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Патент USA US3093125

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June 11, 1963
B. l. BROWN
3,093,117
HIGH ENERGY RATE ACTUATOR
147
32
l'
32 4344
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IN VEN TOR.
June 11, 1963
3,093,11 7
B. l. BROWN
HIGH ENERGY RATE ACTUATOR
Filed June 27, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
BY
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United States Patent O
Patented June 11, 1963
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1
the second force on the piston area outside the pressure
seal in overbalancing the set force. The over-balancing
unseat-s the actuator piston from the rwall and suddenly
eliminates the pressure seal to release the actuating pres
3,093,117
HlGH ENERGY RATE ACTUATOR
Bonîard I. Brown, West Covina, Calif., assignor to Gen
eral Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, Calif., a corpo
sure upon the piston area yWithin the pressure seal, 'there
ration of Delaware
by rapidly accelerating the piston. The triggering force
Filed June 27, 1960, Ser. No. 38,844
18 Claims. (Cl. 121-38)
may be provided by a triggering pressure applied to the
actuator piston area within the pressure seal. The trig
gering pressure may be the same as the actuating pres
The present invention relates generally to actuators;
more particularly, it relates to high energy rate »actuator 10 sure. An output thrust-time ‘or acceleration-time pat
tern may be governed by utilizing a metering member
systems for producing controlled output thrust.
mounted on the wall and adapted to extend into a cavity
The present invention is related to the invention-s de
or opening in the piston. The metering member cooper
ates with the piston during its movement to regulate the
release of pressure 'against the piston. ‘Predetermined
piston deceleration may effected by utilizing a decelera
tion metering pin yon the piston and a cooperating aper
ture. A coaxial construction may preferably be utilized
scribed and claimed in the Acopending application of l ack
Benton Ottestad, Serial No. 617,014, tiled October 19,
1956, now U.S. Patent No. 2,979,938, the copending ap
plication tof Jack B. Ottestad and Samuel A. Skeen, Serial
No. 683,855, tiled September :13, `1957, Ánow U.S. Patent
No. 2,949,096, and the copending application of Jack
wherein an actuator pressure chamber is disposed co
Benton Ottestad and Samuel Arthur Skeen, Serial No.
690,774, tiled October 17, 1957, now U.S. Patent No.
axially outside an inner chamber in which the actuator
piston is `slidable. A relatively large actuating pressure
chamber may thus be conveniently provided, `and ports
2,997,025. In each of the `devices of the copending appli
cations, a set force urges an actuator piston toward an
foriiice Wall to effect a positive pressure seal between a
piston and a «wall about the orifice by means of a sealing
between the chambers may provide good communication
between the chambers when the piston is moving.
element. An actuating pressure «acts through the oriñce 25
Actuators according to the invention may be of rela
tively simpliñed construction. Because pressure cham
on an area of the actuator piston within the pressure seal
to oppose the set force. The actuating pressure is very
bers need not be on opposite sides of a wall, the afore
mentioned coaxial construction may be utilized. The
rapidly released through the oriiice by impelling the release
piston from the or-iñce wall, either by increasing the actu
-necessary length of an actuator is governed only by the
The actuator is
ating pressure on the piston area within the seal to over 30 length of the required output stroke.
adapted to provide improved output thrust and eñìciency.
balance the «set force, or by utilizing a separate triggering
force to cooperate with the actuating pressure in overhal
ancing the set force. The «overbalancing unseats the re
There are no yoriiice losses, because pressurized gas is not
required to pass through an oriñce to be effective Iagainst
lease piston from the oriñce Wall, thereby eliminating the
the rapidly moving piston in the production of output
pressure seal and releasing the actuating pressure upon the 35 thrust. Improved output thrust and eñiciency also result
from rapid access yof the actuating pressure to the rapidly
actuator piston area outside the seal. The actuator piston
moving actuator piston. Pressure is released and main
is thus rapidly accelerated from the Wall to produce use
tained against the pis-ton Without substantial restriction.
ful output.
