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Патент USA US3093198

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June 11, 1963
B. H. FORD
3,093,188
TEMPORARY CLOSURE FOR FREIGHT VEHICLE DOORWAY
Filed July 25, 1960
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United States Patent 0 "ice
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1
straps ‘wherein the straps are secured not only into the
door posts of a doorway-equipped vehicle, but in which
are additionally provided tie strips or extension straps
between the door posts and a spaced stud, or the like.
Another object is to provide an effective means and
method for securing a grain door against the possibility of
3,093,188
TEMPORARY CLGSURE FOR FREKGHT
VEHICLE DOORWAY
Barton H. Ford, Omaha, Nebr., assignor of one-half to
International Paper Company, New York, N.Y., a cor
poration of New York, and one-half to The Stanley
Works, New Britain, Comm, a corporation of Con
necticut
Filed July 25, 1960, Ser. No. 45,635
10 Claims. (Cl. 160-368)
failure by reason of a weakened door frame and to pro
vide a further safeguard against even concealed weak
nesses in the door frame.
10
This invention relates to a temporary closure for a
freight vehicle doorway. The invention is particularly
useful in connection with the closure of railway car door
openings so that granular material can be safely carried
Still another object is to provide, in combination .with
a car structure in which a stud is supported at a spaced
distance laterally from a door post and is anchored to
the wall of the car, a strap forming an extension of a
grain door strap for connecting the stud and door post.
15
by such ‘cars.
Patented June 11, 1963
Yet another object is to provide, in combination with a
freight vehicle doorway, a temporary closure equipped
with flat metal straps having separate extensions at the
The present application is a' continuation-in—part of
my copending applications, Serial No. 465,253, ?led Oc
ends thereof for securement to interior portions of the car
tober 28, 1954, Serial No. v654,307, ?led April 22, 1957,
spaced laterally of the doorway framing members, the
Serial No. 679,842, ?led August 23, 119157, and Serial No.
20 connection of the strap extension to the car wall being
739,080, ?led June 2, 1195 8, all now abandoned.
into a stud, or the like, with the studs being spaced from
The usual railway boxcars are provided with a door
frame formed of wooden columns or beams, or of mem
bers having wooden nailing strips secured thereto. Spaced
laterally of the door frame are additional vertical posts or
studs which reinforce the side walls of the car. The
temporary closure usually comprises a ?brous sheet body
which is reinforced with horizontally-extending, ?at,
?exible metal straps which overlie the frame of the door
their associated doorway framing members a distance
su?icient to dispose the extension at substantially a right
angle to its associated stud, whereby the nails employed
to secure the straps to the studs are stressed primarily
in shear.
Other objects and advantages of this invention may be
seen as this specification proceeds.
" The invention is described in conjunction with illus
trative embodiments in the accompanying drawing, in
30
frame. Repeated nailing into the door frame weakens the
and which are nailed to the vertical beams of the door
structure, and the door frame or its nailing strip can
become splintered or crack-ed and thereafter is not sul?
ciently strong to hold the nails.
Additionally, the weight of the cargo tends to bow the
which
FIGURE 1 is a broken perspective view of a railway
car equipped with 1a door frame and with a door closure
therefor having tie straps or extensions embodying my in
?exible ?brous door outwardly, and this, in turn, applies
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of the structure
shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a broken perspective view of the strap struc
ture removed from the door panel;
a stress to the door posts, tending to bow or bend them
inwardly. The stress applied to the door posts occurs
at the outset due to the tensioning of the horizontally
extending straps. Initially, the strap tensioning is accom
plished by driving double-headed nails to the straps and
into the posts at inclinations so' .as ‘to draw the straps
to a taut condition.
