav
ing opposed pressure applying rolls which compress and
crush the cane as it passes between them to free the juice
therefrom. As juice is freed it is delivered into receptacles
positioned beneath the various rolls and drained to a stor
age tank for subsequent dehydrating and purifying proce
dures to recover the sucrose content.
An ancillary result of crushing cane in roller mills is
often referred to as bagasse after the initial crushing op
eration but for the present discussion bagasse will signify
only the cane product remaining after the ?nal compress
ing or expressing operation. From mill ‘16 the cane passes
through the rolls of mills 20, 22 and 24 by means of con
veyors 21, 23 and 25 and is ?nally delivered onto a dis
charge conveyor 27 as ‘bagasse having from about 85%
to 95% of its sucrose content removed. The recovery of
such high percentages of sucrose is made possible by the
25 addition of a suitable maceration liquid, such as water, to
the cane through ?uid conducting pipes 30 prior to its de
livery to mills 16 and 2t}. Fluid can be obtained from
tank 31 which is under pressure from pump 3-2. The use
the body or stalk of the cane. These ?bers, which are
of maceration liquids in this manner is done by procedures
referred to in the sugar industry as “cushcush,” or more
commonly as “bagacillo,” and often by the generic term 30 standard in the sugar industry and will therefore not be
outlined in any greater detail.
“trash,” are normally taken from the rolls ‘and fed back
Use of the mill rolls as outlined above results in pro
onto the oncoming cane to be rerun through the mills.
gressively more severe working of the cane as it travels
While rercycling of the ?bers, which will hereinafter be
from mill to mill and causes, or results in, the formation
referred to as trash ?bers, provides a means for recover
of loose ?bers which are liberated from the body of the
ing the juice therefrom, the recycling is disadvantageous
cane. These trash ?bers contain relatively high percent
in that it increases the inherent danger of bacteria con
ages of sucrose, due at least partially to the fact that they
centration occurring as well as often causing a decrease
the reesultant separation of ?bers of varying sizes from
in the efliciency of the milling operation due to increased
power consumption resulting from slippage between the
rolls and the cane. Slippage also causes wearing of the
rolls which brings about increased maintenance costs.
The increased slippage is occasioned by the decreased
soak up free juice as they leave the mills, making recovery
of the juice from the trash a matter of economic im
The juice and the trash are freed from the cane and fall
simultaneously into a ?ltering means 40 which is posi
frictional values between the cane and the rolls caused by
tioned at a location removed from the mills to separate
provide an improvement in the process of recovering sac
chrinous juices from sucrose bearing ?brous materials
which includes recovery of the juice content of the trash,
be effected by a screen 41 of suitable mesh or by other
suitable alternative ?ltering devices like a perforated plate.
As the trash is retained by the screen 41, it is collected
and moved toward a spout-like opening 43 by means of
a ?exible conveyor 45 which is driven by a motor M1 and
the juice from the trash for transmission to a point of col
the wet, slippery trash ?ber.
45 lection. The actual separation of the two materials may
It is therefore a principal object of this invention to
distinct from said mills, thus eliminating the undesirable
side effects caused by recycling of these ?bers.
Another object of the present invention is to provide
novel apparatus for recovering sacchrinous juice from
sucrose ‘bearing ?brous material according to- the im
proved process.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention
will be apparent from the following descritpion, the ac
has a plurality of outwardly extending paddles or scrapers
46. The thus collected trash is then discharged from
spout 43 while the juice continues through screen 41
into the divided bottom 47 for discharge into a divided
collection receptacle 48. The partitioned collection re
ceptacles permit separation of the relatively sucrose
companying drawings and the ‘appended claims.
In the drawings—
rich juice that is taken from the cane during the initial
substantially along the line ‘3—3 of FIG, 2.
The present invention is described with particular ref
pletely through trough 51 for driving engagement with
motor 52 through gears 53. The opposite end of trough
51, i.e., that end removed from the outlet opening of
compacting vfrom the sucrose-lean juice that is removed
FIG. 1 is a somewhat schematic side view of the appa 60 later.