The maintenance of the actuating pressure against the
The devices of the copending applications are char
acterized by certain disadvantages. Pressure chambers 40 moving piston may be further facilitated by the relatively
large supply or actuating pressure chamber which may
conveniently be provided because of the aforementioned
on both sides of an oriñce wall involve relatively com
plex structures /which are too elongated for many appli
cations. The very rapid release of actuating pressure
through the orifice during piston acceleration produces
45
coaxial construction wherein the actuating pressure cham
ber is outside the inner chamber containing fthe piston.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to
alleviate the aforementioned and other disadvantages of
the prior ‘art by providing a novel and improved actuator
for producing high energy rate output thrust.
actuating pressure against the actuator piston during its
An object of the invention is the provision of an im
output stroke, because the pressurized gas does not have 50
proved actuator which generally achieves the lobjects of
suiiîciently rapid access to the rapidly moving piston.
the prior inventions herein‘before mentioned.
The pressurized gas cannot pass through the oriñce and
orifice losses which substantially reduce output thrust and
operating eñiciency. Useful output -thrust is also reduced
and eiliciency is aiïected by failure to maintain suflicient
pressurize the suddenly expanding volume behind the
rapidly moving piston with sufficient rapidity. Where
the actuating pressure chamber is of the same cross-sec
tional area »as the set pressure chamber, 'as is generally
the case where pressure chambers are provided on both
It is an object of the invention to provide ‘a novel ac
tuator wherein pressure is rapidly released upon and
eiiiciently maintained against an actuator pist-on during its
output stroke.
An object `of this invention is to provide improved
:actuator loutput by providing improved access of actuating
sides of an orifice Wall, the expansion of the relatively
pressure to an actuator piston during rapid piston move
small actuating pressure supply further reduces the pres
ment.
sure applied to the moving actuator piston.
60
`It is an `object of the present invention to provide a
The actuator of the present invention comprises an
high energy rate actuator utilizing an advantageous co
actuator piston confronting a Wall which has no orifice.
axial construction for high efficiency.
The actuator piston and the wall are adapted for cooper
An object of this invention is the provision of an actu
ation to provide a pressure seal there-between about ‘a por
tion :of the wall. The piston is urged by 4a set force into 65 ator wherein a thrust-time output pattern is governed by
the cooperation or" an actuator piston with a contoured
engagement with the »wall to establish the pressure seal.
An actuating pressure is established to act on an area
metering member on `a Wall.
It is an object iot' the invention to provide a novel
actuator wherein the rapid unse-ating of an actuator pisto-n
then over-balanced either by increasing the actuating pres 70 from a Wall effects a sudden application of |actuating
pressure to a piston area.
sure on the piston area outside the pressure seal, or by
An object of the present invention is to provide an ac
utilizing a separate triggering force to cooperate with
of the actuator piston outside the pressure seal to exert
a second force opposing the set force. The set force is
3,093,117
3
tuator system wherein a set force urges an actuator piston
toward a wall to effect a pressure seal therebetween about
is defined in the wall member 10. The sealing element
a portion of the piston, rand wherein an actuating pressure
pressure seal `between the piston and the wall member
about a portion of the wall member, when the piston is
urged into engagement with the rim 56. As indicated in
50 and the sealing rim 56 are adapted to effect a circular
exerts an opposing force on a piston area outside the
pressure seal, thereby preparing the actuator to 'be oper
ated by `the application of a force to the piston to over
balance the set force and suddenly release »the actuating
sealing element 50 is disposed outside this circular pres~
pressure on the piston `area within the pressure seal.
sure seal, `and a circular piston tarea 60 is defined within
¿FIGURE 2, an 'annular area 58 of the piston or of the
Another object of the invention is the provision of an
the pressure seal.
actuator according to the foregoing object wher-ein the 10
A passage `62 in end member 12 ‘and a fluid coupling 64
overlbalancing force is that of a triggering pressure applied
connect the set pressure chamber 30 with a source of set
to an area of the actuator piston.
pressure (not shown). A passage 66 in the wall member
Another object of the invention is to provide an actu
153 and a fluid coupling 63 interconnect the actuating
ator which is adapted 'to tbe as short as the length of the
pressure chamber 28 and a source of `actuating pressure
output stroke permits.
