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Патент USA US3093327

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June 11, 1963
H. c. SIMMONS ETAl.
3,093,317
FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
Filed Aug. 24, 1960
_
|\
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG. a
2
FIG. 2
INVENTORS.
HAROLD C. SIMMONS 8|
LAWRENCE B. O'SICKEY
ATTORNEYS
June 11, 1963
.
H. c. SIMMONS ETAL
‘
Filed Aug. 24, 1960
3,093,317
FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
'
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTORS.
HAROLD c. SIMMONS a
k‘eWRENCE B. O'SICKEY
GM,7IZLZ@ a
ATTORNEYS
J1me 11, 1963
H. c. SIMMONS ETAL
3,093,317
FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
Filed Aug. 24, 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
FIG. 6
so
%
62
64
63
ea
73
,75
67
74\
_
69
76
INVENTOR.
HAROLD C. SIMMONS Q
LAWRENCE B. O'SICKEY
BY
(3201M,
Q Emma-9:99
ATTORNEYS
rice
3,093,317
Patented June 11, 1963
2
ments of the invention, these being indicative, however,
of a few of the various ways in which the principle of
3,093,317
FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
Harold C. Simmons, South Euclid, and Lawrence B.
O’Sickey, University Heights, Ohio, assignors to Parker
Hanni?n Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation
of Ohio
Filed Aug. 24, 1960, Ser. No. 51,613
7 Claims. (Cl. 239-453)
.
the invention may be employed.
In said annexed drawings:
lFIG. 1 is a central longitudinal cross-section view
through one form of nozzle embodying the present inven
tion;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-section view
of the FIG. 1 nozzle showing the pintle valve thereof in
The present invention relates generally as indicated to 10 open condition permitting discharge of fuel for produc
ing the desired ?ne quality of spray of the fuel;
a nozzle and, more particularly, to a fuel injection nozzle
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary cross-section view illustrating
for gas turbines and the like having combustion chambers
another form ‘of nozzle embodying the present invention;
into which liquid fuel is introduced in ?nely sub-divided
FIG. 4 is a cross-section view of yet another form of
spray form.
nozzle
embodying the present invention;
At the present time ‘a popular form of nozzle for this 15
FIG. 5 is an end elevation view of the FIG. 4 nozzle
purpose is the variable ori?ce nozzle having a spring
as viewed from the right-hand end of FIG. 4;
biased pintle valve formed with a conical head adapted
FIG. 6 is a central longitudinal cross-section view
to cooperate with the sharp edge or seat of the discharge
illustrating yet another form of nozzle embodying the
ori?ce formed in the nozzle body to provide a variable
area annular passage through which the fuel is metered 20 present invention; and
FIG. 7 is a much enlarged fragmentary cross-section
and sprayed. With such nozzle, the spray cone angle is
view showing how the stream of fuel emerges radially
determined by the conical head of the pintle valve, the '
from between the seats of the pintle valve and the nozzle
conical sheet of fuel breaking up into a spray beyond the
body and impinges against the internal tapered walls of
base of the conical head. Generally, the edges of the
the surrounding de?ector to produce the desired spray
25
discharge ori?ce and of the base of the pintle valve head
cone.
must be free of burrs and other imperfections, otherwise,
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, and
the quality of the spray is not as good as desired. Like
?rst to FIG. 1, the nozzle 1 there shown comprises a
wise, the axes of the discharge ori?ce and of the conical
nozzle body 2 having an ori?ce bushing 3‘ mounted there
head of the pintle valve must [be truly coincident, or very
nearly so, in order to obtain the proper quality of spray 30 in at its forward end. Rearwardly adjacent the ori?ce
bushing 3 said body 2 has mounted therein a guide 4 for
necessary for ef?cient combustion of the fuel in the en
the pintle valve 5. The portion of the valve 5 guided
gine. The presence of burrs, imperfections, eccentricities,
etc., are all the more critical in known nozzles at low
in the bore of guide 4 has longitudinal slots which permit
equalization of pressures on both sides of the lands be
fuel ?ows when the pintle valve has only moved a very
tween
such slots. The ori?ce bushing 3 may be made
35
small distance away from its position of engagement with
as of tungsten carbide or equivalent hard, wear-resisting
the edge of the ‘discharge orifice.
material, and is brazed or otherwise secured in the nozzle
With the foregoing in mind, it is a principal object of
body 2.
this invention to provide a nozzle which produces a better
The pintle valve 5 has a knurled or serrated cylindrical
quality spray throughout the entire fuel ?ow range thereof
than is obtainable with known forms of nozzles.