From spout 43 the trash enters a feeding device in~
ratus used to effect the improvements in the process of re
cl-uding ‘a spiral screw 50 which is rotatably mounted in
covering juice from sucrose bearing ?brous materials;
collecting trough 51. The trough 51 is open at the top
FIG. 2. is a sectional side view, showing the construc
to readily receive trash from spout 43 and has the longi
tional details of a feeding and expressing press used to re
tudinally extending shaft of screw conveyor 50 journaled
cover juice from trash ?ber; and
in each end thereof, one end of the shaft extending com
FIG. 3 is a slightly enlarged fragmentary view taken
erence to the treatment of trash ?ber. Related apparatus
and method for speci?c ‘application in recovering in 70 spout 43 has an outlet 55 extending downwardly there
from which provides for passage of trash from the in
terior of trough 51 to a screw type expressing press 60
materials generally, for example sugar cane, sorghum,
creased quantities of sucrose for sucrose bearing ?brous
which has its inlet 61 positioned beneath the outlet 55
of trough 51.
In addition to inlet 61, press 60 has a rather elongated
expression cage 62 having drainage openings in the walls
thereof and a juice collecting chamber 63 having an out
let opening 64 through which the juice flows for trans
portation to divided collecting receptacle 46.
A longitudinally extending shaft 65 extends through
ori?ce. This adjustability is desirable where various ma
terials are run through the apparatus at different periods
of time.
An infusion manifold ‘125 having a plurality of ra
dially disposed inwardly directed nozzle like openings
126 (FIG. 2) is positioned for directing maceration liquid
into the material as it leaves the lower limit of restrict
ing ori?ce 117. Manifold 125 is provided with a num
cage 62 and is driven, through gears 66, by a driving motor
ber of intake openings 127, these openings being adapted
67. That portion of the shaft which extends through the 10 for connecting with any suitable source of maceration
press has a feed screw '70 and a compacting screw 71
liquid. For a more complete description of the infu
mounted on the shaft for rotation therewith.
sion manifold 125 reference is made to applicant’s co
FIG. 2 of the drawings illustrates a preferred type of
expressing apparatus in which the trash received from
spout 43 (FIG. 1) can be subjected to a double press
ing action with the addition of a maceration liquid inter
mediate the successive pressing steps. In this instance,
trash from spout 43 enters feeding means including a
pending application Serial No. 645,165, ?led March
11, 1957.
Beneath restricting ori?ce 117 a vertically extending
wall .130 de?nes a further chamber 131, of greater diame
ter than the ori?ce where the trash is permitted to ex~
generally cone-shaped hopper 75, surrounded by a sim
ilarly shaped cover 76. A driving motor 86 is positioned
pand upon dropping into the press inlet chamber 132
of an interrupted ?ight screw type expressing press 135.
A longitudinally extending shaft 140, which can be
above hopper 75 and has its drive shaft connnected to
a gear box 81 while the output shaft ‘82 of the gear box
driven by any suitable power means, has a feed screw
84 through a connecting spline sleeve 35. The upper
portion of shaft 83 carries a continuous spiral feeding
vane 90, the center portion of which has been broken
141 mounted thereon which surrounds a portion of the
shaft and extends longitudinally through inlet chamber
132. Following feed screw 141, a plurality of alternately
arranged screw ?ights 145, 147, 149, 151, 153 and 155
and pressure collars 146, 148, 150, 152 and 154 and a
away as indicated on the drawing, for moving material
?nal discharge collar 156, are all keyed or otherwise at—
is in turn connected to the shaft 83 of a screw conveyor
through hopper 75 while that portion of shaft 83 extend
tached to the shaft 140 for rotation therewith.
ing below the lower limit of the hopper carries a series
A preliminary expression cage 160 begins at vertically
of interrupted feeding vane ?ights 91 which have spaces 30 extending wall 130 and surrounds a portion of feed worm
92 between the adjacent ends of successive ?ights.