(not shown). A radial passage 70, an axial opening 72 in
Other objects, features and advantages of the present
the `wall member and a fluid `coupling 74 communicate
invention will become apparent to those versed in the
The piston area within the pressure seal confronting
art from a consideration of the following description, the
the wall member with a source of triggering pressure
appended claims and the accompanying drawings, where
1n:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a preferred embodi
ment of the Iactuator of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged elevational sectional view
taken `at line 2-2 of FIGURE 1;
(not shown).
20
To prepare the actuator of FIGURE 2 for operation,
a set pressure is introduced into the set pressure chamber
30 through the coupling 64 and the passage 62. The set
pressure acts upon the effective cross-sectional area of the
'
actuator piston 36 defined within the seal ring 38. A set
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view 25 force is thereby exerted which urges the piston against the
showing details of certain elements of the actuator of
wall member 10 and compresses the resilient sealing
FIGURE 2;
element 50 against the sealing rim 56 to effect Ia positive
FIGURE 4 is an elevational sectional View of a modi
pressure seal .about a portion of lthe wall member ‘10.
fied actuator laccording to the present invention;
A relatively high actuating pressure is established in the
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view 30 actuating pressure chamber y28 through the coupling 68
showing details of certain elements of the `actuator of
.and the passage `66 in wall member 10. The actuating
FIGURE 4; and
pressure in chamber 28 acts `through the ports 34 on the
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary sectional view wherein a
annular piston ‘area 58 radially outside the pressure seal.
modified yform of the actuator of FIGURE 4 is shown
The force of this pressure on the annular larea 58 op
during operation.
35 poses the set force on the piston and may be predeter
Referring to the drawings, `and particularly to- FIG
mined to substantially balance the set force and hold the
URES l, 2 and 3, there is shown `a preferred embodiment
piston in equilibrium. The resilient sealing element 50
of the actuator of the present invention. The device in
effects a positive pressure seal even while the forces on the
cludes a housing assembly formed by la wall member 10,
piston me nearly balanced.
an end member 12, an outer casing 14 and an inner cylin 40
To operate the actuator, the set force is overbalanced.
der d6, all of which are secured in clamped relation fby
This may be done by increasing the actuating pressure
tie-bolts 118. Each of the tie-bolts extends through an
in chamber 28 to exert on the piston area outside the
appropriate opening 2f? in the end member ‘12 and is se
pressure seal an additional force which may be con
cured in a threaded opening 22 in the wall vmember 10.
sidered a triggering force. The overbalancing may pref
The assembly is secured to a mounting plate 24 by
erably `be done by utilizing a separate triggering force to
bolts 26 which extend lthrough openings in the plate into 45 cooperate with the actuating pressure force on the piston
threaded engagement with the wall member, as shown.
area outside the pressure seal in overbalancing the set
The housing is separated into an outer actuating pressure
force. "This triggering force may be applied mechanically
chamber 28 ‘and `an inner coaxial set pressure chamber 30
to the thrust column. It is preferably applied by intro
by the inner cylinder 16. `Pressure sealing is provided for
ducing a triggering pressure through the passage 70 and
the pressure chambers 23, 30 by resilient seal rings 32 50 the opening 72 to the actuator piston area within the
disposed in appropriate grooves in the end member 12 and
in wall member 1i), the seal rings lbeing in sealing engage-‘
ment with the casing -14 and the cylinder- 16, ras shown.
pressure seal at the sealing rim 56. This triggering pres
sure is predetermined to overbalance the set force by
cooperating 'with the »force of the actuating pressure on
Four large circular ports 3‘4 are provided in the cylinder
the piston area 58 outside the pressure seal. The over
16 adjacent to the wall member 1t] for a purpose herein 55 balancing action unseats the actuator piston and the seal
after described.
.
,
l
An actuator piston 36 is slidable in the inner cylinder
16 and confronts the wall member `10. The piston is
ing element 50 is disengaged from the sealing rim 56.
With the pressure seal thus eliminated, the high actuat
ing pressure is released substantially instantaneously upon
adapted to seat against the wall, -as shown in FIGURE 2.
the area of the actuator piston within the pressure seal
An `annular seal ring 38 in a peripheral groove in the 60 and confronting the wall member 10. The actuator piston
piston provides pressure sealing between the cylinder 16
`and lthe piston.
