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Патент USA US3093126

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June 11, 1963
B. I. BROWN
3,093,118
HIGH RATE ACTUATORS
Filed Feb. 24, 1961
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INVENTQR.
June 11, 1963
B. I. BROWN
3,093,118
HIGH RATE ACTUATORS
Filed Feb. 24, 1961
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
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June 11, 1963
B. |. BROWN
3,093,118
HIGH RATE ACTUATORS
Filed Feb. 24, 1961
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
,BO/VMED I. ,HRon/M,
INVEN TOR
T TQRIVEYS
June 11, 1963
B. 1. BROWN
3,093,118
HIGH RATE ACTUATORS
BOA/MED I. BQon/M,
INVENTOR
United States Patent 0 ice
3,093,118
eral Dynamics Corporation (Convair Division), San
Diego, Calif., a corporation of Delaware
Filed Feb. 24, 1961, Ser. No. 91,436
19 Claims. (Cl. 121-68)
The present invention is related to the invention de
scribed and claimed in the copending application of
Boniard I. Brown, Serial No. 38,844, ?led June 27, 1960
for “High Energy Rate Actuator,” which represents im
provements upon the inventions of certain earlier applica
tions identi?ed in the copending application. The actua
Patented June 11, 1963
2
1
HIGH RATE ACTUATORS
Boniard I. Brown, West Covina, Cali?, assignor to Gen
3,093,118
be the same as the actuating pressure, may be applied
to an area of the head portion to exert the triggering force.
To produce a predetermined thrust-time output pattern, a
contoured metering member may be provided to cooper
ate with a cavity surface to regulate the release of the
actuating pressure to the moving thrust member. A pre
determined deceleration pattern may be provided by a
deceleration pin portion on the thrust member which
moves into a cooperating aperture. In certain preferred
embodiments, the set force is exerted by the actuating
pressure on the deceleration pin portion of the thrust
member.
_
The present invention provides distinct advantages over
the above-described invention of the copending applica
tor of the above-identi?ed application comprises a wall 15 tion and over the actuators of the earlier applications
identi?ed in the copending application. Only a single
and a piston cooperable with the wall to provide a pres
pressure is required for providing a set force and the
sure seal therebetween about an enclosed portion of the
actuating force. A second pressure supply system is not
wall. The piston is urged toward the wall to establish
required and special actuator features and components
the pressure seal by a set force, which is preferably exerted
by a set pressure which is established in a chamber on the 20 are not required to accommodate a second pressure.
A
considerably simpli?ed and more economical construc
tion may therefore be utilized. E?iciency and output
side of the piston opposite from the Wall. An actuating
pressure exerts force on an area of the piston outside the
thrust are improved, because there is no set pressure force
pressure seal. The set force is overbalanced either by
increasing the actuating pressure to increase the force
opposing the actuator output stroke. E?iciency and out
on the piston area outside the seal, or by applying a sep 25 put thrust are not substantially affected by internal forces.
The invention generally provides the advantages of
arate triggering force to the piston or to a thrust column
the invention of the copending application. An important
attached to the piston. The overbalancing unseats the
advantage is that improved e?iciency and output thrust
piston from the wall and suddenly eliminates the pressure
result from improved access of the actuating pressure to
seal, thereby releasing the actuating pressure upon a piston
area within the seal and rapidly impelling the piston from 30 the thrust member and ef?cient maintenance of the pres
sure on the thrust member during its output stroke. Act
the wall. The triggering force may be provided by apply
uators of the present invention provide substantially un
ing pressure to the piston area within the pressure seal.
restricted access to the thrust member head portion during
An output thrust-time pattern may be controlled by co
the output stroke. Relatively large actuating pressure
operation between a metering member on the wall and
a cavity in the piston during the rapid movement of the 35 chambers may convenienly be provided to further facili
tate the maintenance of pressure against the thrust
piston from the Wall.
member.
The above-described actuator of the copending applica
It is therefore an object of the present invention to
tion has certain of the disadvantages which characterize
provide a new and improved high rate actuator.
the earlier inventions hereinbefore mentioned. These
An object of the invention is the provision of an im
disadvantages relate to the exertion of the set force in 40
proved actuator which generally achieves the objects of
preferred embodiments by a separate set pressure. A
the previous inventions herein mentioned.
separate set pressure system and set pressure chamber
It is an object of the invention to provide an improved
require special features and components. A somewhat
high rate actuator which requires only a single pressure
complicated structure is therefore required. Upon the
impelling of an actuator piston from a wall, the set pres 45 for initiating operation and for exerting actuating force.
An object of this invention is to provide an improved
sure exerts force opposing the output thrust stroke of the
high rate actuator according to the foregoing objects
piston, thereby reducing output thrust and e?iciency.
Alhough the above-described invention provides greatly
improved access of actuating pressure to the moving piston
during its output stroke, in comparison with prior art
wherein an actuating pressure exerts a set force on an
e?ective transverse area of a thrust member.