141 and screw ?ight 145 to de?ne a preliminary expres
A substantially vertically disposed expression cage 95
sion zone 161. At the termination of preliminary expres
surrounds the lower portion of shaft 33 and the inter~
sion zone 161 there is an inlet opening to a main expres
rupted vane ?ights 91 and includes a plurality of ver
sion chamber 165. A plurality of screen bar sections 166,
tically disposed radially spaced screen bars 96. Screen
167, 168 and 169 make up an expression cage 175, and
bars 96 are held in position by wedge bars 97, the wedge
the aformentioned alternately arranged screw ?ights and
bars being adjustably secured to cage 95 by nuts 98
pressure collars are located inwardly thereof.
which are mounted on the threaded end portions of the
Expression cage 175 (FIGS. 2, 3) includes screen bars
176 with drainage openings between them like those of
outwardly extending shanks 99 of the wedge bars 97.
pressure cage 95, and breaker bars 177, which have a
Screen bars 96 are separated by suitable spacers to de
plurality of longitudinally and radially extending lugs
?ne ?uid drainage openings between adjacent bars so that
178 terminating just short of the outer surface of pressure
expressed juice can ?ow outwardly from the expression
collars 146, 148, 150, 152 and 154 to cause primarily
chamber 101 formed by the surrounding bars.
longitudinal movement of trash over these collars without
Extending through screen bars 96 to the chamber 101
the presence of excessive rotary motion. Spaces 100 al
are a number of vertically spaced breaker ‘bars 105 which
low for ?uid movement past the screen bars 176. Rein
are adjustably secured to cage 95, through holding strip
forcing structure 180 is present to strengthen the screen
106, by means of threaded fasteners 1t17. The threaded
bar sections since large radial forces are exerted against
fasteners 107 on the outer ends of the breaker bars pro
them when the press is operating.
vide means for adjusting them radially into or out of
the chamber 101 within the vertical spaces 92 between
interrupted vane ?ights 91 to stop rotary movement of
material present in the chamber and cause it to move axi
ally downwardly therethrough. For a detailed descrip
tion of the aforementioned type of expression cage and
breaker bar arrangement reference is made to copending
application Serial No. 631,698, ?led December 31, 1956,
now abandoned, and assigned to the same assignee as the
Generally the present process comprises, considering
the milling apparatus of FIG. 1 combined with the expres
sing apparatus of ‘FIG. 2, taking trash ?ber from the mills
16, 20, 22 and 24 as the cane passes through them follow
ing an initial crushing in the crushing rolls 12. As juice
is expressed from the material in each of the mills it falls
concurrently with the trash ?ber being removed from the
rolls 15 into the ?ltering apparatus 40 where the trash is
collected by screen 41 ‘for movement by ?exible conveyor
45. The collected trash then discharges through spout
Expression cage 95 is enclosed within an imperforate
60 43 into the ‘hopper 75 for entry into the ?rst expressing
wall 110 which receives any liquid from the material pass
cage 95. In passing through this cage and the restricting
ing down through the cage and directs the liquid down
ori?ce at the lower end thereof, the material is compressed
wardly to a collecting trough 111 adjacent the lower end
and loses a quantity of juice through the openings between
of the cage structure where it can be withdrawn for col
the cage bars.
lection in a suitable receptacle.
Upon leaving the restricting ori?ce 117 formed by
A ring like split cone 115 is positioned adjacent the
collar 115 the trash is treated with maceration liquid be
inner end of expression cage 95 and has a tapered inner
ing supplied by means of manifold 125 as it is expanding.
surface 116 which de?nes a restricting ori?ce 117 of less
By treating the material with liquid as it is expanding it
diameter than the inner diameter of cage 95. A clamp
is much more receptive to the absorption of the liquid,
ing ring ‘120 surrounds split cone 115 to maintain the
thereby achieving quicker and greater penetration into
two halves thereof in their assembled position. By using
the material insuring a thorough wetting of all the trash.
a split cone and clamping ring in this manner, i.e., as a
The trash then falls into further chamber 131 where the
unit separate from the cage 95, it is possible to easily
mechanical pressure exerted against it is completely re
and quickly change the size of restricting ori?ce 117 sim
laxed and it enters itno the second and ?nal expressing
present application.
ply by substituting a split cone having the desired size
press 135.