V
It is another object of this invention to provide an im
proved nozzle construction, the superior performance of
which is hardly ‘affected by the presence of slight burrs,
40 head 6 on which is secured as by brazing a tungsten car~
bide or equivalent bushing 7. Adjacent said pintle valve
head \6 there is provided a neck portion 8 that de?nes
with the orifice bushing 3 an annular passage 9.
The
juxtaposed ends of bushings 3 and 7 are formed with
imperfections, and eccentricities of the discharge ori?ce
45 plane annular seats '10 and '11.
and pintle valve head.
The rear end of the pintle valve 5 is threaded as shown
It is another object of this invention to provide a noz
and has axially adjustably mounted thereon a spring fol
zle in which the fuel is discharged therefrom through a
lower and guide 12 for the spring 14 which is adjustably
variable area ori?ce that is composed of parallel plane
compressed between said follower 12 and the nozzle body
annular faces of the nozzle body and pintle valve respec
tively, and in which the resulting plane circular sheet of 50 2 ‘by turning the pintle valve 5 with respect to the follower
12. A nut 15 on the threaded end of the pintle valve
fuel is converted into a spray cone of ?ne droplets by
bears on follower 12 to lock the pintle valve 5 and fol
impingement of the fuel on the internal face of a de?ector
lower 12 in adjusted position predeterminedly compress
‘that surrounds said variable area ori?ce.
ing spring 14. Preferably, the spring 14 is fabricated
It is another object of this invention to provide a nozzle
having a conical de?ector against which the stream of 55 from a length of round tubular stock which has sets of
uniformly circumferentially offset transverse slots 16 ar
?uid issuing from the nozzle impinges to break up the
ranged to eliminate tendency of canting of the ends with
stream into ?ne droplets and to control the spray cone
respect to each other and with respect to the pintle valve
angle.
axis ‘and also to provide a relatively rigid lateral support
It is another object of this invention to provide a nozzle
for the rear end of the pintle valve 5 in conjunction with
having a double-angled conical de?ector for increased ef?
ciency in break-up of the ?uid impinging thereon into
?nely divided particles and for accurate control of the
spray cone angle.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention
will become apparent as the following description pro~
ceeds.
.
the guide 4 in coaxial position with respect to the ori?ce
bushing 3.
It can be seen that when the fuel pressure acting on the
area A of the pintle valve 5 exceeds the preload of spring
14, the pintle valve will be moved forwardly in body 2,
thereby moving seat 11 away from seat 10 to permit
discharge of fuel radially outward between said seats.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related
As the fuel pressure increases the gap between seats 10
ends, the invention, then, comprises the features herein
after fully described and particularly pointed out in the 70 and 11 will progressively increase to permit'increased
flow of fuel from the nozzle.
claims, the following description and the ‘annexed draw
' It is to be noted that the ori?ce and pintle valve bushings
ings setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodi
3,093,317
3
3 and 7 are coaxial and of the same inside and outside
diameters, that the ori?ce bushing 3 projects axially
beyond the surrounding de?ector 17 of the nozzle 1, and
that the pintle valve bushing projects rearwardly of the
head 6. Accordingly, the annular plane ends or seats
10 and 11 of said bushings 3 and 7 respectively, are of
equal radial extent and in register.
As aforesaid, there is provided around the ori?ce and
pintle valve bushings 3 and 7 a de?ector '17 which, as
the body 36 and at the other end against the shoulder
47 of the spring follower 148, the degree of compression
of the spring being changed by manipulating the nuts
49 and 50 that are screwed onto the rear threaded end of
the pintle valve 39.
The spring follower 48 herein is
formed with a series of longitudinal grooves 51 forming
fuel ?ow passages and, in addition, the spring follower
48 is formed with a longitudinal slot 52 radially through
the wall thereof so that the surfaces of the ribs 53 be
shown in FIG. 1, is shaped internally to provide a dou
tween adjacent grooves 51 will frictionally engage the
ble-angled conical surface 18—19 of which both angles
inside face of the pintle valve spring 45, such frictional
are preferably, but not necessarily, of apex angle greater
engagement serving as a damping means to eliminate or
than 90° but substantially less than 180°. ‘For good
minimize ?uttering and vibration of the pintle valve 39.
results, the interior conical surface 18-19 of the de
The stem portion 54 of the pintle valve 39‘ is preferably
?ector 17 comprises adjacent coaxial cones 18-—19 of 15 a close ?t in the bore of the spring follower 48 so that the
different apex angles, with the larger apex angle of
pintle valve seat 44- will be held coaxially relative to
cone 18 being about 5 to 15° (preferably 10") great~
the plane annular seat 38 of the nozzle body 36.