50
It is an object of the present invention to provide \an
devices, the provision of a set pressure chamber tends to
involve some restriction of such application of the actuat
improved actuator wherein .an actuating pressure exerts
ing pressure.
thrust member toward a wall to effect a pressure seal
The improved actuator of the present invention com
prises a thrust member having a head portion which is
a set force ‘on an area of a thrust member to urge the
therebetween, ‘and wherein a triggering force is applied
ating pressure exerts a set force on an effective transverse
to the thrust member to overb-allance the set force and
release the actuating pres-sure upon a ‘head pontion ‘area
of the thrust member.
An object ‘of this invention is the provision ‘of a high
area of the thrust member to urge the head portion toward
the wall to effect the pressure seal. A triggering force is
applied to the thrust member to overbalance the set force,
to a thrust column ‘during an ‘output stroke.
cooperable with a wall to provide a pressure seal there
between about an enclosed portion of the wall. An actu
rate actuator which provides improved efficiency and out
put thrust through improved access of actuating pressure
It is an object ‘of the invention to provide an improved
high rate actuator the output and ‘efficiency of which are
{not substantially reduced by internal forces ‘or losses.
An object of the present invention is to provide ‘an
useful output thrust. Preferably, the head portion has 65
improved high rate actuator of simpli?ed and econm
a head surface confronting the wall, and the thrust column
ical ‘construction.
has an effective transverse area spaced axially from the
It is an object of the invention to provide an actuator
head surface and facing substantially oppositely from the
head surface. The pressure seal is preferably effected by 70 wherein an output thrust-time pattern is controlled by
a contoured metering member.
a resilient sealing element positioned between the wall
Another object of the invention is the provision of ‘an
and the head portion. A triggering pressure, which may
thereby disengaging the pressure seal and releasing the
actuating pressure upon an area of the head portion. The
thrust member is thus impelled from the wall to produce
3,093,118
3
improved high rate actuator wherein a single pressure
exerts a set force, is released upon a thrust member
to exert output thrust, and is metered through an aper
ture to produce decelerating force.
Other ‘objects, features and advantages of the present
invention will become apparent to those versed in the
‘art from a consideration of the following description,
the appended claims and the accompanying drawings,
wherein:
4
A passage 58 in wall member 10 and a fluid couplingr
60 interconnect the actuating pressure chamber 26 with
a supply of actuating pressure (not shown). A similar
passage 62 in the wall member and a ?uid coupling 64
connect the piston area 56 within the sealing element 52
with a source ‘of triggering pressure (not shown), which
may be the same ‘as the source of ‘actuating pressure.
FIGURES 2, 3 and 4 illustrate certain components and
modi?cations which may be utilized with the actuator of
FIGURE 1 is ‘an elevational View, partially in section,
FIGURE 1 to provide guidance and support for the mov
of a preferred embodiment of the actuator of the present
‘able thrust member. FIGURE 2 shows a guide rod
invention;
for this purpose which is formed integrally with a thrust
FIGURES 2, 3 'and- 4 are fragmentary sectional views
column 68. The guide rod extends through an axial
showing guidance and support components for use with
opening in a wall member 70 and is slidably received ‘in
the actuator of FIGURE 1;
15 a bearing 72‘ threadedly secured in the wall member.
FIGURE 5 is ‘an elevation-a1 sectional view of an em
Pressure sealing between the guide rod and the wall
bodiment of the invention wherein a metering member
member is provided by a sealing ring 74 adjacent to ‘the
provides a predetermined thrust-time output pattern;
bearing in the wall opening. A guidance and support
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged fragmentary view showing
rim 76 is shown in FIGURE 3. The rim is mounted on
certain elements ‘of the actuator of FIGURE 5 in opera
the thrust member by spokes 78 and is slidable in the
*tion to produce ‘a thrust-time output pattern;
cylinder 14. Shown in FIGURE 4 is a tubular guide
FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary sectional view showing a
member 30. Guide member 80 ‘is threadedly secured
metering pin and cavity of a modi?ed form of the ac
in an opening 82 in the wall member and extends through
tuator of FIGURE 5;
‘an axial opening 84 in head portion 44 and through 'an
FIGURE 8 is an elevational view, partially in section, 25 ‘axial bore 86 of a modified thrust column 83.
of another embodiment of the present invention; and
To prepare the actuator of FIGURE 1 for operation,
FIGURE 9 is an elevational view, partially in section,
the thrust member 30 is moved by external force to the
of another embodiment of the invention.
position shown in FIGURE 1, wherein the head portion
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to FIG
44 is adjacent to the Wall member 16 and the annular
URE 1, there is shown a preferred embodiment of the 30 resilient sealing element 52 engages the wall. A rela
actuator of the present invention. The actuator has ‘a
tively high actuating pressure is introduced into the actu
housing assembly formed by -a wall member 10, an end
ating pressure chamber 26 through coupling 60 and pas
member 12 and a cylinder 14, which are secured in
sage 58. The actuating pressure acts upon the effective
clamped relation by tie-bolts 16. Each tie-bolt extends
transverse area of back surface 46 of the head portion
through an appropriate opening 18 in a ?ange portion 35 44, and thereby exerts a set force which urges the head
of end member 12 ‘and is secured in a ‘threaded opening
portion toward the wall member 10 and compresses the
20 in a ?ange portion of wall member 10. The as
resilient sealing element 52 against the surface of the
sembly is secured to a mounting plate 22 by bolts 24,
wall member. The resilient sealing element 52 thereby
which extend thnough plate ‘openings into threaded ‘en
effects a positive pressure seal about a portion of the
gagement with the wall member 10, as shown.