Unfortunately, ‘after one strap
has been drawn taut, the adjacent strap, as it is being
vention;
FIG. v4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of a
closure-equipped car, similar to the showing of FIG. 2
but in which a modi?ed form of the invention is em
ployed;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a modi?ed form of strap
tension nailed, brings about an additional bowing of the
embodying the invention; and
posts, and this tends to loosen the adjacent, already se 45 structure
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view of yet an
cured strap. It is important that the straps be equally
other form of I strap structure embodying teachings of the
tensioned, because if there is one loose strap which fails
invention.
to support the paper sheet, etc., the sheet can readily
In the illustration given in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the nu
crack or tear and result in the loss of valuable cargo.
Another di?iculty experienced with door posts in rail 50 meral 1o designates a panel having the end portions there
way cars is that the innermost posts to which the grain
door is attached are not directly connected to the inner
lining of the car and the post can turn, or partially turn,
of secured to the frame members or door posts 11 of a
railway car 12. The panel 10 may be formed of any
suitable material for retaining grain or other substances.
In the speci?c illustration given, corrugated board is em
because of the outward stress exerted by the ?exible door
body when it bulges outwardly under the weight of grain, 55 ployed, and there is provided at the bottom of the board
a ?ap 13 adapted to lie against the ?oor of the car. There
etc. The common practice is to place a nailing strip over
may be provided on the sides of the panel side ?aps 14
formed by providing scored or wea cened vertical lines
15 along each side of the panel 10. A single panel 10
by reason of continuous use, often becomes chipped or 60 may be employed, or there may be used in combination
with panel 10 a series of panels thereabove to form- a
weakened as pointed out above, and this, along with the
door closure of any desired height. However, it is be
rocking of the grain door about the corner of the post or
lieved sufficient for the purpose of the present invention
strip (as the door bulges outwardly) tends to draw the
to describe a single panel 10, as set out in FIG. 1.
fastening means from the post or strip.
In the illustration given, particularly in FIG. 2, it is
I have discovered that the foregoing problem can be 65
seen that an outer liner sheet 16 is employed in conjunc
effectively solved by providing a metal tie strip or exten
tion with the remainder of the corrugated panel 10 to
sion between the nailing strip or door post and a laterally
support horizontally-extending, equally vertically spaced
spaced stud, ‘while at the same time utilizing the tension
apart, ?at metal straps 17. Thus, the straps 17 are posi
of a reinforcing door strap itself to immobilize or rein
tioned interior-1y of the composite panel 10, which addi
force the tie connection.
70 tionally includes a corrugated core 10a having the ?utes
It is, therefore, a principal object of the invention to
thereof extending vertically and which core is lined or
provide a temporary closure equipped with reinforcing
the inner face of the door, and the nailing strip may it
self rock or turn under the outward pull of the bulging
grain door body. Further, the door post or nailing strip,
3,098,188
3:
(1
surfaced on the interior side with an inner liner sheet 16a.
In the structure shown in FIGS. l~3, inclusive, the
straps 17 are provided with equally spaced-apart nail
openings 18, and the ends of at least some of the straps
17 are connected by means of a rivet 19 to an extension
14 may be omitted and the panel 10 equipped with nail
position indicia.
While I have shown the invention in one embodiment
in which the extensions 29 are pivotally mounted upon
the straps 17 by the rivets 19, it will be understood that
other means may be employed advantageously in some
Strap segment 20. The extension strap advantageously
may be constructed of the same material as the straps 17,
instances. For example, a staple 26 (see FIG. 5) may
which usually are constructed of 18 to 20 gauge black
be passed through pairs of openings 18 in the strap 17
steel having a width of the order of l~2". The length of
and corresponding openings 21 in the extension 20, and
the straps 17 is established according to the width of the IO the legs of the staple 26 clinched against the extension
doorway to be closed by the panel It}, doorways of differ—
29 to provide a secure union. Alternatively, the legs of
ent widths occurring in different freight cars, and the
the staple 26 can be forced into the frame members 11,
number of straps 17 employed per panel may also vary,
thereby eliminating the need for clinching. If desired,
and so also the number of extensions 20.
the staple segments may be taped with the extension 20
The extension segment 20 is also provided with equally
to the panel 10 for convenience in shipment to the site of
spaced-apart nail openings 21 so that the same may be
secured by nails 22 to the studs or beams 23 with which
installation.