A thrust column 4l) is secured to the ac
is suddenly impelled with great force from the wall to
produce high level actuator output, as indicated in
FIGURE 3.
tuator piston by threaded engagement of its reduced end
portion 42 in an opening in the piston. The thrust col
lFrom the foregoing and from the earlier description
umn extends through an axial opening 44 in end member 65 herein, it will be understood that the actuating pressure
12 and is slidably received in a bearing 46 threadedly
has substantially unrestricted and rapid access to the
secured within Áan enlarged portion of the `opening 44.
rapidly moving piston. The pressure passes freely through
A resilient ring 48 in an appropriate groove within the
the ports 34, which provide free access. Actuating pres
opening provides pressure sealing about the thrust column.
sure is therefore effectively maintained against the rapidly
A circular resilient sealing element or sealing plate 50, 70 moving piston, and high efficiency is achieved.
preferably formed of Teflon or nylon, is secured by screws
Deceleration of the actuator piston is effected by
52 to the piston in confronting 4relation with the Wall
compression in the set pressure chamber 30 by the actu
member «10. An annular seal ring 54 provides pressure
ator piston, as well as by the external load on the thrust
sealing ‘between the sealing element and the piston. As
column. Special structure is not necessarily required to
shown in FIGURES 2 and 3, a circular sealing rim 56 75 effect actuator piston deceleration.
3,093,117
5
To prepare the actuator for repeat operation, the actu
ator piston 36 is reseated against the wall member 10.
Reseating may be effected by mechanical force on the
thrust column 40. A preferable method of reseating is
by reducing the pressure in the actuating pressure cham
ber 28 below the pressure in chamber 30, thereby per
mitting the latter pressure to move the piston against the
wall member. Reseating may also be effected by the
introduction into the set pressure chamber 3f) through
the coupling 64 and the passage 62 of a seating pressure
higher than the actuating pressure. After reseating, the
seating pressure in chamber 30 would be relieved to re
establish the set pressure.
Upon the reseating of the actuator piston the trapping
of pressure in the space defined by the wall member 10,
the actuator piston 36, and the pressure seal at sealing
rim 56 is prevented by relieving pressure through the
6
the actuator piston and the wall member 10. A resilient
annular sealing element 124 is secured as by bonding in
an annular groove in the wall member, and is disposed
about the metering pin 110, as shown. .The sealing ele
ment 124 is adapted for cooperation with the end surface
126 of the actuator piston to provide pressure sealing.
Compression of the resilient element 124 against the end
surface of the piston by the set force effects the pressure
seal. The operation of the device of FIGURE 6 is other
wise the same as that of the actuator shown in FIGURE 4.
'The metering member 110 is contoured to control the
output thrust-time pattern of the actuator. The operation
of the actuator is -identical to that of the actuator of FIG
URE 2 except that, upon the elimination of the pressure
seal at the sealing rim 56 by the initial unseating move
ment of the actuator piston, the actuating pressure is
released upon the piston through a net flow area between
the metering member and the surface 104 of piston
opening 72 and the passage 70 in the wall member 10.
cavity 192 as indicated in FIGURE 5. This net flow area
Pressure trapped in this space would act upon the actu
ator piston to oppose the set force exerted oppositely on 20 is governed by the metering member and a pressure drop
is effected across this flow area Which varies according
the piston. A relatively low pressure in the actuating
to the net effective flow area. The output pressure and
pressure chamber 28 would then effect movement of the
force on the actuator piston and on the thrust column
piston from the wall member. .IThis would prevent effec
therefore vary in accordance with the net flow area.
tive triggering and would cause premature relatively slow
movement of the actuator piston, thus preventing effec 25 Selected thrust-time patterns may be produced by appro
priate metering pins. The manner of determining
tive operation of the actuator.
appropriate metering pin contours for selected output
patterns is described in the above-mentioned oopending
application of Jack B. Ottestad, Serial No. 683,855, filed
it embodies a metering member arrangement and means 30 September 13, 1957, now U.S. Patent No. 2,949,096.