A gen
erally cylindrical actuating pressure chamber 26 is de?ned
by the housing, and pressure sealing for the chamber
is provided ‘by resilient seal rings 28 ‘adjacent to re
spective end portions of cylinder 14 in appropriate ran
wall and about an area of the head‘ surface of the head
portion 44. The positive pressure seal remains effective
even when there is substantially no net force urging the
head portion toward the wall, as when the forces on the
thrust member are substantially balanced. The actuating
:nular grooves in the wall member and end member.
pressure also exerts force on the annular piston area 54
An output thrust member or column 30 is axially 45 radially outside the pressure seal, this force opposing the
disposed in the housing and is slidably mounted in an
set force.
‘annular bearing 32 which is threadedly secured in an
To operate the actuator, the set force is overbalanced
‘opening in the end member 12. A sealing ring 34 in
by a triggering force to release the actuating pressure over
a bearing groove provides pressure sealing about the
an area of the head portion 44. The triggering force
thrust column. A die part 36 is de?ned in the outer end 50 may be applied to the thrust member in various ways,
portion of the thrust member ‘and confronts a cooperat
such as the application of external mechanical force. It
ing die part 38, which is secured to a foundation ‘or
may preferably be applied by applying a triggering pres
wall 40 by bolts 42.
sure to an area of the head portion. A triggering pres
An enlarged head portion 44 is provided at the inner
sure may be introduced through the coupling 64 and the
end of the thrust member. The head portion has a
passage 62 to the area 56 of the head surface within the
back surface 46 and includes a circular seal plate ‘48
circular pressure seal at the annular resilient sealing
which is secured to the end of the column by screws 50,
element 52. The triggering pressure must be sufficient
as ‘shown. A resilient annular sealing element 52 is
to overbalance the set force by cooperating with the force
secured as by bonding in an annular groove in the seal
on the area 54 outside the pressure seal.
plate and extends therefrom to contact the wall member 60
The overbalancing action of the triggering pressure un
10. The resilient sealing element 52 is adapted for co
seats the thrust member head portion and suddenly dis
operation with the wall to eiTect a circular pressure seal
engages the resilient sealing element 52 from the wall
between the head portion and the wall about a closed
member
10. The resilient element 52 maintains a posi
portion of the wall and about an area ‘of the head portion,
when the thrust column is urged toward the wall mem 65 tive pressure seal up to the instant of its disengagement,
whereupon the actuating pressure is released substantially
ber. The sealing element 52 ‘and the circular pressure
instantaneously upon the area 56 within the pressure
seal which it provides de?ne an annular area 54 radially
seal. The thrust member is suddenly impelled with great
outside the pressure seal and encompass a circular ‘area
force from the wall to produce high rate output thrust.
56 of the head surface of the thrust column.
From the drawing and the foregoing description, it
From the foregoing, it will be understood that a head
portion of the thrust member has a head surface con
will be appreciated that the actuating pressure has free
fronting a wall, and that the thrust member has an
access to the head surface of the thrust member after the
effective transverse area axially spaced from a head
unseating of the head portion from the wall member.
surface of the head portion. The head surface ‘and the
Actuating pressure is thus effectively maintained against
effective transverse ‘area face substantially oppositely.
the rapidly moving thrust member without substan~
s,093,11s
5
tian restriction. High output thrust and ef?ciency are
therefore achieved.
The outer end portion or die part 36 of the thrust mem
ber impacts a workpiece which is shown positioned in
the cooperating die part 38. Thrust member movement
is thereby stopped, and special structure is not required
to effect deceleration. A ?nished part formed by the rapid
6
as by bonding in an annular groove in the seal plate and
extends therefrom for engagement with the wall member.
As shown in FIGURES 5 and 6, an annular area 138
of the head surface is outside the circular pressure seal,
and an annular area 140 is within the seal, together with
the end wall 128 of cavity 124.
A metering member 142 is mounted on wall member
90 by engagement of its threaded shank portion 144 in an
axial opening in the wall member. The metering mem
ber has an enlarged cylindrical portion which ?ts closely
application of energy by the thrust member is shown in
phantom ‘outline in the die part 38.
To prepare the actuator for repeat operatiomthe thrust
within cylindrical surface 126 of the cavity, and which
member head portion 44 is reseated against wall member
has
a contoured portion 143 ‘for controlling a thrust pat
10 by the application of external force to the thrust
tern in the manner hereinafter described.
member.