er than the desired spray cone angle, and with the smaller
By way of illustration, it has been found that nozzles
apex angle of cone v119 being about 5 to 15° (preferably
according to the present invention having ‘a rating of
10°) less than the desired spray cone angle. The axial 20 1000 lbs/hr. fuel ?ow at 800 psi. fuel pressure and an
position of the intersection of these cones 18 and 19
opening pressure of 100 p.s.i. as set by the pintle valve
relative to seats 10 and 11 is not critical, but it is preferred
springs provide good spray quality even at low fuel flows
that said line 20 be in the same plane as the pintle valve
of 20 lbs/hr. In contradistinction, variable area nozzles
seat 11 when the pintle valve *5 is the fully open position
of the same rating but employing conical bead pintle
of FIG. 2 as determined by the maximum ‘fuel pressure
valves have much ‘deteriorated spray quality at fuel ?ows
available. The de?ector 17 herein also is preferably made
from 50 lbs/hr. and less.
of relatively hard material such as tungsten carbide and
In the case of the nozzle shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, for
is herein shown as being brazed to the nozzle body 2.
example, wherein the discharge ori?ce in bushing 3 is of
With a nozzle structure as hereinabove-described, and
.088" diameter and the stem 8 of the pintle valve 5 is
as best shown in FIG. 2, slight eccentricity of the pintle 30 of .038" diameter, good results as aforesaid have been
valve seat 11 with respect to the discharge ori?ce seat 10
obtained by making the seats 10 and 11 of about .020"
is of no moment in respect of overall improved nozzle
radial width. The conical surfaces 18 and 19 of about
performance, nor are slight burrs or other imperfections
128° and 102° apex angle respectively then should inter
in these seats or the edges thereof. When the nozzle 1
sect as represented by the line 20 which is of about .11"
is in operation with the pintle valve 5 unseated as in FIG. ' diameter and which is substantially in the same plane as
2, the fuel will ?ow radially outwardly through the cir
the seat 11 of the pintle valve 5 when the latter is in
cular gap between the plane annular seats 10‘ and 11, and
open position (about .012" gap between seats 10 and 11)
will impinge, as shown, on the double-angled conical in
under the in?uence of the maximum available fuel pres
ternal face 18-19 of the surrounding de?ector 17 to
sure.
40
break up the fuel into ?ne droplets having the desired
With reference to the nozzle shown in FIG. 6, it is
spray cone angle which, as aforesaid, is in between the
much like that shown in FIG. 1, except for two things,
apex angles of the cones 18 and 19.
namely, upon removal of the hood 60 from the nozzle
Surrounding the pintle valve biasing spring 14 in fric~
tional contact therearound is the longitudinally split damp
body 61, the de?ector 62 with its double-angle surfaces
63-64 may be readily assembled and disassembled by
ing sleeve 21 which is effective to dampen vibrations or 45 reason of the provision of the cap 65 which has threaded
engagement, as shown with the nozzle body 61. As
of fuel between the seats 10 and 11 and fuel pressure
evident from the discussion of the other nozzles herein,
pulsation and ?uctuation will not cause ?uttering or vibra
they are all of very small size and, therefore, welding
tion of the pintle valve 5, the frictional drag of the damp
or brazing operations are quite fussy and may result in
ing sleeve 21 about the pintle valve spring being effective 50 damage or distortion of the parts. The bore of the de
to absorb such movements of the pintle valve. Moreover,
?ector 62 is preferably a close ?t on the forwardly pro
the seats 10 and 11 are thereby prevented from pound
jecting end of the ori?ce bushing 67.
ing against each other.
Another feature of the FIG. 6 nozzle is that the slotted
The nozzle 25 shown in FIG. 3 basically is of the same
portion of the pintle valve spring 68 is free to yield and
construction as that shown in ‘FIGS. 1 and 2 except that
will not be subject to erratic action owing to presence
?utter of the pintle valve 5. Accordingly, turbulent ?ow
the de?ector 26 and ori?ce bushing 27 are formed as a
of foreign particles in the fuel. In other words, the yield
single part, as of tungsten carbide or the like, adapted to
able portion of the spring 68 has no sliding ?ts with any
be brazed or otherwise secured in the nozzle body 28.
of the nozzle parts.