After the acceleration phase of the predetermined
for decelerating the piston. A piston 76 is slidable in a
thrust-time output pattern is completed, the deceleration
cylindrical section 78, as shown. Cylindrical section '78
In FIGURES 4 and 5 there is illustrated another ern
bodiment of the present invention. This modified actu
ator differs from that of FIGURES l, 2 and 3 in that
and a cylindrical section 80 together constitute an inner
metering pin 90 cooperates with the apertured plate
member 82 to effect a predetermined deceleration pattern.
cylinder. An apertured plate member 82 has its flange
portion 84 interposed between adjacent ends of cylin 35 Piston movement forces gas or fluid through the aper
ture 88, and the contoured surface 100 of the pin controls
drical sections 78 and 80, as shown, these parts being
flow through the aperture by regulating the net aperture
secured in clamped relation by the tie-bolts 18. Resilient
flow area. This net area varies in accordance with the
annular seals 86 in appropriate annular grooves in the
longitudinal contour of the deceleration pin, and a desired
plate member on each side of the flange portion 84 pro
vide pressure sealing between the plate member and the 40 deceleration-time pattern is obtained by appropriate con
touring.
cylindrical sections. An aperture 88 is defined in the
plate member.
A deceleration metering pin 90 `fits about the thrust
From the foregoing ‘description those versed in the art
will appreciate that the present invention achieves the
objects and realizes the advantages hereinbefore men
column 40 and is secured to the piston 76 by means
of a lock ring 92 «which is threadedly secured to a re 45 tioned.
Although specific embodiments of the present invention
duced end portion 94 of the piston to secure the decelera
tion pin by means of mutually engaging flange portions,
have been described and illustrated in detail, it is to be
as indicated at 96. A bearing ring 98 is also secured by
clearly understood that the same are by lway of illustra
the lock ring. The deceleration pin has a peripheral
tion and example only; it is to be understood that the in
sur-face 100 which is contoured along its length to adapt 50 vention is not limited thereto, as many variations Will be
it to cooperate with the aperture 88 for a purpose which
readily apparent to those versed in the art and the in
venti-on is to be given its broadest possible interpretation
is hereinafter described.
A large axial opening or cavity 102 is defined in the
within the terms of the appended claims.
piston and confronts the wall member 10. The cavity
The inventor claims:
or opening is defined by an inner piston surface 104 and 55
l. An actuator comprising means defining a' wall hav
a transverse end wall 106. An annular sealing plate 108
a pressure retaining portion, an actuator piston adapted
is mounted on the end surface of the piston, as shown,
for cooperation with the Wall to provide a pressure seal
and is similar to the sealing element 50 of FIGURES 2,
therebetween about said portion of the wall, means for
and 3.
exerting a set force urging the piston toward the wall to
A metering member 110 is secured to the wall mem 60 effect said pressure seal, and means for applying pres
ber 10 within the seal rim 56 lby threaded engagement
sure to the piston to overbalance the set force to eliminate
of its shank portion 112 in an axial opening 114 in the
said pressure seal and apply the pressure to an increased
wall member. The metering member has an enlarged
area of the piston, whereby the actuator piston is im
cylindrical portion 116, adapted to fit closely within the
pelled from the wall to produce output thrust.
piston cavity 162, and a contoured portion 118, which 65 2. An actuator comprising means defining a wall hav
serves a purpose hereinafter described.
An axial passage 120 in the metering member 110, an
ing a pressure retaining portion, an actuator piston con
fronting the Wall and adapted for cooperation therewith
axial opening 122 in the Wall member, the radial passage
to provide a pressure seal therebetween about said por
70 in the wall member and the fluid coupling 74 connect
tion of the wall, means lfor exerting a set force urging
the piston cavity 182 with a source of triggering pressure 70 the actuator piston toward the wall -to effect said pressure
(not shown). The triggering pressure may preferably be
seal, said pressure seal separating first and second areas
of the piston, means for applying an actuating pressure
the same as the actuating pressure.
to said first piston area to exert a second `force opposing
FIGURE 6 illustrates a somewhat modified form of
said set force, and means for applying a triggering force
the actuator of FIGURE 4, wherein modified sealing
means are utilized for effecting the pressure seal between 75 to the piston to cooperate with the said second force in
3,093,117
7
8
overbalancing the set force to eliminate the pressure seal
ton toward the wall to effect said pressure seal, and means
and apply the actuating pressure to said second piston
area, whereby the piston is rapidly moved from the wall
to product output thrust.