In another modi?cation of the invention (see FIG. 6),
the railway car 12 is provided. As shown more clearly
I again provide a tie strap 20 which is equipped with
in FIG. 3, the segment or strap extension 20 may be
spaced nail openings 21. Intermediate the nail openings
folded inwardly, so as to lie against the strap 17 (the 20 21, the strap 20 has ?at fastening segments 27 struck
panel 10 being omitted for the sake of clarity), thus pro
therefrom and extending inwardly. The segments 27
viding no dangerous extension or hazard. If desired, the
may be equipped with pointed ends 28 which facilitate
segment 28 may be secured by gummed paper tape to the
the insertion of the segments 27 into the nail openings
panel 10 during transit so as to hold it accurately in
18 of the main strap 17. The fastening segment-equipped
alignment with the strap 17. This structure actually re
strap 29 of FIG. 6 is secured to the end portion of a
duces the hazard because it stiffens the outer end por
strap 17 in a position overlying the framing post 11 so
tions of the strap 17 and the two aligned straps provide
that the post 11 may provide a support surface for the
a blunt edge which is less dangerous than the narrow edge
convenient clinching of the segments 27 against the
of the single strap end. When it is desired to extend the
straps 17.
straps 17, the segment 20, as shown at the right-hand side 30
The extension strap 20 enables the door structure to
of FIG. 3, may be swung outwardly to the position shown.
be erected by a single operator, since, when the exten
Thus there is provided a safe form of grain door struc
sion strap is secured to the end portion of a door strap
ture which may be shipped with a minimum of hazard
17, the operator simply handles the outer end of the
and, when desired, the extension 20 may be swung out
extension strap in securing it to the stud 23 in the same
wardly to engage a side stud 23 so as to be anchored
way he has handled the original door strap in securing
thereto. Even where the door frame, after considerable
it to the vertical beam 11. Also, the strap 17 equipped
use and after bearing nail openings, may appear to be
with ‘a strap extension 20 provides a structure in which
sound, it will often be advisable to extend the straps
the strap elements have substantially no play between
through the use of the segments 20 to provide the addi
them and form a rigid reinforced area over the door
tional safeguard as illustrated best in FIG. 1.
40 frame 11.
In some instances, it may be desirable to swing the
As has been noted, the character ‘of the freight ve
extension segments 20 into folded inner position, as illus
hicle in which the inventive closures are installed, varies
trated at the left-hand side of FIG. 3 and to nail the
somewhat. In FIG. 4, there is seen a fragment of a
strap ends in its relation to the door frame 11. For this
grain-carrying freight car in which the stud 23 is masked
purpose, I prefer to have the openings 21 of the segments
by inner side wall boards 29. Again, as in FIG. 2, the
20 and the openings 18 of the straps 17 brought into com
panel generally designated 10 is seen ‘bowed outwardly
plete alignment so that a nail passing through the strap
in the doorway opening in the condition it would be
17 will also pass through an aligned opening in the seg
when a granular load (not shown) is bearing against it.
ment 20.
The outer sheathing of the car is designated 31.