Here again, as in FIGS. 1 and 2, there is provided a dou
Yet another feature of the FIG. 6 nozzle is that fric
ble-angle conical surface 29-30 on the interior of the
tional damping of the movements of the pintle valve 69
de?ector 26 ‘for the purposes described in relation to
is provided by adjustable binding action of the stem 70
FIGS. 1 and 2.
thereof in the bore 71 of the guide 72. In the present
The nozzle 35 shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 also has all
case the spring follower 73 is formed with a transverse
of the attributes of the FIGS. 1 and 3 nozzles. In FIGS.
slot 74 and a setscrew 75, When turned, tends to spread
4 and 5 the nozzle body 36 is itself made of hardened 65 apart the slot 74 and thereby cause bending of the stem
steel or the like, and is integrally formed with the dis
70 with resultant frictional drag in the guide bore 71 of
charge ori?ce 37 and the plane annular seat 38 for the
the guide 72. In this way, there is provided controlled
pintle valve 39, the seat 38 again as in FIGS. 1 to 3,
and adjustable damping of the movements of the pintle
extending axially within a de?ector ring 40 secured as
valve 69 with resulting elimination or minimization of
by brazing to the nozzle body 36' and having a double
vibration and flutter thereof. As in the other nozzles, the
angled conical de?ecting surface 41—-42 surrounding the
ori?ce bushing 67 and the pintle valve 69 have cooperat
ing plane annular seats 76 and 77.
Finally, with reference to FIG. 7, it will be seen that
of the same form as the spring 14 employed in the FIG. 1
when the pintle valve 5 (or pintle valve 39 or 69 in FIG.
nozzle and bears at one end against the shoulder 46 of 75 4 or 6) is unseated as shown, the fuel will ?ow radially
cylindrical head 43 and plane annular seat 44 of the
pintle valve 39. The pintle valve spring 45 is generally
3,093,317
5
6
2. A nozzle according to claim 1 wherein said spring
means has a cylindrical surface and said spring damping
surface is a cylindrical surface in frictional contact there
with.
3. A nozzle according to claim 1 wherein said spring
means comprises a tubular portion having transverse slots
as a relatively thin sheet between the plane annular seats
10 and 11, (or seats 38 and 44 in FIG. 4, or seats 76 and
77 in FIG. 6) and it is believed that by reason of the
provision of the sharp inner edges 78 and 79 there will be
a vena contracta 80 where the fuel ?rst enters the ori?ce
de?ned between the plane annular seats 10 and lil. The
outer face 81 of the fuel sheet, in the rated ?ow position
providing axially adjacent pairs of diametrically opposed
and circumferentially offset bridges; and, wherein said
of the pintle valve 5, will coincide with the intersection
spring damping means comprises a sleeve surrounding
20 of the faces 18 and 19. The inner face 82 of the
fuel sheet will impinge on surface 18 as shown and will 10 said tubular portion in frictional contact therewith.
be reflected thereby and will intersect like elements be
4. A nozzle according to claim 1 wherein said body
tween faces 81 and 82. The resultants 83, in turn will
has a guide therein in which the lands of a longitudinally
impinge on face 19 and bounce therefrom as indicated
slotted portion of said pintle valve is movable.
by lines 84 to produce a spray cone of desired angle and
5. A fuel injection nozzle comprising a body having
15
of ?nely sub-divided fuel droplets for eflicient distribu
tion and combustion in the combustion chamber.
an inlet for fuel under pressure and a discharge ori?ce, a
pintle valve movable in said body, spring means between
said body and valve; and spring dam-ping means having a
Other modes of applying the principle of the invention
may be employed, change being made as regards the
surface in frictional contact with said spring means.
details described, provided the features stated in any of
6. A nozzle according to claim 5 wherein said spring
the following claims, or the equivalent of such, be em 20
means is cylindrical in shape and said damping means
ployed.
.
comprises a cylindrical surface in frictional contact there
We therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim
with.
as our invention:
1. A fuel injection nozzle comprising a body having
an inlet for fuel ‘under pressure and a discharge ori?ce,
7. A nozzle according to claim 5 wherein said spring
25 means comprises a tubular portion having transverse slots
said ori?ce terminating in a plane annular seat; a spring
biased, fuel pressure actuated pintle valve movable in
said body and having a plane annular seat, said pintle
valve being movable under the in?uence of progressively 30
increasing fuel pressure in said inlet from a position
providing axially adjacent pairs of diametrically opposed
and circumferentially offset bridges; and, wherein said
spring damping means comprises a sleeve surrounding
said tubular portion in frictional contact therewith.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
whereat said seats are in engagement to a position where
at said seats are spaced apart a progressively increasing
distance for discharge of fuel from between said seats;
spring means between said body and valve biasing the 35
latter as aforesaid; spring damping means in frictional
contact with said spring means; and a de?ector on said
body disposed around said seats and against which the
fuel emerging from between said seats impinges and thus
is broken up into spray form.
1,893,457
2,145,429
V
40
Tartrais _______________ __ Jan. 3, 1933‘
Nelson ______________ __ Jan. 31, 1939
FOREIGN PATENTS
248,119
628,922
Germany ____________ __ Mar. 3, 1911
France ______________ __ July 11, 1927
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