for establishing an actuating pressure in said second
3. An actuator comprising means defining a wall, an
chamber to act upon an area of the actuator piston out
side said pressure seal to overbalance said set force to
eliminate said pressure seal and release the actuating pres
sure upon an increased area of the piston, whereby the
actuator piston confronting the wall and adapted for
cooperation therewith to provide a pressure seal therebe
tween about a portion of the wall, means for exerting a
set force urging the actuator piston toward the wall to
output thrust.
and second areas of the piston, means for applying an
actuating pressure to said first piston area to exert a sec
pressure chamber, means defining a wall having a pres
sure retaining portion, an actuator piston in said first
actuator piston is accelerated from the wall to produce
8. An actuator comprising housing means defining au
effect said pressure seal, said pressure seal separating first 10 inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
chamber and confronting the wall, said actuator piston
ond force opposing said set force, means for applying a
being adapted for cooperation with the wall to provide a
triggering force to the piston to cooperate with the said
second force in overbalancing the set force to eliminate 15 pressure seal therebetween about said portion of the wall,
means for establishing a set pressure in the first chamber
the pressure seal and apply the actuating pressure to said
for exerting a set force urging the piston against the wall
second piston area, said actuator piston having a cavity
to establish said pressure seal, and means for establishing
defined by an inner piston surface and confronting the
an actuating pressure in said second chamber to act upon
wall, and a contoured metering member extending from
the wall and cooperating with said inner piston surface to 20 an area of the piston outside said pressure seal to overbal
ance the set force and expose an increased area of the pis
regulate flow to the moving piston to produce a predeter
ton to the actuating pressure, whereby the piston is accel
mined thrust-time output pattern.
erated from said wall to produce output thrust.
4. An actuator comprising means defining a wall hav
9. An actuator comprising housing means defining an
ing a pressure retaining portion, an actuator piston con
fronting the Wall, a resilient sealing element positioned 25 inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
pressure chamber, means defining a wall having a pressure
between the piston and the Wall for effecting a pressure
retaining portion, an actuator piston in said first chamber
seal therebetween about said portion of the wall, means
and confronting the wall, said actuator piston being
for exerting a set force urging the piston toward the wall
adapted for cooperation with the wall to provide a pres
to effect said pressure seal, and means for applying pres
sure to the piston to overbalance the set force to elimi 30 sure seal therebetween about said portion of the wall,
nate said pressure seal and apply the pressure to an in
means for establishing a set pressure in the first chamber
creased area of the actuator piston, whereby the piston
is rapidly impelled from the wall to produce output
thrust.
for exerting a set force urging the piston against the wall
to establish said pressure seal, and means for establishing
fronting the wall, sealing means disposed between the
for applying a triggering force to the actuator piston to
cooperate with said second force in overbalancing the set
an actuating pressure in said second chamber to act
5. An actuator comprising means defining a wall hav 35 upon an area of the piston outside said pressure seal to
exert a second force opposing said set force, and means
ing a pressure retaining portion, an actuator piston con
piston and the wall for effecting a pressure seal there
between about said portion of the wall, ,means for exert
ing a set force urging the actuator piston toward the wall
to effect said pressure seal, said pressure seal separating
a first piston area outside the pressure seal and -a second
force to eliminate the pressure seal and expose an in
creased area of the piston to said pressure, whereby the
piston is accelerated from said wall to produce output
thrust.
10. An actuator comprising housing means defining an
piston area within the pressure seal, and means for estab
inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
lishing an actuating pressure to act upon said piston area
outside the pressure seal yto overbalance said set force 45 pressure chamber, means defining a wall, an actuator
piston in said first chamber and confronting the wall, said
to eliminate the pressure seal and release the actuating
actuator piston being adapted for cooperation with the
pressure upon said first piston area, whereby the actuator
wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a por
piston is accelerated from the wall to produce output
tion of the wall, means for establishing a set pressure in
thrust.