‘With the structure disclosed, it is found that grain can '
As before, the panel 10 includes liners 16 and 16a
be shipped with greater safety and less splitting and break
on opposite sides of a corrugated core 10a and with ?at
ing of the grain doors because of the equal tensioning of
the straps which is not only accomplished in the installa
tion of the door but which is maintained thereafter during
metal straps '17 provided interiorly of the composite
the use of the door under load. As the grain bulges out
the panel 10 (see FIG. 2), and as the door ?exes inwardly
and outwardly under the backing, jerking, humping,
bumping, etc., of the freight train, the door posts are held
rigidly against bending in any portion thereof without
turning under the rocking strains imposed by grain loads
so that the straps throughout the operation maintain a
uniform support of the door panel 10. Even though the
door posts 11 be weakened by previous use, the door posts
continue to serve as an effective anchor as the door 10
?exes about it so that the strain is transmitted about the
post corner and in a direct line at substantially right
angles to the retaining nails 22 in stud 23. Thus, these
retaining nails are stressed primarly in shear and are
effectively insulated from any stress tending to Withdraw
60
panel 10. Strap extensions 20 are provided which are
nailed ‘as at 22 ‘by the usual double-headed nails to the
studs 23. The end of extension 20 adjacent the panel 10
is secured thereto, and ‘also to the post 11, by means
of the nail 24. As pointed out previously, the nail 24
and ‘the nail 22 may be advantageously inclined rela~
tive to the doorway, as this is seen in dotted line and
designated by the numerals 24a and 22a, respectively.
In the illustration given in FIG. 4, the extreme end
portion of the panel 10 may be secured to the inner
liner 29 by means of a nail 32 in conjunction With a
side ‘batten 33, in accordance with conventional pro~
cedure.
In all of the embodiments of the invention, an ex
tremely useful operation is achieved in that the strap
extension remains immobile irrespective of the buffeting
of the door panel 10. It will be appreciated that a granu
70 lar load surges to and fro considerably during transit
As pointed out previously, the panel may be equipped
and where the panel securement is merely to the framing
with the side ?aps 14 so as to expose the interiorly posi
posts, there is a tendency to place the securing nails in
tioned straps 17 for nailing as ‘by nails 24. The ?aps 14,
tension so as to literally rip them out of the posts. The
thereafter can be secured by nails 25 which also extend
strap extensions, being of a length corresponding to the
into the framing posts 11. Alternatively, the side ?aps
spacing of the studs, or greater, afford an extremely satis
them from the stud.
3,093,188
5
factory anchor for the door panel in a position where the
butfeting of the panel is of no consequence. lIn the in
ventive form seen in FIGS. 1-4, the extension straps 20
are conveniently pivoted into positions overlying the
6
the nail openings of said members securing the same to
said studs, whereby each post and its adjacent stud co
operate in supporting said straps against horizontal move
ment under stress of grain carried by said car and the
studs or inner wall, as the case may be, and quickly
secured with a minimum of time. Even though the se
curing nail for an extension strap be driven in at an angle,
it is still stressed primarily in shear because of the essen
pointed securing means extending through the nail open
ings of said members securing the same to said studs are
stressed primarily in shear.
7. The structure of claim 6 in which the pointed secur
ing means extending through said nail holes into said posts
tial right angle relationship of the extension strap to
the stud; alternatively, the parallel relationship of the ex 10 for securing the panel straps to said posts also extend
through aligned nail openings in each overlapped member
tension strap and the inner wall 29.
and strap to tie the two together.
While, in the foregoing speci?cation, I have set forth
8. The structure of claim 6 in which the said securing
speci?c structures in considerable detail for the purpose
means comprises a rivet.
of illustrating embodiments of the invention, it will be
9. In combination with ‘a freight vehicle having a side
understood that such details of structure may be varied 15
wall, ‘a doorway in said sidewall de?ned by spaced-‘apart
widely by those skilled in the art without departing
vertical framing posts, said wall being equipped with
from the spirit of the invention.