From further chamber 131 the feed worm 141 moves
87.5%, a ?ber content of 12.5% and a sucrose content
the material longitudinally toward the press inlet. Since
feed worm 141 is driven at a higher rate of speed than the
press screw ?ights the trash is once again compacted, this
of 9.52% were [fed into the apparatus at a mate of 8 to 10
tons per hour to recover additional juice and sucrose
therefrom. The results obtained ‘are listed in Table 1 be
from the trash, the juice ?owing outwardly through the
pressed trash hagasse.
time within the preliminary expression cage 160. This 5 low with the sucrose and moisture being indicated by the
Weight percentages of these constituents remaining in the
second compacting achieves a second expression juice
cage from preliminary expression zone 161.
The ?rst screw ?ight 145 takes the compacted trash
from cage 160 and moves it inwardly toward pressure 1O
collar 146 in a generally helical path which creates a
de?bering action under pressure with mixing of the trash
?bers to achieve a reorientation thereof. Reorientation
contributes to further expression of juice as the material
is forced over to collar 146, where a crushing or express
ing action occurs. Screw ?ight 147 operates in much the
same manner as screw ?ight 145 in that it takes compacted
material from an expressing zone, viz., that zone between
Table 1
Test N0
Sucrose Moisture
Test No.
32. 5
3. 84
2. 26
4. 73
1. 60
2. 39
2. 27
4. 07
3. 70
3. 75
2. 45
4. 33
2. 70
The average sucrose percentage of all the tests con
ducted was 3.29 and the average moisture percentage of
collar 146 and screen bar section 166, and deiibers and
mixes the ?bers while moving them onward toward collar
148. The Worms and collars following worm 147 and
that in order for ‘a mill to accomplish the same recovery
collar 148 operate on the trash in the same manner and the
it would have to average 2.51% sucrose and 49% mois~
trash is ?nally discharged from the outlet end of the press.
ture in the bagasse. Test results on ‘similar material run
While the precise conditions developed in the expression
cage are not fully understood, largely because of the prac
tical \dii?culties of accurately determining the pressure
and other conditions at a series of points throughout the
cage, it is believed that the action may be described ‘gen
all the tests conducted was 33.21, these ?gures meaning
through an ordinary mill give ?nal values of 3.13%
sucrose and 49% moisture, clearly indicating that the
present invention accomplishes recovery of signi?cant
quantities of sucrose from the trash material which can
not be obtained by an ordinary mill.
erally along the following lines. As the trash is fed
This application is a division of application Serial No.
forwardly by the ?ights on the feed worm portion, it is 30 670,742, ?led July 9, 1957, now Patent No. 3,037,445,
packed into the ?rst screw ?ight portion and because of
patented June 5, 1962.
the differences in the rate at which such ?ights are driven,
While the process herein described constitutes a pre
a substantial pressure is developed on the trash in such
ferred embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood
?rst ?ight. This is accompanied by expression of juice
that this invention is not limited to this precise process
through the screen bars and additional pressure is built 35 and that changes may be made therein without departing
up as the trash passes over the ?rst collar, ind its rotation
from the scope of the invention which is de?ned in the
is interrupted by the breaker bars. This is accompanied
also be a mechanical action which results in some de?ber
ing and reorientation, with the result that further juice is
extracted and the ?bers are advanced to the next ?ight
which they encounter with a diiierent distribution.
As the material continues to pass through the cage, it
encounters successive interrupted ?ights alternating with
the series of collars and breaker bars so that such crushing,
de?bering and reorienting occur successively. It will fur
ther be noted that the clearance on the next ?ight between
the body of the ?ight and the inner periphery of the cage
is less than that of the other ?ights, thus resulting in an
increased pressure when the material reaches the discharge
end. This not only contributes to a higher effective yield
but also assures the more thorough working of the mate
rial to express the maximum amount of juice therefrom
before it is ?nally discharged.