first chamber for exerting a set force urging the pis~
6. An actuator comprising housing means defining ñrst 50 the
ton against the wall to establish said pressure seal, and
means for establishing an actuating pressure in said sec
ing a pressure retaining portion within the housing means,
ond chamber to act upon an area of the piston outside
an actuator piston adapted for cooper-ation with the Wall
said pressure seal to exert a second force opposing said
to provide a pressure seal therebetween about said por
set force, and means for applying a triggering force to
tion of the wall, means for applying a set pressure to the 55 the actuator piston to cooperate with said second force
piston to exert a set force urging the piston toward the
in overbalancing the set force to eliminate the pressure
wall to effect said pressure seal, said pressure seal separat
seal and expose an increased area of the piston to said
ing a first piston area outside the pressure seal and a sec
pressure, said actuator piston having a cavity defined by
ond piston area within the pressure seal, and means for
applying an actuating pressure to said first piston area to 60 an inner piston surface and confronting the wall, and a
contoured metering member extending from the wall and
exert a second force opposing the set force, and means
cooperating with said inner piston surface to regulate
for applying a triggering force to the piston to cooperate
iiow to the moving piston to produce a predetermined
with said second force in overbalancing the set force to
thrust-time output pattern.
eliminate the pressure seal and apply the actuating pres
l1. An actuator comprising housing means defining
sure to said second piston area, whereby the actuator
an inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
piston is rapidly accelerated from the Wall to produce
and second pressure chambers, means defining a wall hav
output thrust.
pressure chamber, means defining a wall having a pressure
retaining portion, an actuator piston positioned in said
7. An actuator comprising means defining first and
first chamber and confronting the wall, resilient sealing
second pressure chambers, means defining a wall having a
pressure retaining portion, an actuator piston slidable in 70 means disposed between the piston and the wall for effect
ing a pressure seal therebetween about said portion of the
said first chamber and confronting the wall, said actua
tor piston being adapted for cooperation with the wall
wall, means for establishing a set pressure in the first
to provide a pressure seal therebetween about said portion
chamber to exert a set force urging the piston against the
of the wall, means for establishing a set pressure in said
wall to establish said pressure seal, and means for estab
first chamber to exert a set force urging the actuator pis 75 lishing an actuating pressure in said second chamber to
3,093,117
act upon an area of the piston outside said pressure seal
to overbalance the set force and expose an increased area
of the piston to` the actuating pressure, thereby accelerat
ing the actuator piston from said Wall to produce output
It@
first pressure chamber, an actuator piston slidable in said
first chamber and confronting the Wall, a resilient sealing
element positio-ned between the actuator piston land the
Wall for effecting a pressure seal therebetween about said
portion of the wall, means for establishing a set pressure
in the first chamber to exert a set force urging the
thrust.
12. An actuator «comprising housing means defining an
actuator piston toward the wall to establish said pressure
inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
seal, said pressure seal separating a first piston area out
pressure chamber Within the housing, means defining a
side the pressure seal and a second piston area within the
wall having a pressure retaining portion at an end of the
pressure seal, and means for establishing an actuating
first pressure chamber, an actuator piston slidable in said 10 pressure in said second chamber to act upon said first
first chamber and confronting the wall, a resilient sealing
piston area outside the seal to exert a second force op
element positioned between the actuator piston and the
posing said set force, and means for introducing a trigger
Wall for effecting a pressure seal therebetween about said
ing pressure to said second piston area to cooperate with
portion of the wall, means for establishing a set pressure
said second force in overbalancing the set force to elimi
in the first chamber to 4exert a set force urging the 15 nate the pressure seal and expose an increased area of
actuator piston toward »the wall to establish said pressure
the piston to said pressure, whereby the actuator piston
seal, said pressure seal separating a first piston area out
is accelerated from the wall to produce useful output
side the pressure seal and a second piston area within the
thrust.
pressure seal, and means for establishing an actuating
16. An actuator comprising housing means defining an
pressure in said second chamber to act upon said first 20 inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
piston larea outside the seal to overbalance the set force
pressure chamber within the housing, means defining a
and expose said second piston area to the Iactuating pres
wall having a pressure retaining portion lat an end of the
sure, thereby accelerating the actuator piston from the
first pressure chamber, a sealing rim on the Wall about
wall to produce useful output thrust.