The thrust member has an integral ?ange 150 which is
Upon the reseating of the thrust member head por
tion 44, the trapping of pressure in the space de?ned 15 disposed in the chamber 116 and which is in sliding en
gagement with cylindrical section 100. A sealing ring
by wall member 10, the annular sealing element 52 and
152 in a peripheral groove of the ?ange provides pressure
the head portion surface area 56 within the pressure seal,
sealing between the cylindrical section and the ?ange.
is prevented by relieving pressure through the passage 62
and the coupling 64. Pressure such as the actuating pres
sure trapped in this space would act on the head portion
area 56 to oppose the set force exerted on the effective
transverse area of head portion back surface 46 by the
actuating pressure. A small triggering force or low
triggering pressure would then effect movement of the
thrust member from the wall member. This would pre
vent etfective triggering and cause premature slow move
ment of the thrust column, thereby preventing effective
operation of the actuator.
An annular ‘space 154 is de?ned between the ?ange and
the separation wall 94.
A deceleration pin portion 156 of the thrust member
has a contoured axially extending peripheral surface 158
for cooperation with an aperture 160 in the plate member
96, for a purpose which is hereinafter described. De—
celeration portion 156 presents an effective transverse
area which faces substantially oppositely from the head
surface of head portion 130. A portion of the set force
may be exerted on this transverse area in the operation of
the actuator.
FIGURE 5 illustrates an embodiment of the inven
A passage 162 in wall member 90 and a ?uid coupling
tion which differs from the actuator of FIGURE 1 in that 30
164 connect the actuating pressure chamber 114 with
it utilizes a metering member to control an output thrust
a source ‘of actuating pressure (not shown). A similar
time pattern, and in that it is provided with internal
passage 166 and a ?uid coupling 163 provide communica
means for decelerating the thrust member. The actuator
tion between the head portion surface confronting the
includes a housing assembly formed by a base or wall
member 90, an end member 92, a bearing and separation 35 wall and a source of triggering prwsure (not shown),
which may be the same as the actuating pressure. A
wall 94, an apertured plate member 96 and cylindrical
port 170 in cylindrical section 102 and a ?uid coupling
sections 98, 100, 102, all of which are secured in clamped
17 2 connect reseating pressure chamber 116 with a source
relation by tie-bolts 104, as shown. The tie-bolts ex
of pressure (not shown). A passage 174 in the sup
tend through appropriate openings 106 in a ?ange por
port wall 94 communicates between the space 154 and
tion of end member 92 and are secured in threaded open
the exterior atmosphere.
ings 168 in a ?ange portion of wall member 90. The as
FIGURE 7 illustrates a modi?ed form of the actuator
sembly is secured to a foundation or mounting member
of FIGURE 5 wherein an alternative metering pin and
cavity arrangement is utilized. A cavity 176 is de?ned
foundation member and are threadedly secured in the wall
45 in a modi?ed wall member 178. Instead of being
member.
The cylindrical housing is divided into an actuating
mounted on a wall member, the metering member 142
has its threaded shank portion secured in an opening in
pressure chamber 114 and a reseating pressure chamber
116 by the bearing or separation wall 94. Pressure
the thrust member, and secures a modi?ed seal plate 180
sealing for the chambers 114, 116 is provided by resilient
to the head portion of the thrust member.
seal rings 118 positioned adjacent to the cylindrical sec 50
The operation of the actuator of FIGURE 5 is like
tions in annular grooves in the base member 90, end
that hereinbefore described in relation to the actuator of
110 by bolts 112 which extend through openings in the
member 92, hearing wall 94 and plate member 96, as
FIGURE 1, except that the metering member functions
to control the acceleration phase of a predetermined
shown.
An output thrust member or column 120 is axially
thrust-time output pattern, and except for the function of
disposed in the housing and is slidably mounted in an 55 the deceleration metering pin portion 156 in controlling
annular bearing 122 in a large axial opening in the sepa
the deceleration phase of a thrust-time output pattern.
ration wall 94. A sealing ring in a bearing groove pro
The operation also differs in that a portion of the set force
vides pressure sealing about the thrust column.
may be exerted by the action of pressure in reseating
An axial cavity or opening 124 in the end of thrust
pressure chamber 116 on the deceleration pin portion 156
member confronts wall member 90. The cavity has a 60 and ?ange 150.
cylindrical inner surface 126 and an end wall 128.
Upon the elimination of the pressure seal at the resilient
An enlarged head portion 130 of the thrust member
sealing element 136 by the initial unseating movement of
confronts the wall member 90. Annular seal plate 132 is
the thrust member, actuating pressure is released upon
secured by screws 134 to the end of the thrust member
the head portion area within the resilient sealing element
about the opening of cavity 124. Pressure sealing be 65 through a net ?ow area de?ned between the contoured
tween the seal plate and the thrust member is provided
portion 148 of the metering member and the cylindrical
by a sealing ring in a seal plate groove.
surface 126 of the cavity 124, or the surface 126 of the
It will be understood that the area of seal plate 132
cavity 176 in the case of the form shown in FIGURE 7.
about the cavity and the end wall 128 of the cavity con
FIGURE 6- indicates the de?nition of this net ?ow area
sti'tute an elfective head surface which is in substantially 70 between the surface 126 and the metering member con
confronting relation with the wall member 90. The head
toured portion 148 during the output stroke of the thrust
portion has a back surface like that of the actuator of
member. The metering member thus governs a variation
FIGURE 1, which provides an effective transverse area
in net ?ow area and effects a correspondingly varying
pressure drop across this ?ow area. The output thrust
of the thrust member.