Since the main pressure exerted on the trash material
appended claims.
What is claimed is:
‘1. The improvement in the process of expressing juice
from sugar cane in which the cane is crushed in roller
mills to separate juice therefrom with accompanying for
mation of cush-cush which is entrained in the juice re
moved from the crushed sugar cane, comprising separat
ing the cush-cush from the juice removed from the cane
by the roller mills, and exerting a sustained mechanical
pressure on the juice rladen cush-cush to express juice
therefrom and separating such expressed juice from the
cush-cush ?bers.
‘2. The improvement in the process of expressing juice
from sugar cane the steps comprising feeding raw cane
into a roller mill apparatus to crush the cane and release
juice therefrom together with cush-cush entrained in the
juice, separating the cush-cush from the juice, feeding
the \cush-cush through ‘an expressing press having drain
is between the pressure created by the pressure collars 55 age openings to exert a sustained mechanical pressure
it is apparent that pressures below the main pressure are
on the cush-cush causing expression of juice therefrom
exerted while the material is being mixed and de?bered
and passage of the juice through the drainage openings
and pressures above the main pressure are used when com
away from the cush-cush, and removing the cush-cush
pacting the material to express juice therefrom. Addi
?ber from which juice has been expressed from the ex
tionally, the main pressure is ascendan-t because of the
pressing press separate from the expressed juice.
increased pressures created toward the outlet end of the
3. The process of expressing juice from sugar cane
press. Thus the ?bers are pressed under a sustained me
comprising feeding raw cane into roller mill apparatus
chanical pressure throughout their passage through the
to effect crushing and release of juice therefrom with con
press to free juice therefrom.
current formation of cush-cush ?bers entrained in the
Upon completion of the ?nal pressing operation the 65 juice, collecting the juice thus separated from the cane
trash bagasse may then the returned to the main body of
at a location removed from the roller mill apparatus,
bagasse exiting from the roller mill 24 for collection in
separating the cush-cush from the collected juice, feeding
receptacle 185. Since the trash lbagasse has been severe
the cush-cush through a ?rst press having drainage open
ly pressed it is lower in moisture content ‘than the cane
ings to cause expression ‘of juice from the cus-h-cush
bagasse exiting from roller mill 24 and therefore has a 70 through said drainage openings, passing the cush-cush
somewhat higher fuel value. The addition of the trash
‘from said ?rst press through a restricting ori?ce to create
bagasse to the cane b-agasse makes the ?nal, composite
back pressure on the cush-cush in said ?rst press followed
by relaxation of the pressure as the cus'h-cush travels be
bagasse of somewhat increased fuel value also.
yond said ori?ce, applying treating ?uid .to the cush-cush
In tests conducted, using the present method and ap
paratus, trash ?bers having van initial juice content of 75 as it leaves the restricted ori?ce to increase the liquid con
tent of the cush-cush, then introducing the released cush
ration of the juice from the cush-cush, de?bering the cush
cush into a second expressing press and feeding the cush
cush through the second expressing press While exerting
cush during at least a portion of said pressing operation to
promote further expression of juice from the cush-cush,
a sustained mechanical pressure thereon to express addi
and dischanging ‘the oush-cush from which juice has been
tional juice therefrom along with the treating ?uid.
C21 expressed and maintaining such cush-cush apart from the
4. The improvement in the process of expressing juice
expressed juice.
from sugar cane comprising feeding the cane into a roller
mill apparatus to crush the cane and release juice there
from resulting in separation from the cane of juice to
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
gether with cush-cus'h entrained in the juice, collecting 10
‘the juice and separating the cush~cush from the juice,
Burgess ____________ __ Mar. 22, 1881
feeding the juice-soaked cush-cush through high pressure
Soule _______________ __ Mar. 7, 1882
Hall ________________ _- May 3, 1927
Reynolds ____________ __ Sept. 16, 1930
Dunning et a1. ______ __ June 28, 1960
expressing apparatus to exert sustained mechanical pres
sure on the cush-cush and causing expressing of a sub
stantial amount of the juice from the cush-cush and sepa
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