vertically-extending studs spaced from said posts, a ?exible
I claim:
paperboard closure extending across said doorway in over
1. ‘In combination with a car having vertical door
posts and vertical studs spaced therefrom, a ?exible door 20 lapping relation with said posts, said closure comprising
liner sheets and spaced~apart ?at metal straps positioned
panel adapted to extend between said posts in over
between said liner sheets, each of said straps, at least at
lapping relation therewith, vertically spaced, flexible, ?at
the end portions thereof, being equipped with a plurality
straps in said panel to support the same and having end
of horizontally-spaced nail openings, nails extending
portions overlapping said door posts, said strap ends
being equipped with separate extension tie portions, said 25 through said strap end portions securing the closure to
said posts, a plurality of said straps being equipped with
extension tie portions overlapping said studs, means con
separate strap extensions pivotally connected to said end
necting said extension tie portions and said strap end
portions and movable from ‘a position substantially over
portions, and nails securing each strap to said posts and
other nails anchoring said extension tie portions to said
studs laterally of said posts, whereby said tie portions
connect said studs to said posts, each of said studs being
spaced from its associated door post a distance sui‘?cient
lapping said closure to a position overlapping an adjacent
stud, said strap extensions being equipped with spaced
apart nail openings, and nails extending through said ‘strap
extension nail openings into said ladjacet studs.
to dispose said tie portion at substantially right angles
10. In combination with a freight vehicle having a side
wall, a ‘doorway in said sidewall de?ned by spaced-‘apart
to said stud so as to stress said other nails principally
35 vertical framing posts, said wall being equipped with verti~
in shear.
‘2. The structure of claim 1 in which said connecting
cally-extending studs spaced from said posts, a ?exible
paperboard closure extending across said doorway in over
3. The structure of claim 1 in which said connecting
lapping relation with said posts, said closure comprising
liner sheets facing the car interior and spaced-apart ?at
means comprises a staple.
4. The structure of claim 1 in which said connecting 40 metal straps positioned between said liner sheets, each of
means comprises a nail which additionally secures said
said straps, at least at the end portions thereof, being
equipped with a plurality of horizontally-spaced nail open
strap end portions to said posts.
5. The structure of claim 1 in which said extension tie
ings, nails extending through said strap end portions secur
portions are equipped with flat segments stmck from an
ing the closure to said posts, a plurality of said straps be
means comprises a rivet.
end thereof, said ?at segments providing said connecting 45 ing equipped with separate strap extensions pivotally con
means.
6. In combination with a grain-carrying freight oar
nected to said end portions and movable from‘ ‘a position
substantially overlapping said closure to a position over
having a door opening de?ned by vertically-extending
lapping an adjacent stud, said strap extensions being
framing posts, said car being equipped with vertically
equipped with spaced-apart nail openings, said extension
50
extending studs spaced horizontally of said posts, a tem
and strap nail openings being aligned, a rivet extending
porary closure extending ‘across said door opening ‘and
through aligned nail openings providing said pivotal move
overlapping said posts, said closure comprising ‘a ?exible
ment, and nails extending through said strap extension nail
paperboard panel disposed generally in a vertical plane
openings into said adjacent studs, said strap nails and said
and interiorly equipped with a plurality of horizontally
extension nails being spaced apart sufficiently to dispose
extending, equally vertically spaced-apart flat metal straps 55 each extension strap at substantially a right angle to its
adjacent the outer panel side, said straps being equipped
associated stud whereby said extension nails ‘are stressed
‘at the ends thereof, with a plurality of horizontally-spaced
primarily in shear.
nail holes, pointed securing means extending through said
nail holes into said posts for securing said panel to said
posts, a ?at metal strap extension member at each end of
one of said straps, each of said members being equipped
with a plurality of horizontally-spaced nail holes and
disposed in aligned, overlapping relation with said one
strap, securing means extending through aligned nail open
ings in eachv overlapped member and strap to tie the two 65
together, “and pointed securing means extending through
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
181,183
2,214,388
2,797,489
2,871,936
3,025,907
King _______________ __ Aug. 15, 1876
Summers ____________ __ Sept. 10, 1940
Roe __________________ __ July 2, 1957
Ott et al _______________ __ Feb. 3, 1959
Ford _______________ __ Mar. 20, 1962
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