An annular resilient sealing element 136' is secured 75 or force on the thrust member therefore varies in accord
3,093,118
ance with the net ?ow area.
8
The enlarged portion 146
From the foregoing description, those versed in the
art will appreciate that the present invention achieves the
of the metering member ?ts closely within surface 126
to prevent premature undesired thrust on the thrust mem
ber. Selected thrust-time patterns may be produced by
appropriate metering pins. A method of determining
appropriate metering pin contours for selected thrust-time
output patterns is described in United States Patent No.
2,949,096 to Jack B. Ot-testad and Samuel A. Skeen.
During the output stroke of the thrust member, air is
drawn into the space 154 through the passage 174 sub 10
stantially to prevent the creation of a partial vacuum in
this space which would reduce output thrust. The ?ange
150 may assist in decelerating the thrust column by com
pressing gas in the reseating pressure chamber 116. The
separation wall 94 separates the actuating pressure from 15
the ?ange 150.
If the actuating pressure acted on the
objects and realizes the advantages hereinbefore men
tioned, as well as the objects and advantages described in
the patent and copending application herein mentioned.
Although speci?c embodiments of the present inven
tion have been illustrated and described herein, it will
be understood that the same are merely exemplary of
presently preferred embodiments capable of attaining the
objects and advantages hereinbefore mentioned, and that
the invention is not limited thereto; numerous variations
will be readily apparent to those versed in the art, and
the invention is entitled to the broadest interpretation with
in the terms of the appended claims.
The inventor claims:
1. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, a
?ange, no not set force could be exerted on the head por
thrust member having a head portion cooperable with the
tion back surface, and the triggering of the actuator could
wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a por
not be effected.
tion of the wall, means establishing an actuating pressure
After the completion of the acceleration phase of a 20 ?uid, said thrust member and head portion being disposed
in the actuating pressure ?uid, means for applying the
thrust-time output pattern, the deceleration metering pin
portion 156 cooperates with apertured plate member 96
to effect a predetermined deceleration pattern.
actuating pressure ?uid to the thrust member to exert a
set force urging the thrust member toward the wall to
The con
toured surface 153 of the pin portion regulates a net aper
effect said pressure seal between the head portion and the
ture ?ow area to control the ?ow through the aperture. 25 wall, and means ‘for applying a triggering force to the
The net ?ow area varies in accordance with the longitudi
thrust member to overbalance the set force to disengage
nal contour of the deceleration pin. A desired decelera
the pressure seal and expose an area of said head portion
tion-time pattern is obtained by appropriate contouring,
to the actuating pressure ?uid, whereby the thrust member
as explained in the above-identi?ed patent.
is impelled from the wall to produce output thrust.
To prepare for repeat operation, head portion 130 is 30
2. An actuator comprising means de?ning a Wall, a
reseated against wall member 90. This may be effected
thrust member having a head portion cooperable with the
by external force on the thrust member, as in the reseat
wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a por
ing of the thrust member of the actuator of FIGURE 1.
tion of the wall, means establishing an actuating pressure
Preferably, reseating is effected by the introduction into
?uid, said thrust member and head portion being disposed
chamber 116 of a reseating pressure through coupling 172
in the actuating pressure ?uid, an area associated with
and opening 170. The reseating pressure exerts force on
the ?ange 150 to move the thrust column and head por
tion 130 toward wall member 90. The passage 174 pre
the thrust member and positioned for the exertion thereon
by the actuating pressure ?uid of a set force to urge the
head portion toward the wall to effect said pressure seal,
vents compression in the space 154, and thereby facilitates
reseating. The force on ?ange 150 must be greater than
the force exerted oppositely by the actuating pressure on
pressure seal and expose an area of said head portion to
the head portion. After reseating, the reseating pressure
may be relieved through opening 170 and passage 172.
the actuating pressure ?uid, whereby the thrust member is
impelled from the wall to produce output thrust.
and means for applying a triggering force to the thrust
member to overbalance the set ‘force to disengage the
The trapping of the actuating pressure in the space de
?ned within the resilient sealing element 136, the head
3. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, a
thrust member having a head portion confronting the
wall, resilient sealing means positioned between the head
portion and the wall ‘for effecting a pressure seal there
portion and wall member 90, is relieved in the manner
hereinbefore described in relation to the actuator of FIG
URE 1.