said portion thereof, an actuator piston slidable in said
25
13. An actuator comprising housing means Idefini-ng an
first chamber and confronting the wall, a resilient sealing
inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
element on the piston and adapted to cooperate with said
pressure chamber Within the housing, means defining a
sealing rim to provide a pressure seal between the piston
wall having a pressure retaining portion at an end of the
and the wall about said wall portion, means for establish
first pressure chamber, an actuator piston slidable in said
ing a set pressure in the first lchamber to exert a set force
first chamber and confronting the wall, a resilient sealing 30 urging
the actuator piston toward the wall toi establish
element positioned between the actuator piston and the
said
pressure
seal, said pressure seal separating a first pis
Wall for effecting a pressure seal therebetween about said
ton area outside the pressure seal zand a second piston
portion of the wall, means for establishing a set pressure
area within the pressure seal, and- means for establishing
in the first chamber to exert a set force urging the
an actuating pressure in said second chamber to act upon
35
actuator piston »toward the wall to establish said pressure
said first piston area outside the seal to overbalance the
seal, said pressure seal separating a first piston area out
set force and expose said second pist-on area to the actuat
side the pressure seal and a second piston area within the
ing pressure, thereby accelerating the actuator piston from
pressure seal, and means for establishing an actuating
the wall to produce useful output thrust.
pressure in said second chamber to act upon said first
17. An actuator comprising means defining a pressure
piston area outside the seal to exert a second force op 40
posing said set force, and means for applying a triggering
force to the actuator piston to cooperate with said second
force in overbalancing the set force to eliminate the pres
retaining wall, an actuator piston adapted for cooperation
with the Wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween
about «a portion of the wall, means for exerting -a set force
urging the piston toward the wall to effect -said pressure
said pressure, thereby accelerating the actuator piston 45 seal, means for applying pressure to the piston to over
balance the set force to eliminate said pressure seal and
from the wall to produce useful output thrust.
apply the pressure on an increased area of the piston,
sure `seal and exp-ose an increased area of the piston to
14. An actuator `comprising housing means defining an
thereby impelling the piston from the wall, said piston
inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
having an opening confronting the Wall, and a contoured
pressure chamber within the housing, means defining a
50 metering member extending from the wall into the piston
wall at an end of the first pressure chamber, an actuator
piston slidable in said first chamber and confronting the
Wall, a resilient sealing element positioned Ibetween the
«opening for cooperation with the piston to regulate flow
to the mov-ing piston to produce a predetermined thrust
time output pattern.
actuator piston and the wall for effecting a pressure seal
18. An actuator comprising means defining a wall hav
therebetween about la portion of the wall, means for estab 55
ing a pressure retaining portion, an actuator piston slidable
fishing a set pressure in the first chamber to exert a set
force urging the actuator piston toward the wall to estab
lish said pressure seal, -said pressure seal separating a first
piston area outside the pressure seal and a second piston
area. within the pressure seal, and means for establishing
an actuating pressure in said second chamber to act upon
said first piston area outside the seal to exert a second
force opposing said set force, and means for applying a
in a cylinder and confronting the wall, said piston being
adapted for cooperation with the wall to provide a pres
sure seal about said portion of the wall, means for exert
ing a set `force urging the piston toward the wall to effect
said pressure seal, said cylinder having openings therein
adjacent to the piston and extending axially beyond the
end of the piston when said pressure seal is effected,
whereby upon tire elimination of the pressure seal pressure
is instantly applied to an end area of the piston through
nate the pressure seal and expose an increased area of the 65 said openings, and mea-ns for applying force to the piston
to overbalance said set force to eliminate the pressure seal
piston to said pressure, said actuator pistou having a cavity
and expose said piston end area to said pressure, whereby
defined by an inner piston surface and confronting the
the actuator piston is impelled from the wall to produce
Wall, yand a contoured metering member extending from
output thrust.
the Wall and cooperating with said inner piston surface
to regulate flow to the moving piston to produce a prede 70
References Cited in the file of this patent
termined thrust-time output pattern.
15. An actuator comprising housing means defining an
UNITED STATES PATENTS
triggering force to the actuator piston to cooperate with
said second force in overbalancing the set force to» elimi
inner first pressure chamber and a coaxial outer second
pressure chamber within the housing, means defining a
Wall having a pressure retaining portion at an end of the 75
2,925,803
2,949,096
Ottestad ______________ __ Feb. 23, 1960
Ottestad et al __________ __ Aug. 16, 1960
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