In FIGURE 8 is shown an embodiment of the inven
tion which is somewhat similar to the actuator of FIG
between about a portion of the wall and an area of the
thrust member head portion, means establishing an actu
ating pressure ?uid, said thrust member and head portion
being disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, an area
‘associated with the thrust member and positioned for the
URE 5, but is more simpli?ed by the elimination of the
separation wall 94, the ?ange 150, the reseating pressure
chamber and the reseating pressure system. The oper
ation of the actuator is similar to that hereinbefore de
scribed for the actuator of FIGURE 5. The operation
differs in that set force is exerted by the actuating pres
exertion of a set force thereon by the actuating pressure
fluid to urge the head portion toward the wall to effect
said pressure seal, and means for applying a triggering
force to the thrust member to overbalance the set force to
disengage the pressure seal and release the actuating pres
sure ?uid upon said head portion area within said sealing
sure on the effective transverse area of the deceleration
pin portion 156, as well as on the back surface of the
head portion. It also differs in that the actuating pres
sure acts on the deceleration pin portion to exert the de
celerating force on the thrust member, instead of a re
60
seating pressure being thus metered. Therefore, a sin
'gle pressure, the actuating pressure, provides a set force,
provides the actuating force, and provides the decelerating
force.
means, whereby the thrust member is impelled from the
wall to produce output thrust.
4. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall in
the actuator, an output thrust member having a head por
tion with a head surface substantially confronting the wall,
said head portion being adapted to cooperate with the
The ‘actuating pressure may also be utilized as a 65 wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a por—
triggering pressure.
FIGURE *9 illustrates another actuator of the invention,
which is generally similar in structure and operation to
tion of the wall, means establishing an actuating pressure
?uid in the actuator, said thrust member and head portion
being disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, means de
the actuator of FIGURE 8. -It differs from the actuator
of FIGURE 8 in that the head portion of the thrust
?ning an effective transverse area on the thrust member
member is not enlarged. All of the set force is provided
by the action of the actuating pressure on the effective
transverse area of the deceleration metering pin portion
156. The operation of the actuator is otherwise similar
to the operation of the actuators of FIGURES 5 and 8. 75
said actuating pressure ?uid acting on said transverse area
to exert a set force urging the head portion toward the
Wall to effect said pressure seal, and means for applying
a triggering force to the thrust member to overbalance the
set force to disengage the pressure seal and expose an
facing substantially oppositely from said head surface,
3,093,118
9
area of the head portion surface to the actuating pressure
?uid, whereby the thrust member is impelled from the wall
to produce output thrust.
it}
to the actuating pressure ?uid, whereby the thrust mem
ber is impelled from the wall to produce output thrust.
9. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, an
tion with a head surface substantially confronting the wall,
said head portion being adapted to cooperate with the wall
output thrust member having an enlarged head portion,
said head portion having a head surface substantially
confronting the wall and having a substantially oppositely
facing back surface, a resilient sealing element positioned
to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a portion
of the wall, means establishing an actuating pressure ?uid
pressure seal therebetween about an area of the head sur—
5. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall in
the actuator, an output thrust member having a head por
between the wall and the head surface for effecting a
in the actuator, said thrust member and head portion 10 face, means establishing an actuating pressure ?uid in
the actuator, said thrust member and head portion being
being disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, means de
?ning an etfeotive transverse area on the thrust member
facing substantially oppositely from said head surface,
disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, said actuating
pressure ?uid acting on said head portion back surface
to exert a set force urging the head portion toward the
to exert a set force urging the head portion toward the 15 wall to effect said pressure seal and means for applying
a triggering force to the thrust member to disengage the
wall to effect said pressure seal, and means for applying
pressure seal and expose said head surface area to the
a triggering pressure to said head surface to overbalance
actuating pressure ?uid,, whereby the thrust member is
the set force to disengage the pressure seal and release
impelled from the wall to produce output thrust.
the actuating pressure ?uid upon an area of the head
10. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, a
surface, whereby the thrust member is impelled from the 20
thrust member having a head portion cooperable with
wall to produce output thrust.
the wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about
6. An actuator comprising means defining a wall, an
a portion of the wall, means establishing an actuating
output thrust column axially disposed in the actuator and
said actuating pressure ?uid acting on said transverse area
pressure ?uid, said thrust member and head portion being
extending therefrom, said thrust column having a head
portion with a head surface substantially confronting the 25 disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, an area associated
with the thrust member and positioned for the exertion
Wall and having an effectively transverse area spaced
thereon by the actuating pressure ?uid of a set force to
axially ‘from the head surface and facing substantially
urge the head portion toward the wall to effect said pres
sure seal, means for applying a triggering force to the
an area of the head surface and an area of the wall, means 30 thrust member to overbalanec the set force to disengage
the pressure seal and release the actuating pressure ?uid
establishing an actuating pressure fluid in the actuator,
upon an area of said head portion, thereby impelling the
said thrust column and head portion being disposed in the
thrust member from the wall, and a contoured metering
actuating pressure ?uid, said actuating pressure ?uid act
member cooperating with means de?ning a cavity to regu
ing on said effective transverse area to urge the head por
tion toward the wall to effect said pressure seal, and means 35 late the release of the actuating pressure ?uid to the mov
ing thrust member to produce a predetermined thrust~
for applying a triggering force to the thrust column to
time output pattern.
overbalance said set force to eliminate the pressure seal
11. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall hav
and release the actuating pressure ?uid upon said head
ing a cavity with an inner surface, a thrust member hav
surface area within the seal, whereby the thrust column is
oppositely therefrom, said head portion and the wall being
cooperable to provide a pressure seal therebetween about
impelled from the Wall to produce output thrust.
7. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, an
output thrust column axially disposed in the actuator and
40 ing a head portion cooperable with the Wall to provide
a pressure seal therebetween about a portion of the wall,
means establishing an actuating pressure ?uid, said thrust
member and head portion being disposed in the actuating
extending therefrom said thrust column having a head
pressure ?uid, an area associated with the thrust member
portion with a head surface substantially confronting the
wall and having an effective transverse area spaced axially 45 and positioned for the exertion of a set force thereon by
the actuating pressure ?uid to urge the head portion to
from the head surface and facing substantially oppositely
ward the wall to effect said pressure seal, means for ap
therefrom, resilient sealing means positioned between said
plying a triggering force to the thrust member to over—
head portion and the wall for effecting a pressure seal
balance the set force to disengage the pressure seal and
therebetween about an area of the head surface and an
area of the wall, means establishing an actuating pres
sure ?uid in the actuator, said thrust column and head
50 release the actuating pressure ?uid upon an area of said
head portion, thereby impelling the thrust member from
the wall, and a contoured metering member on the head
portion for cooperation with said cavity surface to regu
said actuating pressure ?uid acting on said effective trans
verse area to urge the head portion toward the wall to 55 late ?ow to the moving thrust member to produce prede
termined thrust-time output pattern.
effect said pressure seal, and means for applying trigger
12. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall in
ing pressure to the head surface to overbalance the set
the actuator, an output thrust member having a head por
force to eliminate the pressure seal and release the actu
tion with a head surface substantially confronting the
ating pressure ?uid upon the head surface area within the
portion being disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid,
pressure seal, whereby the thrust column is impelled from 60 wall, said head portion being adapted to cooperate with
the wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a
the wall to produce useful output thrust.
portion of the wall, means establishing an actuating pres
8. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, an
sure ?uid in the actuator, said thrust member and head
output thrust member having an enlarged head portion
portion being disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid,
cooperable with the wall to provide a pressure seal there
between about a surface portion of the wall, said head 65 means de?ning an effective transverse area on the thrust
member facing substantially oppositely from said head
portion having a head surface substantially confronting
surface, said actuating pressure ?uid acting on said trans
the wall and having a substantially oppositely facing back
verse area to exert a set force urging the head portion
surface, means establishing an actuating pressure ?uid in
toward the wall to effect said pressure seal, means for
the actuator, said thrust member and head portion being
applying a triggering force to the thrust member to over
disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, said actuating 70 balance the set force to disengage the pressure seal and
pressure ?uid acting on said head portion back surface to
expose an area of the head portion surface to the actu
exert a set force urging the head portion toward the wall
ating pressure ?uid, thereby impelling the thrust member
to effect said pressure seal, and means for applying a
from the wall, said head portion de?ning a cavity having
triggering force to the thrust member to disengage the
an inner surface and confronting the wall, and a con
pressure seal and expose an area of the head surface 75 toured metering member on the wall to cooperate with
3,093,118
1l
12
the cavity surface to regulate ?ow to the moving thrust
member to produce a predetermined thrust-time output
pattern.
13. An actuator comprising a wall de?ning a cavity
to the actuating pressure ?uid, thereby impelling the
thrust member from the wall, a contoured metering mem
ber cooperating with means de?ning‘ a cavity to regulate
the release of the actuatingpressure to the moving thrust
member to produce a predetermined thrust-time output
pattern, means de?ning an aperture within the actuator,
with an inner surface, an output thrust member having
a head portion with a head surface substantially confront
ing the wall, said head portion being adapted to cooperate
with the wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween
about a portion of the wall, means establishing an actu~
ating pressure ?uid in the actuator, said thrust member
and head portion being disposed in the actuating pressure
said deceleration pin portion moving into the aperture to
regulate ?ow therethrough to develop predetermined
10
?uid, means de?ning an effective transverse area on the
thrust member facing substantially oppositely from said
tion toward the wall to effect said pressure seal, means
for applying a triggering force to the thrust member to
an inner surface, an output thrust member having a
head portion with a head surface substantially confront
ing the wall, said head portion being adapted to coop
head surface, said actuating pressure ?uid acting on said
transverse area to exert a set force urging the head por
variation in decelerating force on the thrust, member.
17. An actuator comprising a wall having a cavity with
erate with the Wall to provide a pressure seal therebe
15 tween about a portion of the wall, means establishing
overbalance the set force to disengage the pressure seal
and expose an area of the head portion surface to the
actuating pressure ?uid, thereby impelling the thrust
member from the wall, and a contoured metering mem
ber on the head portion for cooperation with said wall
cavity surface to regulate ?ow to the moving thrust mem
ber to produce predetermined thrust~time output pattern.
an actuating pressure ?uid in the actuator, said thrust
member and head portion being disposed in the actuat
ing pressure ?uid, means de?ning ‘an area on the thrust
member facing substantially oppositely from said head
surface, said means including a deceleration pin portion
carried by the thrust member and having an effective
transverse area, said actuating pressure ?uid acting on
said thrust member area to exert a, set force urging the
head portion toward the wall to effect said pressure seal,
14. An actuator comprising means de?ning a Wall, a
25 means for applying a triggering force to the thrust mem
thrust member having a head portion cooperable with
ber ‘to :overbalance the set force to, disengage the pres
the wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a
sure seal and expose an area of said head portion to the
portion of the wall, means establishing an actuating pres
actuating pressure ?uid, thereby impelling the thrust
sure ?uid, said thrust member and head portion being
member from the wall to produce output thrust, a con
disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, a deceleration 30 toured metering member on the thrust member to co
pin portion carried by the thrust member and having an
operate With said Wall cavity inner surface to regulate
effective transverse area, said actuating pressure ?uid
?ow to the moving thrust member to produce a prede
exerting a set force on the transverse area to urge the
termined thrust-time output pattern, and means de?ning
head portion toward the wall to effect said pressure seal,
an aperture within the actuator, said deceleration pin
means for applying a triggering force to the thrust mem
ber to overbalance the set force to disengage the pressure
?uid seal and release the actuating pressure upon an area
portion moving into the aperture to regulate ?ow there
through to develop predetermined variation in decelerat
ing force on the thrust-member.
of said head portion, thereby impelling the thrust mem
ber from the wall, and means de?ning an aperture within
18. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, an
output thrust member having a head portion with a
the actuator, said deceleration pin portion moving into
the aperture to regulate ?ow therethrough to develop pre
determined variation in decelerating force on the thrust
member.
15. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, a
head surface substantially confronting the wall, said head
portion being adapted to cooperate with the wall to pro
vide a pressure seal therebetween about a portion of the
wall, means establishing an actuating pressure ?uid in the
actuator, said thrust member and head portion being dis
thrust member having a head portion cooperable with 45 posed in the actuating pressure ?uid, means de?ning an
the wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about a
area on the thrust member facing substantially oppositely
portion of the wall, means establishing an actuating pres
from said head surface, said means including a decelera~
sure ?uid, said thrust member and head portion being
tion pin portion carried by the thrust member and having
disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, a deceleration pin
an effective transverse area, said actuating pressure ?uid
portion carried by the thrust member and having an area 50 acting on said thrust member area to exert a set force
positioned for the exertion of a set force thereon by the
urging the head portion toward the wall to effect said
actuating pressure ?uid to urge the head portion toward
pressure seal, means for applying a triggering force to
the wall to effect said pressure seal, means for applying
‘the thrust member to overbalance the set force to dis
a triggering force to the thrust member to ovcrbalance
engage the pressure seal and expose an area of said
the set force to disengage the pressure seal and release 55 head portion to the actuating pressure ?uid, thereby im
the actuating pressure ?uid upon an area of said head
pelling the thrust member from the wall to produce out~
portion, thereby impelling the thrust member from the
put t trust, said head portion de?ning a cavity having an
wall to produce output thrust, and means de?ning an
aperture within the actuator, said deceleration pin mov
inner surface and confronting the wall, a contoured me
tering member on the wall to cooperate with the cavity
ing into the aperture to regulate ?ow therethrough to 60 surface to regulate ?ow to the, moving thrust member
develop predetermined variation in decelerating force
to produce a predetermined thrust-time output pattern,
on the thrust member.
and means defining an aperture within the actuator, said
16. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, a
deceleration pin portion moving into the aperture to
thrust member having a head portion cooperable with
regulate ?ow therethrough to develop predetermined
the wall to provide a pressure seal therebetween about
variation in decelerating force on the thrust member.
a portion of the wall, means establishing an actuating
19. An actuator comprising means de?ning a wall, an
pressure ?uid, said thrust member and head portion being
disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, a deceleration
pin portion carried by the thrust member and having an
output thrust column axially disposed in the actuator
and extending therefrom, said thrust member having a
head portion With a head surface substantially confront
effective transverse area, said actuating pressure ?uid 70 ing the wall and having an effectively transverse area
acting on said transverse area to exert a set force urging
the head portion toward the wall to effect said pressure
seal, means for applying a triggering force to the thrust
member to overbalance the set force to disengage the
pressure seal and expose an, area of said head portion 75
spaced axially from the head surface and facing substan
tially oppositely therefrom, said head portion and the
Wall being cooperable to provide a pressure seal therebe
tween about ‘an area of the head surface ‘and a portion
of the wall, means establishing an actuating pressure
3,093,118
13
?uid in the actuator, said thrust member and head por
14
?ned :by the seal, thereby impelling the thrust column
from the wall to produce useful output thrust, and means
tion being disposed in the actuating pressure ?uid, said
for ‘applying a :reseating pressure to the thrust {column
actuating pressure ?uid acting on said eifective transverse
to reposition said portion relative to said wall preparatory
‘area to urge the head portion toward the Wall to e?ieet
5
to repeat operation.
said pressure seal, said pressure seal de?ning an area of
said head portion surface, means for applying a trig
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
gering force to the thrust column to overbalanee said
UNITED STATES PATENTS
set force to eliminate the pressure seal and release the
2,740,859
Beatty et a1 ___________ __ Apr. 3, 1956
actuating pressure ?uid upon said head surface area de
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